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研究生:陳威嘉
研究生(外文):Wei-Chia Chen
論文名稱:有機茶園茶角盲椿象 (Helopeltis fasciaticollis Poppius) 周年危害動態與茶樹病蟲害鑑定
論文名稱(外文):Annual damage fluctuations of Helopeltis fasciaticollis Poppius and identification of the insect pests and diseases in organic tea plantation
指導教授:莊益源莊益源引用關係鍾文鑫
指導教授(外文):YI-Yuan ChuangWen-Hsin Chung
口試委員:吳文哲洪挺軒
口試日期:2017-07-06
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物醫學暨安全農業碩士學位學程
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:茶角盲椿象 (Helopeltis fasciaticollis Poppius)茶樹 (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)臺茶7號臺茶18號危害率皮爾森積差相關係數
外文關鍵詞:Helopeltis fasciaticollis PoppiusCamellia sinensis (L.) O. KuntzeTTES No.7TTES No.18damage ratePearson product-moment correlation
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茶樹 (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) 病蟲害種類繁多,茶角盲椿象 (Helopeltis fasciaticollis Poppius) 為刺吸茶樹植體的重要害蟲之一,屬半翅目(Hemiptera)、盲椿科(Miridae)、角盲椿屬 (Helopeltis),其成、若蟲偏好於茶樹新梢部位刺吸危害,造成不規則形褐色斑痕,受害嚴重者將導致新芽、新葉枯萎,影響茶葉產量與品質甚鉅。本研究於室內建立茶角盲椿象之繼代飼育族群,並測試其不同生育期分別在6小時內對臺茶18號(TTES No.18)葉片之危害情形,結果顯示取食斑痕數量以雌成蟲為最多,平均每隻可以造成29.7 ± 3.2個斑痕,與2齡及5齡若蟲之間沒有顯著差異;受害斑痕總面積亦以雌成蟲為最高,平均面積達93.8 ± 10.3 mm2,與5齡若蟲之間沒有顯著差異,但與其他生育期呈顯著差異。自2016年2月起,於南投縣埔里鎮東邦紅茶股份有限公司之有機茶園,調查茶角盲椿象對臺茶7、18號二種茶樹品種的周年危害情形,結果顯示臺茶18號茶區的周年平均受害率為26.9 ± 2.7%,最高出現在6月17日,受害率高達91.1%,且與其他21次調查皆呈顯著差異,最低出現在7月15日,受害率為0.3%;臺茶7號茶區的周年平均受害率為3.3 ± 0.4%,最高出現在6月17日,受害率為14.6%,和6月4日的11.7% 二者間沒有顯著差異,但是和其他20次調查皆呈顯著差異,最低出現在7月15日,受害率為0.2%。臺茶18號周年調查期間,平均單一新梢在中午前受害總面積為40.8 ± 4.6 mm2,平均受害總面積介於2.9 mm2(7月)至83.1 mm2(12月);而臺茶7號平均單一新梢在中午前受害總面積為3.7 ± 0.6 mm2,平均受害總面積介於0 mm2(9月) 至9.7 mm2(6月),二品種之平均受害葉面積除了2、7月外均呈顯著差異,顯示茶角盲椿象可能對臺茶18號茶樹有選擇偏好性。以單一新梢平均遭受茶角盲椿象危害總面積的周年變化數據與埔里氣象站之溫度、相對濕度、風速、降雨量及降雨日數等氣象資料進行皮爾森積差相關係數 (Pearson product-moment correlation ) 分析,結果顯示茶角盲椿象對臺茶18號的危害情形和月平均相對濕度呈中度正相關,相關係數 (r) 為0.36,但是與月平均風速、月累積降雨量及月累積降雨日數之間均呈中度負相關性,相關係數 (r) 分別為 -0.67、-0.34、-0.68。另於有機茶園調查各種病蟲害發生情形,周年調查結果包括20種害蟲,分別隸屬於半翅目、鱗翅目 (Lepidoptera)、鞘翅目 (Coleoptera)、雙翅目 (Diptera) 及直翅目 (Orthoptera) 等5目,及真蟎總目 (Acariformes) 之害蟎2種。病害部分包含外擔菌目 (Exobasidiales) 外擔菌屬 (Exobasidium) 的茶餅病、炭角菌目 (Xylariales) 擬盤多毛孢黴屬 (Pestalotiopsis) 的茶輪斑病、煤煙菌目 (Capnodiales) Capnodium 屬的茶煤煙病、桔色藻目 (Trentepohliales) Cephaleuros 屬的茶藻斑病等4種。
Tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis fasciaticollis Poppius (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the major sucking insect pests of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). Both nymphs and adults of H. fasciaticollis prefer to feed on the buds and young leaves of tea plants and cause brown feeding spots. Severely damaged shoot will become defoliation and cause loss of yield. The result in lab shows the female adult of H. fasciaticollis can cause the most number of 29.7 ± 3.2 feeding spots, and the