(3.238.186.43) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/05 22:50
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:盧柏利
研究生(外文):Bo-Li Lu
論文名稱:以磁性奈米生物操控進行優養化水體中微囊藻藻華控制之研究
論文名稱(外文):Magnetic nanosilicate platelet for effective control of Microcystis aeruginosa , microcystins, and phosphate
指導教授:張書奇張書奇引用關係
口試委員:黃良銘陳佳吟
口試日期:2017-07-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:144
中文關鍵詞:優養化微囊藻microcystin-LR磁性奈米矽片奈米氧化鐵磷酸鹽田口試驗
外文關鍵詞:EutrophicationMicrocystis aeruginosamicrocystin-LRmagnetic nanosilicate platelet (MNSP)magnetite nanoparticle (MNP)phosphateTaguchi method
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:112
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
我國因山地佔國土面積可達40%以上且河川大多坡陡流急,導致水源大多排入海中,造成飲用水來源仰賴水庫程度相當高,但近幾年來由於工業的發展與農牧業的開發,廢水中含有大量的營養鹽排入湖庫,加上我國地處於熱帶與亞熱帶地區,溫度適中且光照強烈,造成嚴重的水庫優養化與藻華問題, 依卡爾森指標 (Carlson trophic state index) 界定優養化情形可得知,台灣水庫從2012年至2016年之優養化比例逐年上升。近五年來,優養之水庫比例從20%上升至40%,而台灣離島水庫在2012年優養比例為97.1%,而在2014年、2015年與2016年優養化比例皆達到100%,呈現持續惡化的現象。而湖庫優養化將會衍生出許多問題,其中以微囊藻與其毒素最受人矚目,微囊藻在藻類濃度很高或死亡時會釋放微囊藻毒,其毒素對脊椎動物具有強烈肝毒性,在淨水程序上無法完全去除微囊藻毒素,可嚴重影響飲用水安全。
而本研究欲利用奈米矽片 (Nanosilicate platelets, NSP) 與奈米氧化鐵(Magnetite nanoparticle, MNP) 結合成磁性奈米矽片 (Magnetic nanosilicate platelet, MNSP) 來作為微囊藻生長抑制劑、混凝沉降劑、藻毒吸附劑及磷酸鹽吸附之四重功效材料。在微囊藻生長抑制實驗結果顯示,添加劑量越高則抑制效果越好,在低細胞濃度下,劑量100 ppm與500 ppm之MNSP均可去除93%以上的微囊藻。而對於濁度去除實驗中,結果顯示添加MNSP劑量越高則去除效果越好,在劑量100 ppm與500 ppm在48小時後濁度去除率個別為63.0%及67.0%,雖然混凝沉澱效果比不上傳統混凝劑,但在去除微囊藻同時具有濁度去除之能力。而在微囊藻毒素吸附實驗中,將針對微囊藻毒素中較為常見且毒性極強之microcystin-LR作吸附去除研究,結果發現劑量100 ppm之MNSP與劑量500 ppm之NSP吸附microcystin-LR效果相當,且去除率可高達99.4%,可見經過MNP改質後之MNSP在吸附藻毒之效果更佳。在磷酸鹽吸附實驗當中,MNSP在去除磷酸鹽的研究中顯示其吸附速率相當快,可在1.0 分鐘內即達到平衡,去除率高達97.8%,且在pH值2.0到9.0之間吸附去除率均可達98.2%以上,僅在pH值為10時去除率有稍微降低至94.9%;而在等溫吸附實驗中,在高濃度至低濃度之磷酸鹽進行吸附實驗,將數據帶入Langmuir、Freundlich及Linear分析,結果顯示其吸附行為較適合以Langmuir model描述。為了達到綠色整治之目的,本研究也進行材料再生實驗,結果顯示MNSP循環再利用到第四次時仍然有八成以上的去除率;最後以田口試驗探討水中陰離子對於磷酸鹽之吸附影響,其中以氟鹽影響最為嚴重,其次為硝酸鹽。本研究結果顯示MNSP做為湖泊水庫優養化控制且有相當高之可行性,且較NSP效果更加。
Due to the natural landscape, mountains and hills occupy more than 40% of the land area in Taiwan. Thus, the drinking water sources mainly depend on water reservoirs(WRs). Further, the climate, solar irradiance, and excessive nutrients input to these WRs caused serious eutrophication and algal bloom. From 2012 to 2016, the proportion of eutrophic water reservoirs increased year by year. In the past five years, on the main island of Taiwan, the ratio of eutrophic WRs to total WRs raised from 20% to 40%. For the past three consecutive years, all WRs on the isolated island are all eutrophic. Algal bloom in eutrophic water bodies produces not only odorous compounds but also lethal toxins. Microcystis aeruginosa is a common species of cyanobacteria which releases toxins, namely microcystin. Therefore, water quality in these algae-infested WRs is threatening the health of citizens.
