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研究生:廖婕安
研究生(外文):LIAO, JIE-ANN
論文名稱:疊氮化鈉誘變香紅稉米AM-425之米糠油、脫脂米糠萃取物、速溶粉末及口含錠的品質特性
論文名稱(外文):Quality Characteristics of Rice Bran Oil, Defatted Rice Bran Extracts, Instant Powder and Troche from NaN3 Induced Aromatic Red Rice Mutant AM-425
指導教授:林聖敦林聖敦引用關係邱秀英邱秀英引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIN, SHENG-DUNCHIOU, SHIOW-YING
口試委員:宋濟民陳宗禮
口試委員(外文):SUNG, CHI-MINCHEN, TSUNG-LI
口試日期:2017-01-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:弘光科技大學
系所名稱:食品科技所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:204
中文關鍵詞:米糠油脫脂米糠抗氧化性速溶粉末口含錠
外文關鍵詞:Rice bran oilDefatted rice branAntioxidant propertyInstant powderTroche
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目錄
誌謝 I
摘要 II
Abstract IV
目錄 VI
表目錄 XII
圖目錄 XVI
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
一、稻米介紹 3
二、米糠營養成分 3
三、活性成分 5
(一)米糠醇 5
(二)維生素E 7
(三)酚類化合物 10
1.酚酸 10
2.花青素 13
四、膳食纖維 16
五、超臨界流體技術 17
(一)超臨界流體定義 17
(二)超臨界流體特性 18
(三)超臨界流體萃取技術 18
六、難消化性糊精 20
七、粉末劑型 20
(一)降低顆粒大小的方法 20
(二)顆粒大小的分析與分類 21
(三)粉末的流動性質 21
八、錠劑和錠劑製劑的設計 24
(一)定義 24
(二)優點 24
(三)種類 25
1.濕粒法 25
2.乾粒法 25
3.直接壓錠法 25
(四)錠劑之賦形劑 26
1.稀釋劑 26
2.黏合劑 26
3.崩散劑 26
4.著色劑 26
5.矯味劑 26
6.吸收促進劑 26
7.崩散抑制劑 26
8.吸附劑 27
(五)錠劑之品質管制 27
第三章 材料與方法 28
一、試驗材料 28
(一)疊氮化鈉誘變香紅稉米AM-425米糠 28
(二)賦形劑 28
(三)試驗藥品 28
二、儀器 31
三、試驗設計 33
(一)米糠之一般成分 33
(二)粗製米糠油的製備及品質分析 33
(三)脫脂米糠的最適萃取條件 33
(四)膳食纖維產品製備及品質分析 36
(五)米糠速溶粉末之製備、品質分析及貯藏試驗 36
(六)米糠口含錠製備、品質分析及貯藏試驗 39
四、品質分析 43
(一)米糠之一般成分 43
(二)粗製米糠油品質 44
1.萃取率 44
2.總酚 45
3.維生素E 46
4.米糠醇 48
5.清除DPPH自由基能力 50
6.還原力 50
(三)脫脂米糠萃取物品質 51
1.萃取率 51
2.總酚 51
3.總類黃酮 51
4.酚酸 52
5.花青素及原花青素 55
6.清除DPPH自由基能力 58
7.還原力 58
(四)膳食纖維產品品質 58
1.水分、粗灰分、粗蛋白、粗脂肪及碳水化合物 58
(五)米糠速溶粉末品質 59
1.水分 59
2.水活性 60
3. CIE L*a*b*值 60
4.吸濕速率及結塊現象 60
5.粒徑分佈 60
6.總酚 61
7.總類黃酮 61
8.清除DPPH自由基能力 61
9.還原力 61
10.微生物 62
(六)、米糠口含錠品質 62
1.水分 62
2.水活性 62
3.CIE L*a*b*值 63
4.顆粒密度分析 63
5.硬度試驗 63
6.厚度試驗 66
7.重量差異試驗 66
8.崩散試驗 66
9.侵蝕試驗 66
10.含量均一度試驗 66
11.總酚 67
12.微生物 67
13.喜好性感官品評 68
五、統計分析 68
第四章 結果與討論 69
一、米糠之一般成分 69
二、粗製米糠油之製備及品質 69
(一)萃取率 69
(二)活性成分 73
1.總酚 73
2.維生素E 73
(三)抗氧化性 77
1.清除DPPH自由基能力 77
2.還原力 77
三、脫脂米糠之萃取物的製備及品質 82
(一)萃取率 82
(二)活性成分 82
1.總酚 82
2.總類黃酮 86
3.酚酸 86
4.花青素 92
(三)抗氧化性 92
1.清除DPPH 自由基能力 92
2.還原力 99
四、膳食纖維產品製備 103
五、米糠速溶粉末之製備、品質分析及貯藏試驗 103
(一)米糠速溶粉末製程之損耗 103
(二)物性分析 107
1.水分及水活性 107
2.CIE L*a*b*及WI 107
3.吸濕速率及結塊現象 107
(四)抗氧化性 115
1.清除DPPH自由基能力 115
2.還原力 122
(五)貯藏試驗 122
1.物性分析 122
(1)水分及水活性 122
(2)CIE L*, a*, b*及WI 122
2.活性成分 125
(1)總酚及總類黃酮 125
3.微生物 125
(1)生菌數 125
(2)大腸桿菌群及大腸桿菌 132
六、米糠口含錠開發、品質分析及貯藏試驗 132
(一)物性分析 132
1.顆粒密度 132
2.水分及水活性 137