highest mean feeding area is 93.8 ± 10.3 mm2. The field annual survey began from February 2016, at the organic tea plantation of Tung-Pang organic black tea company in Puli, Nantou County. The result showed that the mean damage rate of TTES No.18 is 26.9 ± 2.7%, the highest is 91.1% in 6/17, and the lowest is 0.3% in 7/15. The mean damage rate of TTES No.7 is 3.3 ± 0.4%, the highest is 14.6% in 6/17 and no significant difference with 11.7% in 6/4, and the lowest is 0.2% in 7/15. The mean damaged areas of per fresh shoot of TTES No.18 is 40.8 ± 4.6 mm2, the highest is 83.1 mm2 in December and the lowest is 2.9 mm2 in July. The mean damaged area of per fresh shoot of TTES No.7 is 3.7 ± 0.6 mm2, the highest is 9.7 mm2 in June and the lowest is 0 mm2 in September. H. fasciaticollis may prefer to TTES No.18 because there is significantly different between two cultivars except February and July. We used Pearson product-moment correlation to analyze the correlation between climatic parameters and annual fluctuations of the mean damaged area of per fresh shoot of TTES No.18. The result shows that relative humidity was found to be positively correlated to H. fasciaticollis infestation of TTES No.18 (with correlation coefficient r = 0.36). Wind speed, precipitation and day of precipitation was found to be negatively correlated to H. fasciaticollis infestation of TTES No.18 (with correlation coefficient r = -0.67, r = -0.34, r = -0.68, respectively). The result of identification of the tea insect pests includes 5 orders (Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera) 20 species, and spider mites includes 2 species of Acariformes. Identification of diseases of tea includes blister blight of Exobasidiales, Exobasidium; gray blister of Xylariales, Pestalotiopsis; sooty mold of Capnodiales, Capnodium; Algal spot of Trentepohliales, Cephaleuros 4 species.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
目次 v
表目次 vii
圖目次 viii
前言 1
前人研究 3
一、茶樹的栽培 3
二、常見茶樹害蟲與害蟎 4
三、常見茶樹病害 10
四、角盲椿屬害蟲發生概況 13
五、臺灣角盲椿屬害蟲研究 14
材料與方法 16
一、室內實驗 16
(一) 茶角盲椿象 (Helopeltis fasciaticollis Poppius) 蟲源與室內繼代飼育 16
(二) 茶角盲椿象各生育期危害能力評估 16
二、茶角盲椿象於有機茶園周年危害調查 17
(一) 調查地點與樣區規劃 17
(二) 二種品種茶樹受害新梢調查與採樣標準之建立 18
(三) 二種品種茶樹新梢受害率周年調查 18
(四) 二種品種茶樹平均單一新梢受害面積周年調查 18
三、統計分析 19
(一) 室內試驗-茶角盲椿象各生育期危害能力評估 19
(二) 茶角盲椿象於有機茶園周年危害調查 19
(三) 茶樹新梢受害情形與氣象相關性分析 19
四、有機茶園病蟲害相調查與鑑定 20
結果 21
一、室內實驗-茶角盲椿象各生育期危害能力評估 21
二、茶角盲椿象於有機茶園周年危害調查 21
(一) 二種品種茶樹新梢葉片受害後徵狀變化 21
(二) 二種品種茶樹的新梢受害率周年調查 22
(三) 二種品種茶樹單一新梢平均受害面積周年調查 23
(四) 茶樹葉片受害情形與氣象因子間之相關性分析 24
三、有機茶園病蟲害發生記錄與鑑定 25
四、茶樹各種害蟲與病原菌形態、田間危害特徵 28
(一) 害蟲部分 28
(二) 病害部分 37
討論 40
一、茶角盲椿象各生育期危害能力評估 40
二、二種品種茶樹新梢受害率周年調查 41
三、二種品種茶樹單一新梢平均受害面積周年調查 42
四、茶樹葉片受害情形與氣象因子間之相關性分析 43
五、有機茶園病蟲害發生記錄與鑑定 44
結論 48
參考文獻 49
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