Traditional methods cannot solve this environmental health problem. Here, we report an effective way to prepare a new nanohybrid material, magnetic nanosilicate platelet (MNSP), and its effects on the removal of microcystin toxins, inhibition on cyanobacterial growth as well as phosphorus in water. MNSP is fabricated by special treatment of a clay mineral, montmorillonite, and then surface supported with magnetite nanoparticles by in situ synthesis. This nanohybrid can effectively inhibit the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, that can generate on of the most notorious toxins, i.e. microcystins. Algal cells can be settled at the dosage of 500 ppm MNSP and turbidity can be reduced by more than 67%. The removal of microcystin LR (MC-LR) was as high as 99.39% at an initial MC-LR concentration as high as 100 μg L-1. The adsorption of phosphate reached equilibrium within a period as short as 1 minutes, and the removal rate was higher than 97.8%. Moreover, the removals between pH2.0 and 9.0 were higher than 98% but slightly lower than 95% at pH 10.0. Adsorption isotherm is more likely a Langmuir isotherm. The used MNSP can be recycled by powerful magnets and regenerated by high concentration of NaOH. The removal rate with regenerated MNSP can still be greater than 95%. The anions in the solution managed by Taguchi method are used to compete with the adsorption site on MNSP with phosphate. As a result, the most effective anion is fluoride. These evidences suggested that MNSP is a highly promising material for effective eutrophication control in water bodies.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xi
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2-1優養化 4
2-1-1優養化成因及影響 4
2-1-2 優養化對淨水程序之影響 5
2-1-3 台灣水資源及湖泊水庫優養化情形 7
2-1-4 營養鹽來源 14
2-2 藍綠菌 16
2-2-1 微囊藻與微囊藻毒素 17
2-2-2 藍綠菌毒素之分類及來源 21
2-3 優養化整治技術 27
2-3-1 物理工法 29
2-3-2 化學工法 30
2-3-3 生物工法 33
2-3-4 其他整治方法 35
2-4 淨水程序中藻類去除方法 37
2-4-1 前氧化處理 37
2-4-2混凝與膠凝 (coagulation and flocculation) 38
2-4-3藻毒去除方法 40
2-5 奈米矽片 42
2-5-1 黏土的分類與結構 42
2-5-2 黏土的應用與性質 44
2-5-3 奈米矽片製備與改質 45
2-6 磁鐵礦奈米粒子 49
2-6-1 四氧化三鐵之結晶與特性 49
2-6-2 磁滯曲線 50
2-6-3 四氧化三鐵製備方法 51
2.7 田口方法 52
2-7-1 直交法 52
2-7-2 因子效應 53
第三章 研究方法 56
3-1 實驗耗材 57
3-2 實驗儀器 57
3-3 實驗藥品 59
3-4 實驗架構 61
3-5 微囊藻培養 63
3-5-1 微囊藻之來源 63
3-5-2 微囊藻培養方法 63
3-5-3 微囊藻純化方法 65
3-6 微囊藻計數 66
3-7 磁性奈米矽片 68
3-8 材料特徵鑑定 69
3-8-1 高效能穿透式電子顯微鏡 (HRTEM) 69
3-8-2 高解析X光繞射儀 (HRXRD) 70
3-8-3 震動樣品測磁儀 (VSM) 70
3-8-4 比表面積分析儀 72
3-9磁性奈米矽片微囊藻生長抑制實驗 73
3-9-1 微囊藻之準備 73
3-9-2 微囊藻生長抑制實驗 73
3-10 磁性奈米矽片微囊藻瓶杯試驗 75
3-11 微囊藻藻毒吸附實驗 77
3-12 微囊藻毒素分析方法 78
3-12-1 固相萃取技術(Solid Phase Extraction) 78
3-12-2 液相層析串聯質譜儀 (LC/MS-MS) 80
3-13 磁性奈米矽片除磷實驗 80
3-13-1 水中除磷實驗 81
3-13-2 感應耦合電漿發射光譜儀 (ICP-OES) 84
3-13-3 離子層析儀 (ion chromatograph, IC) 86
第四章 結果與討論 87
4-1 MNSP之特徵分析 87
4-1-1高效能穿透式電子顯微鏡 (HRTEM) 87
4-1-2 高解析X光繞射儀 (HRXRD ) 88
4.1.3 震動樣品測磁儀 (VSM) 90
4-1-4 比表面積分析儀 (BET) 91
4-2 微囊藻生長抑制實驗 93
4-2-1 低微囊藻密度 (2.1×106 cell/mL) 93
4-2-2 中微囊藻密度 (8.1×106 cell/mL) 94
4-2-3 高微囊藻密度 (1.8×107 cell/mL) 95
4-2-4 微囊藻生長抑制實驗綜合討論 95
4-3 瓶杯試驗 100
4-3-1 低濁度磁性奈米矽片及四氧化三鐵混凝 (濁度40 NTU) 100
4-3-2 高濁度磁性奈米矽片及四氧化三鐵混凝 (濁度300-400 NTU) 101
4-3-3 瓶杯實驗綜合討論 103
4-4 微囊藻毒素吸附實驗 105
4-4-1 微囊藻毒素microcystin-LR吸附實驗 105
4-4-2 微囊藻毒素吸附實驗綜合討論 106
4-5 磁性奈米矽片吸附磷實驗 108
4-5-1 動力吸附實驗 108
4-5-2 最佳pH值吸附實驗 109
4-5-3 等溫吸附實驗 110
4-5-4 MNSP再生實驗 114
4-5-5 陰離子干擾之田口試驗 115
第五章 結論與建議 121
5-1 結論 121
5-2 建議 123
參考文獻 124
附錄 142
Abdullah, W. S., Alshibli, K. A., and Al-Zou''bi, M. S. (1999) Influence of pore water chemistry on the swelling behavior of compacted clays. Applied Clay Science 15(5), 447-462.

