跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.201.97.0) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/04/14 02:49
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:楊博智
研究生(外文):Yang, Bo Chih
論文名稱:社會焦慮在難民庇護政策中的角色:以德國、法國與奧地利為例
論文名稱(外文):The role of societal anxiety in asylum policy: the cases of Germany, France and Austria
指導教授:盧倩儀盧倩儀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lu, Chien Yi
口試委員:蔡中民翁燕菁
口試委員(外文):Tsai, Chung MinWeng, Yen Ching
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:政治學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:政治學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:歐洲難民危機難民庇護政策社會焦慮
外文關鍵詞:European refugee crisisAsylum policySocietal anxiety
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:491
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
面對此次難民危機的挑戰,歐盟無法團結一致推行共同的難民庇護政策,反而造成各國內鬨爭端;整體而言,歐洲各國的難民庇護政策大致呈現緊縮的態勢,於此,本文試圖進一步探索:什麼因素促使反難民情緒逐漸高漲,進而影響難民庇護政策轉趨緊縮?其中,又有哪些面向對政策轉變具有顯著的效果?本文以德國、法國與奧地利為研究個案,聚焦國內經濟、文化與安全三大面向,試圖理解衝擊人民心理與情緒的社會焦慮,並提供一項更細緻的觀察與解釋。
本文發現,此次難民危機前,焦慮因子早已深埋各國社會之中,人民的經濟不安全感在歐債危機與撙節政策的衝擊下日漸加深,同時各國社會也為日益加劇的種族緊張關係所苦,而此兩項經濟與文化的焦慮因子是生成反難民社會焦慮的關鍵因素。難民危機期間,大批難民湧入衝擊人民的心理與情緒,不僅誘發並催化經濟與文化的焦慮因子,同時也帶來安全上的擔憂與威脅,催化各國的反難民社會焦慮,進而使各國的難民庇護政策轉趨緊縮。
Faced with the refugee crisis, the EU had not only failed to come up with a common asylum strategy, but been plagued by increasing disputes among its Member States. The asylum policy of individual states had, in general, become more and more restrictive as the refugee crisis intensified. In order to understand the domestic factors contributing to the surge of anti-refugee sentiments, I take Germany, France and Austria as the cases and examine the dynamic developments of anti-refugee sentiments as well as the restriction-oriented asylum policy reforms that followed.
The existence of the agents of societal anxiety in European countries predated the refugee crisis. Prior to the European debt crisis, the sense of economic insecurity was already palpable. The implementation of austerity policies greatly enhanced this sense of insecurity. Meanwhile, ethnic tensions or even conflicts were chronic in western European countries. These two agents of societal anxiety turned out to be significant factors in explaining the surge of anti-refugee sentiments. Furthermore, during the crisis, the sudden mass influx of refugees also had an impact on people’s perceptions and sentiments. Not only did it trigger the economic and cultural agents of societal anxiety, but also brought about the perceived security threat as well. Eventually, the anti-refugee sentiments, catalyzed and reinforced by these dynamics, contributed to restrictive asylum policy reforms.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 前言 1
第二節 問題意識 3
第三節 文獻檢閱 5
第四節 理論架構 12
第五節 研究方法 17
第六節 章節安排 19
第二章 難民危機前的經濟與社會情勢 21
第一節 德國 23
第二節 法國 28
第三節 奧地利 33
第三章 德國的難民危機、社會焦慮與政策緊縮 39
第一節 難民危機與德國之因應 39
第二節 社會焦慮之發酵 45
第三節 社會焦慮與難民庇護政策之轉變 49
第四章 法國的難民危機、社會焦慮與政策緊縮 55
第一節 難民危機與法國之因應 55
第二節 社會焦慮之發酵 60
第三節 社會焦慮與難民庇護政策之轉變 65
第五章 奧地利的難民危機、社會焦慮與政策緊縮 69
第一節 難民危機與奧地利之因應 69
第二節 社會焦慮之發酵 74
第三節 社會焦慮與難民庇護政策之轉變 78
第六章 結論 83
參考文獻 89
一、中文文獻

李秋錦,2007,〈1990年代後德國經濟表現與改革〉,《經濟研究》,7:199-234。
辛炳隆,2002,《對台灣當前失業問題之因應對策》,台北:行政院研考會主編。
張台麟,1989,〈論法國極右派「國家陣線」之興衰〉,《問題與研究》,28(6):
63-72。
張福昌,2012,〈歐債危機對歐洲統合的影響〉,《全球政治評論》,37:13-18。
陳麗娟,2013,《里斯本條約後歐洲聯盟新面貌》,台北:五南。
黃全慶,2009,〈奧地利社會安全制度發展的理論分析〉,《歐洲國際評論》,5:
39-73。
葉陽明,2007,〈戰後德國極右主義、極右政黨對憲政民主之挑戰〉,《社會科學
論叢》,1(1):33-94。
廖舜右,2012,〈歐債危機衝擊對亞太地區之影響〉,《全球政治評論》,37:25-30。
樊琤,2006,〈德國經濟改革及其前景〉,《國際經濟情勢雙週報》,1614:5-17。
盧倩儀,2014,〈歐債危機之新自由主義根源〉,《政治學報》,58:37-71。
鍾志明,2015,〈德國處理難民問題之政策分析〉,《全球政治評論》,52:11-16。
羅至美,2013,〈歐洲主權債務危機之解析〉,《問題與研究》,52(1):57-100。

二、英文文獻

Adamson, Fiona B. 2006. “Cross Borders: International Migration and National
Security.” International Security 31 (1): 165-199.