3.CIE L*a*b*及WI 140
4.硬度 140
5.厚度 140
6.重量差異試驗 143
7.崩散試驗 143
8.侵蝕試驗 143
(二)活性成分 150
1.均一性測試 157
(三)喜好性感官品評 157
(四)貯藏試驗 160
1.物性分析 160
(1)水分及水活性 160
(2)CIE L*, a*, b*及∆E 160
2.活性成分 165
(1)總酚 165
3.微生物 165
4.喜好性感官品評 165
第五章 結論 173
參考文獻 174


表目錄
表一、六種主要花青素的顏色 15
表二、動、植物藥物及化學物質之粗細度的法定名稱 22
表三、標準篩網規格表 23
表四、商業化米糠之篩分及不同區分物之分佈 30
表五、米糠口含錠配方 40
表六、卡爾指數與粉末壓實性之評估 64
表七、豪納斯比與粉末壓實性之評估 65
表八、米糠之一般成分 70
表九、索氏萃取法和超臨界萃取法所得粗製米糠油之總酚含量 75
表十、索氏萃取法和超臨界萃取法所得粗製米糠油之維生素E含量 76
表十一、索氏萃取法和超臨界萃取法所得粗製米糠油之米糠醇含量 78
表十二、粗製米糠油之清除2,2-二苯基-1-苦味肼基團自由基能力之EC50值 80
表十三、粗製米糠油的還原力之EC50值 83
表十四、水及不同濃度乙醇萃取脫脂米糠所得凍乾萃取物之萃取率 84
表十五、凍乾萃取物及脫脂米糠之總酚含量 85
表十六、凍乾萃取物及脫脂米糠之總類黃酮含量 87
表十七、索氏萃取之脫脂米糠凍乾萃取物之酚酸含量 88
表十八、索氏萃取之脫脂米糠之酚酸含量 89
表十九、超臨界二氧化碳萃取之脫脂米糠凍乾萃取物之酚酸含量 90
表二十、超臨界二氧化碳萃取之脫脂米糠之酚酸含量 91
表二十一、索氏萃取之脫脂米糠凍乾萃取物及脫脂米糠之原花青素及花青素含量 93
表二十二、超臨界二氧化碳萃取之脫脂米糠凍乾萃取物及脫脂米糠之原花青素及花青素含量 94
表二十三、脫脂米糠之凍乾萃取物清除DPPH 自由基之EC50值 98
表二十四、脫脂米糠之凍乾萃取物還原力之EC50值 102
表二十五、膳食纖維產品之一般成分及總膳食纖維含量 105
表二十六、米糠速溶粉末之物性品質 108
表二十七、難消化性糊精及米糠速溶粉末在25 °C及不同相對溼度下放置24小時之結塊現象 111
表二十八、米糠速溶粉末之總酚及總類黃酮含量的預測值及實際值 119
表二十九、米糠速溶粉末之清除DPPH自由基能力及還原力之預測及實驗EC50值 121
表三十、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之水分及水活性的變化 124
表三十一、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之CIE L*值的變化 126
表三十二、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之CIE a*值的變化 127
表三十三、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之CIE b*值的變化 128
表三十四、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之白色度的變化 129
表三十五、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之總酚含量的變化 130
表三十六、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之總類黃酮含量的變化 131
表三十七、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之總生菌數的變化 132
表三十八、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之大腸桿菌群的變化 134
表三十九、米糠速溶粉末以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之大腸桿菌的變化 135
表四十、含八種不同脫脂米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之粉末顆粒密度 138
表四十一、含八種不同米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之水分和水活性分析 139
表四十二、含八種不同米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之CIE L*a*b*及白色度 141
表四十三、含八種不同米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之硬度 142
表四十四、含八種不同米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之厚度 144
表四十五、含八種不同米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之重量差異試驗 145
表四十六、含八種不同米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之崩散試驗 146
表四十七、米糠口含錠於蒸餾水溶液中之浸漬時間及侵蝕程度 147
表四十八、米糠口含錠於0.1 N HCl溶液中之浸漬時間及侵蝕程度 151
表四十九、米糠口含錠於磷酸緩衝溶液中(pH 6.8)之浸漬時間及侵蝕程度 154
表五十、含八種不同米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之總酚含量均一度 158