Abeliovich, A. t., and Shilo, M. (1972) Photooxidative death in blue-green algae. Journal of Bacteriology 111(3), 682-689.

Ahn, C.-Y., Joung, S.-H., Jeon, J.-W., Kim, H.-S., Yoon, B.-D., and Oh, H.-M. (2003) Selective control of cyanobacteria by surfactin-containing culture broth of Bacillus subtilis C1. Biotechnology Letters 25(14), 1137-1142.

Alverca, E., Andrade, M., Dias, E., Bento, F. S., Batoréu, M., Jordan, P., Silva, M. J., and Pereira, P. (2009) Morphological and ultrastructural effects of microcystin-LR from Microcystis aeruginosa extract on a kidney cell line. Toxicon 54(3), 283-294.

Anderson, D. M. (1997) Turning back the harmful red tide. Nature 388(6642), 513-514.
Anderson, D. M., and Morel, F. M. (1978) Copper sensitivity of Gonyaulax tamarensis. Limnol Oceanogr 23(2), 283-295.

Appel, H. M. (1993) Phenolics in ecological interactions: the importance of oxidation. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19(7), 1521-1552.

Arruebo, M., Fernández-Pacheco, R., Ibarra, M. R., and Santamaría, J. (2007) Magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery. Nano Today 2(3), 22-32.

Baek, S.-H., Sun, X.-X., Lee, Y.-J., Wang, S.-Y., Han, K.-N., Choi, J.-K., Noh, J.-H., and Kim, E.-K. (2003) Mitigation of harmful algal blooms by sophorolipid. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 13(5), 651-659.

Bai, S. J., Huang, L. P., Su, J. Q., Tian, Y., and Zheng, T. L. (2011) Algicidal effects of a novel marine actinomycete on the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Current Microbiology 62(6), 1774-1781.

Barrett, P., Littlejohn, J., and Curnow, J. (1999) Biology, Ecology and Management of Aquatic Plants, pp. 309-313, Springer.

Basma, A. A., Al-Homoud, A. S., Malkawi, A. I. H., and Al-Bashabsheh, M. A. (1996) Swelling-shrinkage behavior of natural expansive clays. Applied Clay Science 11(2-4), 211-227.

Bellar, T. A., Lichtenberg, J. J., and Kroner, R. C. (1974) The occurrence of organohalides in chlorinated drinking waters. Journal (American Water Works Association), 703-706.

Bernhardt, H. (1984) Treatment disturbances with water out of eutrophic reservoirs as a consequence of extensive algal development. Water Supply 2(3/4), 7-15.

Bernstein, I. L., and Safferman, R. (1973) Clinical sensitivity to green algae demonstrated by nasal challenge and in vitro tests of immediate hypersensitivity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 51(1), 22-28.

Best, J. H., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C., Eddy, F. B., Metcalf, J. S., and Codd, G. A. (2002) Effects of enteric bacterial and cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides, and of microcystin-LR, on glutathione S-transferase activities in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Aquatic Toxicology 60(3–4), 223-231.

Brady, N. C., and Weil, R. R. (2000) Elements of the nature and properties of soils, Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA:.

Brownlee, E. F., Sellner, S. G., and Sellner, K. G. (2003) Effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on freshwater and brackish phytoplankton and cyanobacteria. Journal of Applied Phycology 15(6), 525-531.

Caffrey, J., and Monahan, C. (1999) Filamentous algal control using barley straw. Hydrobiologia 415, 315-318.

Carmichael, W. W. (1989) Natural toxins: Characterization, pharmacology and therapeutics, pp. 3-16, Pergamon Press Oxford.

Carmichael, W. W., Azevedo, S., An, J. S., Molica, R., Jochimsen, E. M., Lau, S., Rinehart, K. L., Shaw, G. R., and Eaglesham, G. K. (2001) Human fatalities from cyanobacteria: chemical and biological evidence for cyanotoxins. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(7), 663.

Carpenter, S. R. (1981) Submersed vegetation: an internal factor in lake ecosystem succession. The American Naturalist 118(3), 372-383.

Carrado, K. A. (2000) Synthetic organo-and polymer–clays: preparation, characterization, and materials applications. Applied Clay Science 17(1), 1-23.

Catterall, W. A. (1980) Neurotoxins that act on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in excitable membranes. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 20(1), 15-43.

Chang, S.-C., Li, C.-H., Lin, J.-J., Li, Y.-H., and Lee, M.-R. (2014) Effective removal of Microcystis aeruginosa and microcystin-LR using nanosilicate platelets. Chemosphere 99, 49-55.

Choe, S., and Jung, I. (2002) Growth inhibition of freshwater algae by ester compounds released from rotted plants. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 8(4), 297-304.

Choi, O., Deng, K. K., Kim, N.-J., Ross, L., Surampalli, R. Y., and Hu, Z. (2008) The inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, silver ions, and silver chloride colloids on microbial growth. Water Research 42(12), 3066-3074.

Choi, Y. S., and Kim, B. W. (2000) Photocatalytic disinfection of E coli in a UV/TiO2‐immobilised optical‐fibre reactor. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 75(12), 1145-1150.

Chorus, E. I., and Bartram, J. (1999) Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management.

Chorus, I. (2001) Cyanotoxin occurrence in freshwaters-a summary of survey results from different countries. Cyanotoxins. Berlin. Umweltbundesamt, 75-82.

Chow, C., House, J., Velzeboer, R., Drikas, M., Burch, M., and Steffensen, D. (1998) The effect of ferric chloride flocculation on cyanobacterial cells. Water Research 32(3), 808-814.

Chow, C. W., Drikas, M., House, J., Burch, M. D., and Velzeboer, R. M. (1999) The impact of conventional water treatment processes on cells of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Water Research 33(15), 3253-3262.

Chu, C.-C., Chiang, M.-L., Tsai, C.-M., and Lin, J.-J. (2005) Exfoliation of montmorillonite clay by mannich polyamines with multiple quaternary salts. Macromolecules 38(15), 6240-6243.

Codd, G. A., Morrison, L. F., and Metcalf, J. S. (2005) Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 203(3), 264-272.

Cooper, D. G., and Paddock, D. A. (1983) Torulopsis petrophilum and surface activity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 46(6), 1426-1429.