Aiyar, Shekar, Bergljot Barkbu, Nicoletta Batini, Helge Berger, Enrica Detragiache,
Allan Dizioli, Christian Ebeke, Huidan Lin, Linda Kaltani, Sebastian Sosa, Antonio Spilimbergo, and Petia Topalova. 2016. The Refugee Surge in Europe: Economic Challenges. Washington D.C.: International Monetary Fund.
Arnold-Fernández, Emily E., and Stewart Pollock. 2013. “Refugee’s Right to Work.”
Forced Migration Review 44: 92-93.
Backes, Uwe. 2006. “The Electoral Victory of the NPD Saxony and the Prospects for
the Future Extreme-right Success in German Elections.” Patterns of Prejudice 40 (2): 131-143.
Bartholomew, Robert E., and Jeffrey S. Victor. 2004. “A Social-Psychological
Theory of Collective Anxiety Attacks: The "Mad Gasser" Reexamined.” The Sociological Quarterly 45 (2): 229-248.
Betz, Hans-Georg. 1994. Radical Right-wing Populism in Western Europe. London:
Macmillan.
Blume, Kræn, and Mette Verner. 2007. “Welfare Dependency among Danish
Immigrants.” European Journal of Political Economy 23 (2): 453-471.
Borjas, George J., and Stephen J. Trejo. 1991. “Immigrant Participation in the
Welfare System.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 44 (2): 195-211.
Bowen, John Richard. 2007. Why the French Don’t Like Headscarves: Islam, the
State, and Public Space. NJ: Princeton University Press.
Bowyer, Benjamin T. and Mark I. Vail. 2011. “Economic Insecurity, the Social
Market Economy, and the German Left.” West European Politics 34 (4): 683-705.
Brader, Ted, Nicholas A. Valentino and Elizabeth Suhay. 2008. “What Triggers
Public Opposition to Immigration? Anxiety, Group Cues and Immigration Threat.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (4): 959-978.
Brubaker, Rogers. 2001. “The Return of Assimilation? Changing Perspectives on
Immigration and Its Sequels in France, Germany and the United States.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 24 (4): 531-548.
Burns, Peter, and James G. Gimpel. 2000. “Economic Insecurity, Prejudicial
Stereotypes, and Public Opinion on Immigration Policy.” Political Science Quarterly 115 (2): 201-225.
Canet, Raphaël, Laurent Pech, and Maura Stewart. 2009. “France’s Burning Issue:
Understanding the Urban Riots in November 2005”. In Riot: Resistance and Rebellion in Britain and France, 1381 to the Present, eds. Brett Bowden, and Michael T. Davis. London: Palgrave.
Card, David, Christian Dustmann, and Ian Preston. 2012. “Immigration, Wages and
Compositional Amenities.” Journal of the European Economic Association 10 (1): 79-119.
Carvalho, Joao. 2013. Impacts of Extreme Right Parties on Immigration Policy:
Comparing Britain, France and Italy. NY: Routledge.
Citrin, Jack, Donald P. Green, Christopher Muste, and Cara Wong. 1997. “Public
Opinion Toward Immigration Reform: The Role of Economic Motivations.” The Journal of Politics 59 (3): 858-881.
Collett, Elizabeth. 2011. Immigrant Integration in Europe: In a Time of Austerity.
Washington D.C.: Migration Policy Institute.
Doty, Roxanne Lynn. 1998. “Immigration and the Politics of Security.” Security
Studies 8 (2/3): 71-93.
Dustmann, Christian, and Ian Preston. 2005. “Is Immigration Good or Bad for the
Economy? Analysis of Attitudinal Responses.” Research in Labor Economics 24: 3-34.
Dustmann, Christian, and Ian Preston. 2007. “Racial and Economic Factors in
Attitudes to Immigration.” The B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy 7 (1): 1-39.
Dustmann, Christian, and Tommaso Frattini. 2014. “The Fiscal Effects of
Immigration to the UK.” The Economic Journal 124: F593-F643.
Eckardt, Frank. 2007. “Multiculturalism in Germany: Ideology to Pragmatism-and
Back?” National Identities 9 (3): 235-245.
El Refaie, Elizabeth. 2004. “Competing Discourses about Austria's Nazi Past and
Racist Bomb Attacks in the 1990s.” Journal of Contemporary European Studies 12 (2): 215-230.
Faßmann, Heinz, and Rainer Münz. 1992. “Patterns and Trends of International
Migration in Western Europe.” Population and Development Review 18 (3): 457-480.
Ford, Robert. 2011. “Acceptable and Unacceptable Immigrants: How Opposition to
Immigration in Britain is Affected by Migrants' Region of Origin.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37 (7): 1017-1037.
Frémeaux, Nicolas, and Thomas Piketty. 2013. Growing Inequalities and Their
Impacts in France, GINI Country Report for France, Amsterdam: Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.
Friedberg, Rachel M., and Jennifer Hunt. 1995. “The Impact of Immigrants on Host
Country Wages, Employment and Growth.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 9 (2): 23-44.
Gallagher, Anne. 2002. “Trafficking, Smuggling and Human Rights: Tricks and
Treaties.” Forced Migration Review 12: 25-28.
Ghorashi, Halleh. 2005. “Agents of Change or Passive Victims: The Impacts of
Welfare States (the Case of the Netherlands) on Refugees.” Journal of Refugee Studies 18 (2): 181-198.