表五十一、含八種不同脫脂米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠之喜好性感官品評試驗結果 159
表五十二、米糠口含錠(F3)以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之水分及水活性的變化 161
表五十三、米糠口含錠以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之CIE L*值的變化 162
表五十四、米糠口含錠以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之CIE a*值的變化 163
表五十五、米糠口含錠以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之CIE b*值的變化 164
表五十六、米糠口含錠以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之∆ E值的變化 167
表五十七、米糠口含錠以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之總酚含量的變化 168
表五十八、米糠口含錠以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之總生菌數的變化 169
表五十九、米糠錠劑以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之大腸桿菌群的變化 170
表六十、米糠口含錠以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之大腸桿菌的變化 171
表六十一、米糠口含錠(F3)以鋁箔積層袋、聚乙烯袋照光及不照光包裝於室溫儲藏3個月之喜好性感官品評試驗結果的變化 172



圖目錄
圖一、稻穀的結構 4
圖二、米糠醇之結構 6
圖三、生育三烯酚的天然來源 8
圖四、生育酚及生育三烯酚之結構 9
圖五、來自不同來源的生育三烯酚和生育酚異構物含量 11
圖六、酚酸結構與分類 12
圖七、花青素一般結構及化合物之取代基 14
圖八、超臨界流體三相圖-以二氧化碳為例 19
圖九、疊氮化鈉誘變香紅稉米AM-425米糠不同區分物之外觀 29
圖十、粗製米糠油的製備及品質分析之實驗流程圖 34
圖十一、脫脂米糠萃取物的製備及品質分析之實驗流程圖 35
圖十二、膳食纖維產品的製備及品質分析之實驗流程圖 37
圖十三、米糠速溶粉末的製備及品質分析之實驗流程圖 38
圖十四、米糠口含錠的製備及品質分析之實驗流程圖 41
圖十五、最適配方米糠口含錠之品質於貯存期間變化的實驗流程圖 42
圖十六、維生素E 標準品之 HPLC 層析圖 47
圖十七、米糠醇標準品之HPLC層析圖 49
圖十八、酚酸標準品之HPLC 層析圖 54
圖十九、花青素標準品之HPLC層析圖 57
圖二十、索氏萃取法所得粗製米糠油之萃取率及油重量 71
圖二十一、超臨界二氧化碳萃取法配合流速6 mL/min所得粗製米糠油之萃取率及油重量 72
圖二十二、超臨界二氧化碳萃取法配合流速6 mL/min所得粗製米糠油之萃取率及油重量 74
圖二十三、索氏萃取法及超臨界二氧化碳萃取法所得粗製米糠油清除2,2-二苯基-1-苦味肼基團自由基之能力 79
圖二十四、索氏萃取法和超臨界萃取法所得粗製米糠油之還原力 81
圖二十五、索氏萃取法所得脫脂米糠之凍乾萃取物清除2,2-二苯基-1-苦味肼基團自由基之能力 96
圖二十六、超臨界二氧化碳萃取法所得脫脂米糠之凍乾萃取物清除2,2-二苯基-1-苦味肼基團自由基之能力 97
圖二十七、以索氏萃取法所得脫脂米糠的凍乾萃取物之還原力 100
圖二十八、以超臨界二氧化碳萃取法所得脫脂米糠之凍乾萃取物之還原力 101
圖二十九、膳食纖維產品 104
圖三十、米糠速溶粉末 106
圖三十一、難消化性糊精及米糠速溶粉末在25 °C及不同相對濕度下放置24小時之吸濕曲線 109
圖三十二、難消化性糊精在25 °C及相對濕度50%下放置24小時之結塊現象 110
圖三十三、難消化性糊精在25 °C及相對濕度60%下放置24小時之結塊現象 112
圖三十四、難消化性糊精在25 °C及相對濕度70%下放置24小時之結塊現象 113
圖三十五、米糠速溶粉末在25 °C及相對濕度50%下放置24小時之結塊現 114
圖三十六、米糠速溶粉末在25 °C及相對濕度60%下放置24小時之結塊現象 116
圖三十七、米糠速溶粉末在25 °C及相對濕度70%下放置24小時之結塊現象 117
圖三十八、米糠速溶粉末之粒徑分佈圖 118
圖三十九、米糠速溶粉末清除2,2-二苯基-1-苦味肼基團自由基之能力 120
圖四十、米糠速溶粉末之還原力 123
圖四十一、含八種不同脫脂米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠 136
圖四十二、米糠口含錠於蒸餾水溶液中之浸漬時間及侵蝕程度 148
圖四十三、浸漬於蒸餾水中含八種不同脫脂米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠(F0-F7)之物性品質 149
圖四十四、米糠口含錠於0.1 N HCl溶液中之浸漬時間及侵蝕程度 152
圖四十五、浸漬於0.1 N HCl中含八種不同脫脂米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠(F0-F7)之物性品質 153
圖四十六、米糠口含錠於磷酸緩衝溶液中(pH 6.8)之浸漬時間及侵蝕程度 155
圖四十七、浸漬於磷酸緩衝溶液中(pH 6.8)中含八種不同脫脂米糠萃取物含量的米糠口含錠(F0-F7) 之物性品質 156


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