Daou, T., Begin-Colin, S., Greneche, J., Thomas, F., Derory, A., Bernhardt, P., Legaré, P., and Pourroy, G. (2007) Phosphate adsorption properties of magnetite-based nanoparticles. Chemistry of Materials 19(18), 4494-4505.

Dawson, R. (1998) The toxicology of microcystins. Toxicon 36(7), 953-962.

Diaz, R. J. (2016) Anoxia, Hypoxia, And Dead Zones. Encyclopedia of Estuaries, 19-29.

Dietrich, A., Hoehn, R., Dufresne, L., Buffin, L., Rashash, D., and Parker, B. (1995) Oxidation of odorous and nonodorous algal metabolites by permanganate, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide. Water Science and Technology 31(11), 223-228.

Dittmann, E., and Börner, T. (2005) Genetic contributions to the risk assessment of microcystin in the environment. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 203(3), 192-200.

Dittmann, E., Fewer, D. P., and Neilan, B. A. (2012) Cyanobacterial toxins: biosynthetic routes and evolutionary roots. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 37(1), 23-43.

Drouin, C., and Cooper, D. (1992) Biosurfactants and aqueous two‐phase fermentation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 40(1), 86-90.

Dunlop, P., Byrne, J., Manga, N., and Eggins, B. (2002) The photocatalytic removal of bacterial pollutants from drinking water. Journal of photochemistry and photobiology A: Chemistry 148(1), 355-363.

Erickson, R. J., Benoit, D. A., Mattson, V. R., Leonard, E. N., and Nelson, H. P. (1996) The effects of water chemistry on the toxicity of copper to fathead minnows. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 15(2), 181-193.

Everall, N., and Lees, D. (1996) The use of barley-straw to control general and blue-green algal growth in a Derbyshire reservoir. Water Research 30(2), 269-276.

Falconer, I. R. (1999) An overview of problems caused by toxic blue–green algae (cyanobacteria) in drinking and recreational water. Environmental Toxicology 14(1), 5-12.

Falconer, I. R., and Humpage, A. R. (2005) Health risk assessment of cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxins in drinking water. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2(1), 43-50.

Fastner, J., Heinze, R., and Chorus, I. (1995) Microcystin-content, hepatotoxicity and cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria in some German water bodies. Water Science and Technology 32(4), 165-170.

Fawell, J., Mitchell, R., Everett, D., and Hill, R. (1999) The toxicity of cyanobacterial toxins in the mouse: I microcystin-LR. Human & Experimental Toxicology 18(3), 162-167.

Fawell, J. K., James, C., and James, H. (1994) Toxins from blue-green algae: toxicological assessment of microcystin-LR and a method for its determination in water, Foundation for Water Research.

Ferrier, M., Butler, B., Terlizzi, D., and Lacouture, R. (2005) The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae. Bioresource Technology 96(16), 1788-1795.
Fischer, W. J., Hitzfeld, B. C., Tencalla, F., Eriksson, J. E., Mikhailov, A., and Dietrich, D. R. (2000) Microcystin-LR toxicodynamics, induced pathology, and immunohistochemical localization in livers of blue-green algae exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Toxicological Sciences 54(2), 365-373.

Francis, G. (1878) Poisonous Australia lake. Nature 18, 11-12.

Freese, S., Nozaic, D., Pryor, M., Rajagopaul, R., Trollip, D., and Smith, R. (2001) Enhanced coagulation: a viable option to advance treatment technologies in the South African context. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1(1), 33-41.

Gibson, M., Welch, I., Barrett, P. R., and Ridge, I. (1990) Barley straw as an inhibitor of algal growth II: laboratory studies. Journal of Applied Phycology 2(3), 241-248.

Gumbo, R. J., Ross, G., and Cloete, E. T. (2008) Biological control of Microcystis dominated harmful algal blooms. African Journal of Biotechnology 7(25).

Haider, S., Naithani, V., Viswanathan, P., and Kakkar, P. (2003) RETRACTED: Cyanobacterial toxins: a growing environmental concern. Chemosphere 52(1), 1-21.

Han, G., Feng, X., Jia, Y., Wang, C., He, X., Zhou, Q., and Tian, X. (2011) Isolation and evaluation of terrestrial fungi with algicidal ability from Zijin Mountain, Nanjing, China. The Journal of Microbiology 49(4), 562-567.

Haney, J. F. (1987) Field studies on zooplankton‐cyanobacteria interactions. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 21(3), 467-475.

Hanson, M. J., and Stefan, H. G. (1984) Side effects of 58 years of copper sulfate treatment of the Fairmont Lakes, Minnesota. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 20(6), 889-900.

Harrison, F. L., Knezovich, J. P., and Rice, D. W. (1984) The toxicity of copper to the adult and early life stages of the freshwater clam, Corbicula manilensis. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 13(1), 85-92.

Hauser, G., and Karnovsky, M. L. (1954) Studies on the production of glycolipide by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Journal of Bacteriology 68(6), 645.
Henderson, R., Chips, M., Cornwell, N., Hitchins, P., Holden, B., Hurley, S., Parsons, S. A., Wetherill, A., and Jefferson, B. (2008) Experiences of algae in UK waters: a treatment perspective. Water and Environment Journal 22(3), 184-192.

Hernández, M., Macia, M., Padilla, C., and Del Campo, F. F. (2000) Modulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence by cyanopeptide toxins. Environmental Research 84(1), 64-68.

Hitzfeld, B. C., Höger, S. J., and Dietrich, D. R. (2000) Cyanobacterial toxins: removal during drinking water treatment, and human risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 108(Suppl 1), 113.

Hoeger, S. J., Shaw, G., Hitzfeld, B. C., and Dietrich, D. R. (2004) Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in two Australian drinking water treatment plants. Toxicon 43(6), 639-649.