Golder, Matt. 2003. “Explaining Variation on the Success of Extreme Right Parties in
Western Europe.” Comparative Political Studies 36 (4): 432-466.
Göle, Nilüfer. 2007. “The Making and Unmaking of Europe in Its Encounter with
Islam: Negotiating French Republicanism and European Islam”. In Varieties of World-making: Beyond Globalization, eds. Nathalie Karagianis, and Peter Wagner. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
Green, Donald P., Laurence H. McFalls and Jennifer K. Smith. 2001. “Hate Crime:
An Emergent Research Agenda.” Annual Review of Sociology 27: 479-504.
Gresch, Nora, Leila Hadj-Abdou, Sieglinde Rosenberger, and Birgit Sauer. 2008. “Tu
felix Austria?: The Headscarf and the Politics of 'Non-issues'.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society 15 (4): 411-432.
Haddad, Yvonne Yazbeck, and Michael J. Balz. 2006. “The October Riots in France:
A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?” International Migration 44 (2): 23-34.
Hagstrom, Paul. 2000. The Fiscal Impact of Refugee Resettlement in the Mohawk
Valley. NY: Hamilton College.
Hansen, Jorgen, and Lofstrom. 2003. “Immigrant Assimilation and Welfare
Participation: Do Immigrants Assimilate into or out of Welfare?” The Journal of Human Resources 38 (1): 74-98.
Happold, Mathrew. 2000. “Fourteen Against One: The EU Member States' Response
to Freedom Party Participation In the Austrian Government.” International & Comparative Law Quarterly 49 (4): 953-963.
Hargreaves, Alec G. 2007. Multi-Ethnic France: Immigration, Politics, Culture and
Society. NY: Routledge.
Hödl, Klaus. 2010. “Islamophobia in Austria: The Recent Emergence of Anti-Muslim
Sentiments in the Country.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 30 (4): 443-456.
Jackman, Robert W., and Karin Volpert. 1996. “Conditions Favouring Parties of
Extreme Right in Western Europe.” British Journal of Political Science 26 (4): 501-521.
Jennings, Jeremy. 2000. “Citizenship, Republicanism and Multiculturalism in
Contemporary France.” British Journal of Political Science 30 (4): 575-597.
Jobard, Fabien, René Lévy, John Lamberth, and Sophie Névanen. 2012. “Measuring
Appearance-Based Discrimination: An Analysis of Identity Checks in Paris.” Population 67: 349-375.
Jonker, Gerdien. 2005. “The Mevlana Mosque in Berlin-Kreuzberg: An Unsolved
Conflict.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31 (6): 1067-1081.
Kerwin, Donald. 2005. “The Use and Misuse of ‘National Security’ Rationale in
Crafting U.S. Refugee and Immigration Policies.” International Journal of Refugee Law 17 (4): 749-763.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1995. The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative
Analysis. MI: University of Michigan Press.
Knigge, Pia. 1998. “The Ecological Correlates of Right-wing Extremism in Western
Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 34 (2): 249-279.
Knight, Robert. 1992. “Haider, the Freedom Party and the Extreme Right in Austria.”
Parliamentary Affairs 45 (3): 285-299.
Koff, Halan, and Dominique Duprez. 2009. “The 2005 Riots in France: The
International Impacts of Domestic Violence.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 35 (5): 713-730.
Krahn, Harvey, Tracey Derwing, Marlene Mulder, and Lori Wilkison. 2000.
“Educated and Underemployed: Refugee Integration into the Canadian Labour Market.” Journal of International Migration and Integration 1 (1): 59-48.
Lambert, Hélène, Francesco Messineo, and Paul Tiedemann. 2008. “Comparative
Perspectives of Constitutional Asylum in France, Italy, and Germany: Requiescat in Pace?” Refugee Survey Quarterly 27 (3): 16-32.
Landais, Camilie. 2008. Top Incomes in France: Booming Inequalities?, Working
Paper, Paris: Paris School of Economic.
Langford, Lillian M. 2013. “The Other Euro Crisis: Rights Violations under the
Common European Asylum System and the Unraveling of EU Solidarity.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 26 (1): 217-264.
Lee, Matthew T., Ramiro Martinez. 2009. “Immigration Reduces Crime: An
Emerging Scholarly Consensus”. In Immigration, Crime and Justice (Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance, Volume 13), eds. William F. Mcdonald. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Lubbers, Marcel and Peer Scheepers. 2000. “Individual and Contextual
Characteristics of the German Republikaner Vote: A Test of Complementary Theories.” European Journal of Political Research 28 (1): 63-94.
Lubbers, Marcel, Mérove Gijsberts and Peer Scheepers. 2002. “Extreme Right-wing
Voting in Western Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 41 (3): 345-378.
Manevska, Katerina, and Peter Achterberg. 2013. “Immigration and Perceived Ethnic
Threat: Cultural Capital and Economic Explanations.” European Sociological Review 29 (3): 437-449.
Marterbauer, Markus, and Ewald Walterskirchen. 1999. “Determinants of the Rise of
Unemployment in Austria.” Austrian Economic Quarterly 2: 115-123.
Mayda, Anna Maria. 2006. “Who Is against Immigrants? A Cross-Country
Investigation of Individual Attitudes toward Immigrants.” The Reviews of Economics and Statistics 88 (3): 510-530.
Maystadt, Jean-François, and Philip Verwimp. 2014. “Winners and Losers among a
Refugee-Hosting Population.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 62 (4): 769-809.
Mole, Nuala, and Catherine Meredith. 1997. Asylum and the European Convention on
Human Rights. London: Council of Europe.
