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研究生(外文):Loh, Wei Shun
論文名稱(外文):Acculturation of Universal Human Rights : The Implementation of CEDAW in Malaysia
指導教授(外文):Weng Vivianne Yen Ching
外文關鍵詞:CEDAWacculturation of human rightsinternatioanl organizationslocalizesMalaysia
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Malaysia ratified Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) in 1995. Until 2016, Malaysia only submitted once its national report to the CEDAW committee and has not accepted the jurisdiction of the individual complaints under the optional protocol. Generally speaking, Malaysia did not fulfill its obligations under the CEDAW. Meanwhile, an officially secular State with an important Muslim population, Malaysia recognized Islam as the religion of the federation. It had therefore entered reservations to certains CEDAW articles, which have been considered as inconsistent with the traditional Islamic law. These reservations then constitute obstacles to Malaysia’s promotion of women’s rights. However, international and local non-governmental organizations (NGO) still see the implementation of CEDAW as a key to promote and supervise women’s status in Malaysia. As an outcome of their efforts, some of the reservations have been withdrawn.
The changes, certainly based upon international human rights norms, did they simply come from top-down influences of international organizations? Our literature review and field interviews research both indicate that bottom-up pressure exercised by local NGO’s might have been more crucial in sensibilizing the public while pushing the government without threatening its legitimacy. The theory of international human rights acculturation emphasizes more on the role of international organizations then that of local NGO’s. However, without devaluating the contributions of the former, our studies show that the later played an indispensable part in translating the rights-based language into Muslim comprehensible arguments, without which the CEDAW could only be understood as a Western interference. The implementation of the CEDAW still needs to take into account the cultural and religious context of the Malaysian Muslim society. In other words, whether the CEDAW norms could become effective within the Malaysian legal system depend largely upon the bridging role of local NGOs. Only by confirming the connotation between the CEDAW and Islam, the Malaysian Muslim population may accept the women’s rights acculturation.
Keywords: CEDAW, acculturation of human rights, international organization, localizes, Malaysia.
In this article, we will focus on international human rights acculturations theory and explore the roles of international non-governmental organizations (INGO) and local NGO’s. Preliminary studies have shown that acculturations effects by INGO had an important contribution for the implementations of CEDAW in Malaysia. But seems Malaysia is a Muslim majority country, Islam has penetrated their lives. Therefor, the implementation of CEDAW still has to consider the cultural and religions context of local Muslim as have binding power to them. In other words, the effects of implementation by CEDAW will depend on the roles of local NGOs to find the connotation of CEDAW and Islam as no contradicts with each other’s. Only by this condition, then Malaysian Muslim may agree to the standard of CEDAW.

第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機及研究目的 1
(一)馬來西亞國家價值決定下的人權保障 4
(二)馬來西亞履行CEDAW公約義務的消極 7
第二節 研究方法與論文架構 13
(一)研究方法 13
(二)章節安排 15
第貳章 人權價值的涵化與轉化 17
第一節 推動人權:由上而下或是由下而上? 17
(一)涵化理論及其侷限 17
(二)市民社會作為國際社會的媒介? 23
第二節 國際組織對馬來西亞婦女人權發展的影響 26
(一)涵化理論在馬來西亞的適用 26
(二)婦女柔性推動婦女權利 28
第參章 IWRAW-AP與SIS:串連與紮根 32
第一節 IWRAW-AP:全球走向在地 32
(一)IWRAW-AP之組織特質及運作方式 32
(二)IWRAW-AP與馬來西亞婦權發展 40
第二節 馬來西亞婦權非政府組織SIS 46
(一)SIS之組織特質及運作方式 46
(二)SIS與馬來西亞婦權發展 53
第肆章 普世人權涵化理論再商確 64
第一節 馬來西亞婦權推動的過程及挑戰 64
(一)被動的國家:反向定位非政府組織的貢獻 65
(二)CEDAW的涵化:橋接全球與在地 69
第二節 涵化理論之修正與補充:父權體制下的婦女議題 76
(一)人權涵化理論之修正 76
(二)婦女議題的柔性特質作為涵化理論的補充 79
第伍章 結論 87
第一節 研究結果 87
第二節 研究發展 89
參考文獻 92

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