Hong, Y., Hu, H.-Y., Xie, X., Sakoda, A., Sagehashi, M., and Li, F.-M. (2009) Gramine-induced growth inhibition, oxidative damage and antioxidant responses in freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Aquatic Toxicology 91(3), 262-269.

Hsu, S.-h., Tseng, H.-J., Hung, H.-S., Wang, M.-C., Hung, C.-H., Li, P.-R., and Lin, J.-J. (2009) Antimicrobial activities and cellular responses to natural silicate clays and derivatives modified by cationic alkylamine salts. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 1(11), 2556-2564.

Huang, W.-J., Cheng, B.-L., and Cheng, Y.-L. (2007) Adsorption of microcystin-LR by three types of activated carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials 141(1), 115-122.

Hummert, C., Dahlmann, J., Reichelt, M., and Luckas, B. (2001) Analytical techniques for monitoring harmful cyanobacteria in lakes. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management 6(2), 159-168.

Jochimsen, E. M., Carmichael, W. W., An, J., Cardo, D. M., Cookson, S. T., Holmes, C. E., Antunes, M. B., de Melo Filho, D. A., Lyra, T. M., and Barreto, V. S. T. (1998) Liver failure and death after exposure to microcystins at a hemodialysis center in Brazil. New England Journal of Medicine 338(13), 873-878.

Jung, S., Kim, B. H., Katano, T., Kong, D. S., and Han, M. S. (2008) Pseudomonas fluorescens HYK0210‐SK09 offers species‐specific biological control of winter algal blooms caused by freshwater diatom Stephanodiscus hantzschii. Journal of Applied Microbiology 105(1), 186-195.

Kühn, K. P., Chaberny, I. F., Massholder, K., Stickler, M., Benz, V. W., Sonntag, H.-G., and Erdinger, L. (2003) Disinfection of surfaces by photocatalytic oxidation with titanium dioxide and UVA light. Chemosphere 53(1), 71-77.

Kakuta, S., Okayama, T., Kato, M., Oda, A., and Abe, T. (2011) Clarification of photocatalysis induced by iron ion species naturally contained in a clay compound. Catalysis Science & Technology 1(9), 1671-1676.

Keweenaw algae (2017) A collection of freshwater algae.

Kim, J. S., Yoon, T.-J., Yu, K. N., Kim, B. G., Park, S. J., Kim, H. W., Lee, K. H., Park, S. B., Lee, J.-K., and Cho, M. H. (2006) Toxicity and tissue distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in mice. Toxicological Sciences 89(1), 338-347.

Klaassen, C. D., and Amdur, M. O. (1996) Casarett and Doull''s toxicology: the basic science of poisons, McGraw-Hill New York.

Koskinen, A. M., and Rapoport, H. (1985) Synthetic and conformational studies on anatoxin-a: a potent acetylcholine agonist. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 28(9), 1301-1309.

Kuiper-Goodman, I. F., and Fitzgerald, J. (1999). Human Health Aspects.

Lalezary, S., Pirbazari, M., and McGuire, M. J. (1986) Oxidation of five earthy-musty taste and odor compounds. Journal (American Water Works Association), 62-69.

Lam, A. K.-Y., Fedorak, P. M., and Prepas, E. E. (1995) Biotransformation of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin microcystin-LR, as determined by HPLC and protein phosphatase bioassay. Environmental Science & Technology 29(1), 242-246.

Lawton, L. A., and Codd, G. (1991) Cyanobacterial (blue‐green algal) toxins and their significance in UK and European waters. Water and Environment Journal 5(4), 460-465.
Lian, L., Cao, X., Wu, Y., Sun, D., and Lou, D. (2014) A green synthesis of magnetic bentonite material and its application for removal of microcystin-LR in water. Applied Surface Science 289, 245-251.

Lin, J.-J., and Chu, C.-C. (2008) Method for producing nanosilicate plates, Google Patents.

Lin, J. J., and Chu, C. C. (2005) Method for producing nanosilica plates, Google Patents.

Liu, G., Fan, C., Zhong, J., Zhang, L., Ding, S., Yan, S., and Han, S. (2010a) Using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) modified clays to clean the Microcystis aeruginosa blooms in Lake Taihu, China. Harmful Algae 9(4), 413-418.

Liu, J., Cai, Y., Deng, Y., Sun, Z., Gu, D., Tu, B., and Zhao, D. (2010b) Magnetic 3-D ordered macroporous silica templated from binary colloidal crystals and its application for effective removal of microcystin. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 130(1), 26-31.

Liu, Y., Gan, X., Zhou, B., Xiong, B., Li, J., Dong, C., Bai, J., and Cai, W. (2009) Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of tetracycline by highly effective TiO 2 nanopore arrays electrode. Journal of Hazardous Materials 171(1), 678-683.

Maatouk, I., Bouaı̈cha, N., Fontan, D., and Levi, Y. (2002) Seasonal variation of microcystin concentrations in the Saint-Caprais reservoir (France) and their removal in a small full-scale treatment plant. Water Research 36(11), 2891-2897.

Mahmood, N. A., and Carmichael, W. W. (1986) The pharmacology of anatoxin-a (s), a neurotoxin produced by the freshwater cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae NRC 525-17. Toxicon 24(5), 425-434.

Maizels, M., and Budde, W. L. (2004) A LC/MS method for the determination of cyanobacteria toxins in water. Analytical Chemistry 76(5), 1342-1351.

Miller, D. A. (1996) Allelopathy in forage crop systems. Agronomy Journal 88(6), 854-859.

Miyamoto, N., Kawai, R., Kuroda, K., and Ogawa, M. (2000) Adsorption and aggregation of a cationic cyanine dye on layered clay minerals. Applied Clay Science 16(3), 161-170.