Moravcsik, Andrew. 2012. “Europe after the Crisis.” Foreign Affairs 91 (3): 54-68.
Mudde, Cas. 1999. “The Single-issue Party Thesis: Extreme Right Parties and
Immigration Issue.” West European Politics 22 (3): 182-197.
Mudde, Cas. 2010. “The Populist Radical Right: A Pathological Normalcy.” West
European Politics 33 (6): 1167-1186.
Murray, Graham. 2006. “France: The Riots and the Republic.” Race & Class 47 (4):
26-45.
Newman, Ben J., Todd Hartman, and Charles Taber. 2012. “Foreign Language
Exposure, Cultural Threat and, Opposition to Immigration.” Political Psychology 35 (5): 635-657.
Papademetriou, Demetrios G., and Natalia Banulescu-Bogdan. 2016. Understanding
and Addressing Public Anxiety about Immigration. Washington D.C.: Migration Policy Institute.
Permoser, Julia Mourão, and Sieglinde Rosenberger. 2012. “Integration Policy in
Austria”.In International Perspectives: Integration and Inclusion, eds., James Frideres, and John Biles. Montreal: McGrill-Queen’s University Press.
Pettigrew, Thomas F., Oliver Christ, Ulrich Wagner, Roel W. Meertens, Rolf van
Dick, and Andreas Zick. 2008. “Relative Deprivation and Intergroup Prejudice.” Journal of Social Issues 64 (2): 385-401.
Pettigrew, Thomas F., Ulrich Wagner, and Oliver Christ. 2007. “Who Opposes
Immigration? Comparing German with North American Findings.” Du Bois Review 4 (1): 19-39.
Phillimore, Jenny, and Lisa Goodson. 2006. “Problem or Opportunity? Asylum
Seekers, Refugees, Employment and Social Exclusion in Deprived Urban Areas.” Urban Studies 43 (10): 1715-1736.
Piketty, Thomas. 2003. “Income Inequality on France, 1901-1998.” Journal of
Political Economy 111 (5): 1004-1042.
Richardson, John E., and Monica Colombo. 2014. “Race and Immigration in Far- and
Extreme-Right European Political Leaflets”. In Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies, eds. Christopher Hart, and Piotr Cap. London: Bloomsbury Academic.
Root, Jesse, Erika Gates-Gasse, John Shields, and Harald Bauder. 2014. Discounting
Immigrant Families: Neoliberalism and the Framing of Canadian Immigration
Policy Change. Toronto: Ryerson University.
Ruist, Joakim. 2015. “The Fiscal Cost of Refugee Immigration: The Example of
Sweden.” Population and Development Review 41 (4): 567-581.
Rydgren, Jens. 2005. “Is the Extreme Right-wing Populist Contagious? Explaining
the Emergence of a New Party Family.” European Journal of Political Research 44: 413-437.
Sampson, Robert J. 2008. “Rethinking Crime and Immigration.” Contexts 7 (1):
28-33.
Scheepers, Peer , Mérove Gijsberts, and Marcel Coenders. 2002. “Ethnic
Exclusionism in European Countries: Public Opposition to Civil Rights for Legal Migrants as a Response to Perceived Ethnic Threat.” European Sociological Review 18: 17-34.
Scheve, Kenneth F., and Mathew J. Slaughter. 2001. “Labor Market Competition and
Individual Preference over Immigration Policy.” The Reviews of Economics and Statistics 83 (1): 133-145.
Schneider, Cathy Lisa. 2008. “Police Power and Racial Riots in Paris.” Politics
Society 36: 133-159.
Schneider, Silke L. 2008. “Anti-Immigrant Attitudes in Europe: Outgroup Size and
Perceived Ethnic Threat.” European Sociological Review 24 (1): 53-67.
Silberman, Roxane, Richard Alba and Irène Fournier. 2007. “Segmented Assimilation
in France? Discrimination in the Labour Market against the Second Generation.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 30 (1): 1-27.
Silverstein, Paul A. 2008. “The Context of Antisemitism and Islamophobia in
France.” Patterns of Prejudice 42 (1): 1-26.
Simon, Julian L. 1989. The Economic Consequences of Immigration. Oxford:
Blackwell.
Simon, Patrick. 2008. “The Choice of Ignorance: The Debate on Ethnic and Racial
Statistics in France.” French Politics, Culture & Society 26 (1): 7-31.
Simon, Rita, and Susan Alexander. 1993. The Ambivalent Welcome. CT: Praeger.
Solsten, Eric. ed. 1994. Austria: A Country Study, Washington: GPO for the Library
of Congress.
Storesletten, Kjetil. 2000. “Sustaining Fiscal Policy through Immigration.” Journal of
Political Economy 108 (2): 300-323.
Thränhardt, Dietrich. 1992. Europe: A New Immigration Continent. Münster: LIT
Verlag.
Thränhardt, Dietrich. 1995a. “Germany: An Undeclared Immigration Country.”
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 21 (1): 19-35.
Thränhardt, Dietrich. 1995b. “The Political Uses of Xenophobia in England, France
and Germany.” Party Politics 1 (3): 323-345.
Watts, Meredith W. 2001. “Aggressive Youth Cultures and Hate Crime: Skinheads
and Xenophobic Youth in Germany.” American Behavioral Scientist 45 (4): 600-615.
Weiner, Myron. 1992/93. “Security, Stability, and International Migration.”
International Security 17 (3): 91-126.
Wets, Johan. 2006. “The Turkish Community in Austria and Belgium: The Challenge
of Integration.” Turkish Studies 7 (1): 85-100.