Moore, D. M., and Reynolds, R. C. (1989) X-ray Diffraction and the Identification and Analysis of Clay Minerals, Oxford University Press Oxford.

Mouchet, P., and Bonnelye, V. (1998) Solving algae problems: French expertise and world-wide applications. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA 47(3), 125-141.

Moyers, B., and Wu, J. S. (1985) Removal of organic precursors by permanganate oxidation and alum coagulation. Water Research 19(3), 309-314.

Muchmore, C. B. (1978) Algae control in water-supply reservoirs. Journal (American Water Works Association), 273-279.

Murphy, T., Lawson, A., Nalewajko, C., Murkin, H., Ross, L., Oguma, K., and McIntyre, T. (2000) Algal toxins—initiators of avian botulism. Environmental Toxicology 15(5), 558-567.

Nakai, S., Inoue, Y., Hosomi, M., and Murakami, A. (2000) Myriophyllum spicatum-released allelopathic polyphenols inhibiting growth of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa. Water Research 34(11), 3026-3032.

Nakaishi, K. (1997) Flow characteristic of dilute Na montmorillonite suspension. Applied Clay Science 12(4), 377-386.

Newcombe, G. (2005) Treatment of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in drinking water.

Newcombe, G., and Nicholson, B. (2004) Water treatment options for dissolved cyanotoxins. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology-AQUA 53(4), 227-239.

Newman, J. R., and Barrett, P. (1993) Control of Microcystis aeruginosa by decomposing barley straw. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 31, 203-203.

Nicola Giudici, M., Migliore, L., Gambardella, C., and Marotta, A. (1988) Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium and copper on Asellus aquaticus (L.)(Crustacea, Isopoda). Hydrobiologia 157(3), 265-269.

Nielsen, L. E., Kadavy, D. R., Rajagopal, S., Drijber, R., and Nickerson, K. W. (2005) Survey of extreme solvent tolerance in gram-positive cocci: membrane fatty acid changes in Staphylococcus haemolyticus grown in toluene. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 71(9), 5171-5176.

Nor, Y. M. (1987) Ecotoxicity of copper to aquatic biota: a review. Environmental Research 43(1), 274-282.

O''brien, S. M., Thomas, O. R., and Dunnill, P. (1996) Non-porous magnetic chelator supports for protein recovery by immobilised metal affinity adsorption. Journal of Biotechnology 50(1), 13-25.

Onyango, M. S., Kuchar, D., Kubota, M., and Matsuda, H. (2007) Adsorptive removal of phosphate ions from aqueous solution using synthetic zeolite. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 46(3), 894-900.

Özdemir, Ö., Dunlop, D. J., and Moskowitz, B. M. (1993) The effect of oxidation on the Verwey transition in magnetite. Geophysical Research Letters 20(16), 1671-1674.

Paerl, H. W., Fulton, R. S., Moisander, P. H., and Dyble, J. (2001) Harmful Freshwater Algal Blooms, With an Emphasis on Cyanobacteria. The Scientific World Journal 1.

Pan, G., Zou, H., Chen, H., and Yuan, X. (2006) Removal of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu Lake using local soils III. Factors affecting the removal efficiency and an in situ field experiment using chitosan-modified local soils. Environmental Pollution 141(2), 206-212.

Park, M.-H., Kim, K.-H., Lee, H.-H., Kim, J.-S., and Hwang, S.-J. (2010) Selective inhibitory potential of silver nanoparticles on the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Biotechnology Letters 32(3), 423-428.

Pavagadhi, S., Tang, A. L. L., Sathishkumar, M., Loh, K. P., and Balasubramanian, R. (2013) Removal of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR by graphene oxide: adsorption and kinetic experiments. Water Research 47(13), 4621-4629.

Pearson, L., Mihali, T., Moffitt, M., Kellmann, R., and Neilan, B. (2010) On the chemistry, toxicology and genetics of the cyanobacterial toxins, microcystin, nodularin, saxitoxin and cylindrospermopsin. Marine Brugs 8(5), 1650-1680.

Peller, J. R., Whitman, R. L., Griffith, S., Harris, P., Peller, C., and Scalzitti, J. (2007) TiO 2 as a photocatalyst for control of the aquatic invasive alga, Cladophora, under natural and artificial light. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry 186(2), 212-217.

Petergans (2008) phosphoric acid speciation.Retrieved from
https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phosphoric_acid_speciation.png

Peterson, H. G., Hrudey, S. E., Cantin, I. A., Perley, T. R., and Kenefick, S. L. (1995) Physiological toxicity, cell membrane damage and the release of dissolved organic carbon and geosmin by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after exposure to water treatment chemicals. Water Research 29(6), 1515-1523.

Pierce, R. H., Henry, M. S., Higham, C. J., Blum, P., Sengco, M. R., and Anderson, D. M. (2004) Removal of harmful algal cells (Karenia brevis) and toxins from seawater culture by clay flocculation. Harmful Algae 3(2), 141-148.

Pillinger, J., Cooper, J., Ridges, I., and Barrett, P. R. (1992) Barley straw as an inhibitor of algal growth III: the role of fungal decomposition. Journal of Applied Phycology 4(4), 353-355.

Plummer, J. D., and Edzwald, J. K. (2001) Effect of ozone on algae as precursors for trihalomethane and haloacetic acid production. Environmental Science & Technology 35(18), 3661-3668.

Pouria, S., de Andrade, A., Barbosa, J., Cavalcanti, R., Barreto, V., Ward, C., Preiser, W., Poon, G. K., Neild, G., and Codd, G. (1998) Fatal microcystin intoxication in haemodialysis unit in Caruaru, Brazil. The Lancet 352(9121), 21-26.