Wodak, Ruth, and Bernd Matouschek. 1993b. “ ‘We Are Dealing with People whose
Origins One Can Clearly Tell Just by Looking’: Critical Discourse Analysis and the Study of Neo-Racism in Contemporary Austria.” Discourse & Society 4 (2): 225-248.
Wodak, Ruth. 2011. “Suppression of the Nazi Past, Coded Languages, and Discourses
of Silence: Applying the Discourse-historical Approach to Post-war Anti-semitism in Austria”. In Political Languages in the Age of Extremes, eds. Willibald Steinmetz. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Zard, Monette. 2002. “Exclusion, Terrorism and Refugee Convention.” Forced
Migration Review 13: 32-34.
Zetter, Roger, and Héloïse Ruaudel. 2014. “Development and Protection Challenges
of Syrian Refugee Crisis.” Forced Migration Review 47: 6-10.
Zetter, Roger. 2012. “Are Refugees an Economic Burden or Benefit?” Forced
Migration Review 41: 50-52.

三、德文文獻

Bauer, Werner T. 2008. Zuwanderung nach Österreich. Vienna: Österreichische
Gesellschaft für Politikberatung und Politikentwicklung.
Faßmann, Heinz, and Rainer Münz. 1990. „Einwanderungsland
Österreich?“ Demographische Informationen 91: 85-91.
Matouschek, Bernd, Ruth Wodak, Franz Januschek. 1995. Notwendige Maßnahmen
gegen Fremde? Genese und Formen von rassistischen Diskursen der Differenz. Wien: Passagen Verlag.
Perchinig, Bernhard. 2009. „Von der Fremdarbeit zur Integration? Arbeitsmigrations-
und Integrationspolitik in der Zweiten Republik.“ Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur 53 (2): 228-247.
Potkanski, Monika. 2010. Türkische Migrant/-innen in Österreich: Zahlen. Fakten.
Einstellungen. Wien: Österreichischer Integrationsfonds.

四、新聞與網路資源

BBC. 2010. “France sends Roma Gypsies back to Romania”.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-11020429 (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
BBC. 2011. “France and Italy push for reform of Schengen treaty”.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-13189682 (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
BBC. 2014a. “France offers Iraq Christians asylum after Mosul threat”.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-28521778 (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
BBC. 2014b. “Eurosceptic 'earthquake' rocks EU elections”.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-27559714 (Accessed on April 4, 2017).
BBC. 2015a. “France train shooting: Attack 'was well prepared' ”.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34055713 (Accessed on April 10, 2017).
BBC. 2015b. “Paris attacks: Austria arrests two suspects at refugee shelter”.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35111015 (Accessed on April 10, 2017).
BBC. 2015c. “Austria passes controversial reforms to 1912 Islam law”.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-31629543 (Accessed on April 16, 2017).
Berliner Zeitung. 2016. “Chronologie Islamistische Anschläge in Deutschland”.
http://www.berliner-zeitung.de/berlin/chronologie-islamistische-anschlaege-in-deutschland-25348608 (Accessed on March 18, 2017).
Daily Mail. 2016. “11,000 asylum seekers ‘broke the law’ in Austria during the first
half of 2016, report reveals - as it emerges up to 90% of migrants have vanished from Swiss refugee centres”. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3775751/11-000-asylum-seekers-broke-law-Austria-half-2016-report-reveals-emerges-90-migrants-vanished-Swiss-refugee-centres.html (Accessed on April 16, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2010. “Merkel erklärt Multikulti für gescheitert”.
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/integration-merkel-erklaert-multikulti-fuer-gescheitert-a-723532.html (Accessed on May 19, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2012. “Anti-Austerity Protests Spark Violence”.
http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/anti-austerity-protests-spark-violence-in-european-countries-a-867316.html (Accessed on April 19, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2015a. “Seehofer droht Merkel mit Verfassungsklage”.
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/horst-seehofer-droht-angela-merkel-mit-verfassungsklage-a-1057085.html (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2015b. “48 Prozent gegen weitere Amtszeit Merkels”.
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/umfrage-48-prozent-gegen-weitere-amtszeit-merkels-a-1065082.html (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2015c. “Österreich macht dicht”.
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/fluechtlinge-eu-innenminister-beraten-ueber-verteilung-oesterreich-macht-dicht-a-1044414.html (Accessed on April 13, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2016a. “Mehrheit der Deutschen wendet sich gegen Merkel”.
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/fluechtlinge-deutsche-wenden-sich-laut-umfrage-gegen-angela-merkel-a-1072192.html (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2016b. “CDU in Sachsen-Anhalt vorne - AfD kommt auf 24 Prozent”.
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/deutschland/wahl-in-sachsen-anhalt-afd-kommt-locker-ueber-20-prozent-a-1082077.html (Accessed on March 19, 2017).
Der Spiegel. 2016c. “Österreich will Asylschnellverfahren einführen”.
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/fluechtlinge-oesterreich-will-asylschnellverfahren-einfuehren-obergrenze-rechtswidrig-a-1084685.html (Accessed on April 15, 2017).
Der Standard. 2015. “Über 70 tote Flüchtlinge im Burgenland: Mikl-Leitner will
Anlaufstellen an EU-Grenze”. http://derstandard.at/2000021354835/Offenbar-mehrere-tote-Fluechtlinge-in-Schlepperfahrzeug-auf-A4 (Accessed on April 14, 2017).
Der Tagespiegel. 2015. “De Maizière will Asylrecht mit Hilfe der EU einschränken”.
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/feste-kontingente-fuer-fluechtlinge-de-maiziere-will-asylrecht-mit-hilfe-der-eu-einschraenken/12342562.html (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Der Tagesspiegel. 2016. “Zahl der Asylsuchenden sinkt drastisch”.
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/fluechtlinge-in-deutschland-zahl-der-asylsuchenden-sinkt-drastisch/13420814.html (Accessed on May 27, 2017).
Deutsche Welle. 2015. “Austria relegates refugees to tent cities”.
http://www.dw.com/en/austria-relegates-refugees-to-tent-cities/a-18478301 (Accessed on April 13, 2017).
Deutsche Welle. 2016a. “Kompromiss im Asylstreit”.
http://www.dw.com/de/kompromiss-im-asylstreit/a-19010662 (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Deutsche Welle. 2016b. “So funktioniert der EU-Türkei-Deal”.
http://www.dw.com/de/so-funktioniert-der-eu-t%C3%BCrkei-deal/a-19162970 (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Deutsche Welle. 2016c. “German labor minister threatens 'non-integrating' refugees
with welfare cuts”. http://www.dw.com/en/german-labor-minister-threatens-non-integrating-refugees-with-welfare-cuts/a-19015000 (Accessed on May 14, 2017).
Deutsche Welle. 2017a. “Study: 50 percent of refugees at work in Germany within
five years”. http://www.dw.com/en/study-50-percent-of-refugees-at-work-in-germany-within-five-years/a-38510486 (Accessed on May 14, 2017).
Deutsche Welle. 2017b. “Österreich beschließt Burka-Verbot”.
http://www.dw.com/de/%C3%B6sterreich-beschlie%C3%9Ft-burka-verbot/a-38866847 (Accessed on May 23, 2017).
Deutsche Welle. 2017c. “EU countries decline to help Italy with Mediterranean
refugee crisis”. http://www.dw.com/en/eu-countries-decline-to-help-italy-with-mediterranean-refugee-crisis/a-39585373 (Accessed on July 15, 2017).
Die Presse. 2017. “Regierung einigt sich auf Integrationsgesetz”.
http://diepresse.com/home/innenpolitik/5191024/Regierung-einigt-sich-auf-Integrationsgesetz (Accessed on May 25, 2017).
Die Süddeutsche Zeitung. 2015a. “Merkel bleibt dabei: "Wir schaffen das”.
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/treffen-mit-oesterreichs-kanzler-merkel-bleibt-dabei-wir-schaffen-das-1.2649030 (Accessed on March 23, 2017).
Die Süddeutsche Zeitung. 2015b. “Drunter und drüber in der Asylpolitik”.
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/deutschland-drunter-und-drueber-in-der-fluechtlingspolitik-1.2734136 (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Die Süddeutsche Zeitung. 2016. “Österreich kann Flüchtlinge per Notverordnung
abweisen”. http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/fluechtlinge-oesterreich-kann-fluechtlinge-per-notverordnung-abweisen-1.2969317 (Accessed on April 15, 2017).
Die Welt. 2010. “Deutsche misstrauen dem Kapitalismus”.
https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article9074415/Deutsche-misstrauen-dem-Kapitalismus.html (Accessed on March 8, 2017).
Die Welt. 2015. “Flüchtlingskrise lässt Deutsche um ihre Jobs fürchten”.
https://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/article148825339/Fluechtlingskrise-laesst-Deutsche-um-ihre-Jobs-fuerchten.html (Accessed on March 22, 2017).
Die Welt. 2015b. “Auf dem Balkan braut sich etwas zusammen”.
https://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article146591621/Auf-dem-Balkan-braut-sich-etwas-zusammen.html (Accessed on April 14, 2017).
Die Welt. 2016a. “Flüchtlinge retten Deutschland vor der Rezession”.
https://www.welt.de/wirtschaft/article159728771/Fluechtlinge-retten-Deutschland-vor-der-Rezession.html (Accessed on March 22, 2017).
Die Welt. 2016b. “Warum die Flüchtlingskosten 2016 aus dem Ruder liefen”.
https://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article160312839/Warum-die-Fluechtlingskosten-2016-aus-dem-Ruder-liefen.html (Accessed on March 22, 2017).
Die Welt. 2017. “Jeder Zweite für deutsche "Leitkultur" ”.
https://www.welt.de/newsticker/dpa_nt/infoline_nt/brennpunkte_nt/article164638134/Jeder-Zweite-fuer-deutsche-Leitkultur.html (Accessed on May 23, 2017).
Die Zeit. 2010. “Deutsch ist wichtig für Integration”.
http://www.zeit.de/politik/deutschland/2010-03/merkel-integration-erdogan (Accessed on May 19, 2017).
Die Zeit. 2016. “Österreich schafft Obergrenze für Asylbewerber”.
http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2016-01/fluechtlingspolitik-oesterreich-reinhold-mitterlehner-beschraenkung (Accessed on April 15, 2017).
Euractiv. 2013. “Germany refuses to take in more refugees”.
https://www.euractiv.com/section/justice-home-affairs/news/germany-refuses-to-take-in-more-refugees/ (Accessed on March 11, 2017).
Euronews. 2015. “ ‘Ethnic Apartheid’ Exists in France, Says PM Manuel Valls”.
http://www.euronews.com/2015/01/20/ethnic-apartheid-exists-in-france-says-pm-manuel-valls (Accessed on April 3, 2017).