Pyo, D., and Shin, H. (2002) Extraction and analysis of microcystins RR and LR in cyanobacteria using a cyano cartridge. Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods 51(2), 103-109.

Rai, M., Yadav, A., and Gade, A. (2009) Silver nanoparticles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnology Advances 27(1), 76-83.

Ray, S. S., and Okamoto, M. (2003) Polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites: a review from preparation to processing. Progress in Polymer Science 28(11), 1539-1641.

Rikkinen, J., Oksanen, I., and Lohtander, K. (2002) Lichen guilds share related cyanobacterial symbionts. Science 297(5580), 357-357.

Rinehart, K. L., Harada, K., Namikoshi, M., Chen, C., Harvis, C. A., Munro, M. H., Blunt, J. W., Mulligan, P. E., and Beasley, V. R. (1988) Nodularin, microcystin, and the configuration of Adda. Journal of the American Chemical Society 110(25), 8557-8558.

Rinehart, K. L., Namikoshi, M., and Choi, B. W. (1994) Structure and biosynthesis of toxins from blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Journal of Applied Phycology 6(2), 159-176.

Rippka, R., Deruelles, J., Waterbury, J. B., Herdman, M., and Stanier, R. Y. (1979) Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Microbiology 111(1), 1-61.

Robarts, R. D., and Zohary, T. (1987) Temperature effects on photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and growth rates of bloom‐forming cyanobacteria. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 21(3), 391-399.

Russell, A., and Hugo, W. (1994) 7 antimicrobial activity and action of silver. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry 31, 351-370.

Schindler, D. W., Hecky, R., Findlay, D., Stainton, M., Parker, B., Paterson, M., Beaty, K., Lyng, M., and Kasian, S. (2008) Eutrophication of lakes cannot be controlled by reducing nitrogen input: results of a 37-year whole-ecosystem experiment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(32), 11254-11258.

Scragg, A., and Bonnett, C. (2002) Inhibition of microalgal growth by silver nitrate. Biotechnology Letters 24(3), 169-172.
Sengco, M. R., and Anderson, D. M. (2004) Controlling harmful algal blooms through clay flocculation. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 51(2), 169-172.

Sengco, M. R., Li, A., Tugend, K., Kulis, D., and Anderson, D. M. (2001) Removal of red-and brown-tide cells using clay flocculation. I. Laboratory culture experiments with Gymnodinium breve and Aureococcus anophagefferens. Marine Ecology Progress Series 210, 41-53.

Shi, W., Tan, W., Wang, L., and Pan, G. (2016) Removal of Microcystis aeruginosa using cationic starch modified soils. Water Research 97, 19-25.

Sigee, D., Glenn, R., Andrews, M., Bellinger, E., Butler, R., Epton, H., and Hendry, R. (1999) The Ecological Bases for Lake and Reservoir Management, pp. 161-172, Springer.

Silvestry-Rodriguez, N., Sicairos-Ruelas, E. E., Gerba, C. P., and Bright, K. R. (2007) Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, pp. 23-45, Springer.

Singer, P. C., Borchardt, J. H., and Colthurst, J. M. (1980) The effects of permanganate pretreatment on trihalomethane formation in drinking water. Journal (American Water Works Association), 573-578.

Sivonen, K., and Jones, G. (1999) Cyanobacterial toxins. Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management 1, 43-112.

Sotirova, A., Spasova, D., Galabova, D., Karpenko, E., and Shulga, A. (2008) Rhamnolipid–biosurfactant permeabilizing effects on gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. Current Microbiology 56(6), 639-644.

Sparks, D. L. (2003) Environmental soil chemistry, 2nd ed, Academic press, San Diego, CA.

Sternberg, R. W., Johnson Ii, R. V., Cacchione, D. A., and Drake, D. E. (1986) An instrument system for monitoring and sampling suspended sediment in the benthic boundary layer. Marine Geology 71(3–4), 187-199.


Sun, X.-X., Choi, J.-K., and Kim, E.-K. (2004) A preliminary study on the mechanism of harmful algal bloom mitigation by use of sophorolipid treatment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 304(1), 35-49.

Sunda, W. (1975) The relationship between cupric ion activity and the toxicity of copper to phytoplankton, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

Sunda, W. G., and Lewis, J. A. M. (1978) Effect of complexation by natural organic ligands on the toxicity of copper to a unicellular alga, Monochrysis lutheri. Limnology and Oceanography 23(5), 870-876.

Svrcek, C., and Smith, D. W. (2004) Cyanobacteria toxins and the current state of knowledge on water treatment options: a review. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science 3(3), 155-185.

Teng, W., Wu, Z., Feng, D., Fan, J., Wang, J., Wei, H., Song, M., and Zhao, D. (2013) Rapid and efficient removal of microcystins by ordered mesoporous silica. Environmental Science & Technology 47(15), 8633-8641.

Thanh, N. T. (2012) Magnetic nanoparticles: from fabrication to clinical applications, CRC press.

Tisdale, E. (1931) Epidemic of intestinal disorders in Charleston, W. Va., occurring simultaneously with unprecedented water supply conditions. Am. J. Public Health 21, 198-200.

Tiwari, D. K., Behari, J., and Sen, P. (2008) Time and dose-dependent antimicrobial potential of Ag nanoparticles synthesized by top-down approach. Curr Sci 95(5), 647-655.

Wang, F., Gao, Y., Sun, Q., Chen, Z., Megharaj, M., and Naidu, R. (2014) Degradation of microcystin-LR using functional clay supported bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles based on adsorption and reduction. Chemical Engineering Journal 255, 55-62.