FOCUS Online. 2016. “Umfrage zeigt: Das denken die Deutschen wirklich über den
Islam”. http://www.focus.de/politik/deutschland/bevoelkerung-ist-gespalten-umfrage-zeigt-das-denken-die-deutschen-wirklich-ueber-den-islam_id_5502084.html (Accesssed on May 19, 2017).
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 2015. “Mehrheit der Deutschen lehnt Merkels
Umgang mit Flüchtlingskrise ab”. http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/fluechtlingskrise/viele-deutsche-gegen-angela-merkels-fluechtlingspolitik-13910248.html (Accessed on March 13, 2017).
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 2016. “AfD in Umfrage drittstärkste Partei im
Bund”. http://www.faz.net/aktuell/nach-berlin-wahl-afd-in-umfrage-drittstaerkste-partei-im-bund-14449278.html (Accessed on March 22, 2017).
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 2017. “Bundestag beschließt Burka-Verbot für
Beamte”. http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/inland/nicht-hinnehmbar-bundestag-beschliesst-burka-verbot-fuer-beamte-14991595.html (Accessed on May 2, 2017).
Gouvernement de la République française. 2015a. “Asylum reform definitively
adopted by Parliament”. http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/asylum-reform-definitively-adopted-by-parliament (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
Gouvernement de la République française. 2015b. “France opposes introduction of
migrant quotas”. http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/france-opposes-introduction-of-migrant-quotas (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
Gouvernement de la République française. 2015c. “Refugees: "We must act in
accordance with the principles of humanity, solidarity, responsibility and control" ”. http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/refugees-we-must-act-in-accordance-with-the-principles-of-humanity-solidarity-responsibility-and (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
Gouvernement de la République française. 2015d. “European interior ministers adopt
the key measures requested by France”. http://www.gouvernement.fr/en/european-interior-ministers-adopt-the-key-measures-requested-by-france (accessed on April 1, 2017).
Handelsblatt. 2012. “Österreich will kräftig sparen”.
http://www.handelsblatt.com/politik/international/defizit-2016-nahe-null-oesterreich-will-kraeftig-sparen/6197718.html (Accessed on April 19, 2017).
Huffington Post. 2015. “Marine Le Pen Decides 99 Percent of Incoming Refugees
Are Men, Opposes Giving Them Political Refugee Status”. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/09/09/marine-le-pen-refugees_n_8110376.html (Accessed on April 10, 2017).
Human Rights Watch. 2012a. ““The Root of Humiliation” Abusive Identity Checks in
France”. https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/01/26/root-humiliation/abusive-identity-checks-france (Accessed on April 3, 2017).
Human Rights Watch. 2012b. “France: European Court of Human Rights Condemns
Faulty Asylum Procedure”. https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/02/02/france-european-court-human-rights-condemns-faulty-asylum-procedure (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
Human Rights Watch. 2012b. “France: European Court of Human Rights Condemns
Faulty Asylum Procedure”. https://www.hrw.org/news/2012/02/02/france-european-court-human-rights-condemns-faulty-asylum-procedure (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
Kurier. 2015. “20.000 Menschen bei "Demo Blanche" für Flüchtlinge”.
https://kurier.at/chronik/wien/20-000-menschen-bei-demo-blanche-fuer-fluechtlinge/150.051.278 (Accessed on April 14, 2017).
n.tv. 2017. “Zahl der Flüchtlinge sinkt”.
http://www.n-tv.de/politik/Zahl-der-Fluechtlinge-sinkt-article19523206.html (Accessed on May 22, 2017).
New York Times. 2012a. “Austerity Faces Sharper Debate After European
Elections”. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/08/world/europe/francois-hollandes-victory-sharpens-european-austerity-debate.html (Accessed on April 5, 2017).
New York Times. 2012b. “New French Budget Focuses on Slicing Deficit”.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/29/world/europe/hollandes-new-budget-focuses-on-cutting-frances-deficit.html (Accessed on April 5, 2017).
New York Times. 2015. “Marine Le Pen’s Anti-Islam Message Gains Influence in
France”. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/18/world/europe/marine-le-pens-anti-islam-message-gains-influence-in-france.html (Accessed on April 10, 2017).
Newsweek. 2016a. “France to evict Refugees in Calais ‘Jungle’ Camp”.
http://www.newsweek.com/france-evict-jungle-refugee-camp-calais-430210 (Accessed on April 1, 2017).
Newsweek. 2016b. “Austrian Interior Minister: No Refugee Work Permits”.
http://www.newsweek.com/austria-interior-minister-refugee-crisis-migrant-crisis-480288 (Accessed on May 15, 2017).
oe24. 2017. “Experte: "Terror-Gefahr auch in Österreich hoch"”.
http://www.oe24.at/oesterreich/chronik/Experte-Terror-Gefahr-auch-in-Oesterreich-hoch/280033653 (Accessed on May 25, 2017).
Pew Research Center. 2016. “European Opinions of the Refugee Crisis in 5 Charts”,
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/09/16/european-opinions-of-the-refugee-crisis-in-5-charts/. (Accessed on January 12, 2017).
Radio France Internationale. 2014. “France's debt shoots over two trillion euros”.
http://en.rfi.fr/economy/20140930-frances-public-debt-over-20-trillion-euros (Accessed on April 2, 2017).
Reuters. 2012. “Expulsions of illegal migrants soar under Sarkozy”.
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-french-expulsions-idUSTRE8091PB20120110 (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
Reuters. 2016. “French PM rejects permanent quota system for refugees”.
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-idUSKCN0VM0NI (Accessed on April 1, 2017).