Wang, H., Ho, L., Lewis, D. M., Brookes, J. D., and Newcombe, G. (2007) Discriminating and assessing adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms during granular activated carbon filtration of microcystin toxins. Water Research 41(18), 4262-4270.

Wang, X., Gong, L., Liang, S., Han, X., Zhu, C., and Li, Y. (2005) Algicidal activity of rhamnolipid biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Harmful Algae 4(2), 433-443.

Welch, I., Barrett, P. R., Gibson, M., and Ridge, I. (1990) Barley straw as an inhibitor of algal growth I: studies in the Chesterfield Canal. Journal of Applied Phycology 2(3), 231-239.

Westrick, J. A., Szlag, D. C., Southwell, B. J., and Sinclair, J. (2010) A review of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins removal/inactivation in drinking water treatment. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 397(5), 1705-1714.

Woese, C. R. (1987) Bacterial evolution. Microbiological Reviews 51(2), 221.

Yan, H., Gong, A., He, H., Zhou, J., Wei, Y., and Lv, L. (2006) Adsorption of microcystins by carbon nanotubes. Chemosphere 62(1), 142-148.

Yang, C., Wu, J., and Hou, Y. (2011) Fe3O4 nanostructures: synthesis, growth mechanism, properties and applications. Chemical Communications 47(18), 5130-5141.

Yavuz, C. T., Mayo, J., William, W. Y., Prakash, A., Falkner, J. C., Yean, S., Cong, L., Shipley, H. J., Kan, A., and Tomson, M. (2006) Low-field magnetic separation of monodisperse Fe3O4 nanocrystals. Science 314(5801), 964-967.

Yu, X., Zhou, J., Wang, Z., and Cai, W. (2010) Preparation of visible light-responsive AgBiO 3 bactericide and its control effect on the Microcystis aeruginosa. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 101(3), 265-270.

Yuan, B.-L., Qu, J.-H., and Fu, M.-L. (2002) Removal of cyanobacterial microcystin-LR by ferrate oxidation–coagulation. Toxicon 40(8), 1129-1134.

Zurawell, R. W., Chen, H., Burke, J. M., and Prepas, E. E. (2005) Hepatotoxic cyanobacteria: a review of the biological importance of microcystins in freshwater environments. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B 8(1), 1-37.
水利署 (2010) 台灣地區水資源利用現況與未來發展問題。2017.05.15 取自
http://www.ctci.org.tw/public/Attachment/0102013312471.pdf

水利署 (2017) 水資源氣候變遷水環境知識庫。2017.05.15 取自
http://demosite.sinotech-eng.com/CCKMV2/ProjPage.aspx?type=TWWE

何孟蓉 (2016) 利用田口方法探討厭氧環境下生物降解1,2-DCA之環境因子影響。國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士學位論文,台中市。

李季眉、張怡塘、邱應志 (2012) 環境微生物,中華民國環境工程學會出版。

李承澔 (2012) 奈米矽片去除優養化水體中微囊藻可行性探討。國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士學位論文,台中市。

李馥安 (2010) 奈米氧化鐵礦物之合成與基礎特性研究。國立成成功大學地球科學系碩士學位論文,台南市。

林財富 (2008) 藍綠藻的美麗與憂慮。科學發展 421, 38-41。

高瑜苹 (2007) 以光學式濁度計探討不同混凝劑對含藻人工原水處理效果之研究。 國立聯合大學環境與安全衛生工程學系碩士學位論文,苗栗縣。

張文成 (2000) 高性能稀土永久磁石之研究與發展。物理雙月刊 22(6), 570-583。

陳珮紋 (2004) 利用 Fe3O4 磁性顆粒處理化學機械研磨廢水。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士學位論文,桃園市。

陳誼勳 (2008) 奈米級Fe3O4及[Fe3O4]MgO與模擬地下水中不同無機污染物(NO3-、Cd2+及Cr6+)之反應行為研究。國立中山大學環境工程研究所碩士學位論文,高雄市。

曾四恭、張天益 (1989) 淨水處理程序中影響 THMs 形成因素之探討。中國環境工程學刊 第一卷, 第一期, 29-36。

游世暐 (2010) 利用磁性觸媒結合臭氧/過氧化氫程序處理水溶液中染料 RB5 之研究。國立宜蘭大學環境工程學系碩士學位論文,宜蘭市。

廖愛華 (2008) Nd : YAG雷射切割Inconel 718參數最佳化模式之探討。屏東科技大學機械工程系碩士學位論文,屏東縣。

蕭方歌 (2014) 以奈米生物操控法去除優養化水體中微囊藻及其藻毒之研究。國立中興大學環境工程學系碩士學位論文,台中市。

環保署 (2005) 「以生態工法淨化水庫水質控制優養化研究計畫」期末報告,計畫編號EPA-94-U1G1-02-102。

環保署 (2007) 「飲用水水源及水質中產毒藻種及藻類毒素之研究 (第三年) 」期末報告,計畫編號EPA-96-U1J1-02-101。

環保署 (2008) 「以生物鏈淨化水庫水質實證研究計畫」期末報告,計畫編號EPA-97-U1G1-02-102。

環保署 (2016) 安全飲用水手冊 (第五版) 。2017.05.15 取自
http://dws.epa.gov.tw/drinkwater/safewater5/index.html

環保署 (2017) 行政院環境保護署全國環境水質監測資訊網。2017.05.15 取自
http://wq.epa.gov.tw/Code/Default.aspx?Water=Dam

謝寶琳 (2010) 石英及黏土礦物對PEO之吸附及其應用。國立成成功大學資源工程學系碩士學位論文,台南市。
電子全文 電子全文(本篇電子全文限研究生所屬學校校內系統及IP範圍內開放)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關點閱論文
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