The European Union Times. 2012. “French government cuts immigrants welfare by
83%”. http://www.eutimes.net/2012/12/french-government-cuts-immigrants-welfare-by-83/ (Accessed on May 2, 2017).
The Guardian. 2013. “French police try to move Syrian refugees seeking asylum in
UK”. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/04/french-police-syrian-refugees-calais-asylum-uk (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
The Guardian. 2015. “Marine Le Pen's Front National makes political gains after
Paris attacks”. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/01/marine-le-pen-front-national-political-gains-paris-attacks (Accessed on April 4, 2017).
The Guardian. 2016a. “German court rules Muslim girls must take part in swimming
lessons”. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/07/german-court-rules-against-muslim-girl-in-burkini-case (Accessed on March 22, 2017).
The Guardian. 2016b. “France to close Calais refugee camp and tells UK it must play
its part”. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/26/calais-migrant-camp-must-go-by-end-of-year-francois-hollande (Accessed on April 7, 2017).
The Guardian. 2016c. “French burkini ban row escalates after clothing incident at
Nice beach”. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/aug/24/french-burkini-ban-row-escalates-clothing-incident-woman-police-nice-beach (Accessed on April 4, 2017).
The Independent. 2016. “Muslim face veil ban for workers is not discriminatory,
Austrian court rules”. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/muslim-face-veil-niqab-burka-burqa-hijab-ban-workers-is-not-discriminatory-austrian-court-rules-a7131311.html (Accessed on April 16, 2017).
The Independent. 2017. “German parliament votes in favour of partial burqa ban”.
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-burqa-ban-law-vote-favour-angela-merkel-islam-muslim-civil-servants-judges-military-a7706781.html (Accessed on May 19, 2017).
The Local. 2014a. “France rejects four out of five asylum seekers”.
https://www.thelocal.fr/20140324/france-asylum-refugee-rejects-four-out-of-five-asylum-seekers (Accessed on March 31, 2017).
The Local. 2014b. “Austrian states agree on new asylum centres”.
https://www.thelocal.at/20141118/austrian-states-agree-on-new-asylum-centres (Accessed on April 13, 2017).
The Local. 2014c. “An 18 year long wait for asylum”.
https://www.thelocal.at/20140620/an-18-year-wait-for-asylum (Accessed on April 10, 2017).
The Local. 2015. “Gap between rich and poor widens”.
https://www.thelocal.at/20150521/gap-between-rich-and-poor-widens-in-austria (Accessed on April 15, 2017).
The Local. 2016a. “France clears Calais camp as concern mounts in Paris”.
https://www.thelocal.fr/20161101/france-clears-calais-camp-as-concern-mounts-in-paris (Accessed on April 7, 2017).
The Local. 2016b. “Over 14 percent of the French live below poverty line”.
https://www.thelocal.fr/20160907/over-14-percent-of-the-french-live-below-poverty-line (Accessed on April 5, 2017).
The Local. 2016c. “Immigration to cause massive increase in benefit costs”.
https://www.thelocal.at/20160927/immigration-to-cause-massive-increase-in-benefit-costs (Accessed on April 15, 2017).
The Local. 2016d. “Anti-Semitism up by 82 percent in Austria”.
https://www.thelocal.at/20160407/anti-semitism-up-by-82-percent-in-austria (Accessed on April 16, 2017).
The Local. 2016e. “Further evidence of rise in far-right crime in Austria”.
https://www.thelocal.at/20160503/further-evidence-of-increasing-far-right-crime-in-austria (Accessed on April 16, 2017).
The Local. 2016f. “Survey: 'Almost 40 percent of Turks would leave Austria for
money'”. https://www.thelocal.at/20160908/survey-almost-40-percent-of-turks-would-leave-austria-for-money (Accessed on April 16, 2017).
The Telegraph. 2009. “France hit by national strike on 'Black Thursday' ”.
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/4384543/France-hit-by-national-strike-on-Black-Thursday.html (Accessed on May 19, 2017).
The Telegraph. 2011. “Nicolas Sarkozy pledges drastic austerity measures as French
bank shares crash”. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/financialcrisis/8694238/Nicolas-Sarkozy-pledges-drastic-austerity-measures-as-French-bank-shares-crash.html (Accessed on April 5, 2017).
UNHCR. 2012. “Mediterranean takes record as most deadly stretch of water for
refugees and migrants in 2011”. http://www.unhcr.org/news/briefing/2012/1/4f27e01f9/mediterranean-takes-record-deadly-stretch-water-refugees-migrants-2011.html (Accessed on December 5, 2016).
UNHCR. 2013. “First group of Syrian refugees flies to Germany”.
http://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2013/9/523076919/first-group-syrian-refugees-flies-germany.html (Accessed on March 11, 2017).
UNHCR. 2014. “UNHCR concerned over ending of rescue operation in the
Mediterranean”. http://www.unhcr.org/news/briefing/2014/10/5440ffa16/unhcr-concerned-ending-rescue-operation-mediterranean.html (Accessed on March 12, 2017).
Vienna Online. 2015. “Asyl in Österreich: Die Pläne des Innenministeriums im
Detail”. http://www.vienna.at/asyl-in-oesterreich-die-plaene-des-innenministeriums-im-detail/4215420 (Accessed on April 13, 2017).
Washington Post. 2016. “What French Muslims think about France’s secular laws”.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/09/19/what-french-muslims-think-about-frances-secular-laws/?utm_term=.5b7a0950fce0 (Accessed on April 3, 2017).
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關論文