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研究生:吳怡葶
研究生(外文):Yi-Ting Wu
論文名稱:波爾多產區葡萄酒特徵價格之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Hedonic Pricing Analysis for Bordeaux Wine
指導教授:胡吳岳胡吳岳引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wu-Yueh Hu
口試委員:張國益張恆瑜
口試日期:2017-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:農業經濟與行銷碩士學位學程
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業經濟及推廣學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:特徵價格函數葡萄酒特徵專家評比分數線性與半對數模型
外文關鍵詞:Hedonic price functionFeatures of the wineQuality scoreLinear and semi-logarithmic regression models
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在葡萄酒的市場中,作為一個入門者,面對琳琅滿目的葡萄酒時,可能無法輕易作出決定,因葡萄酒本身的各項特徵會造就其產生不同價格,這些特徵可能是年份、產地、葡萄品種、釀造工藝、酒莊等級和葡萄酒類型,甚或是專家所給予的評鑑分數,由特徵上的差異組合而成的一瓶葡萄酒,便有多種價格,使消費者困惑而猶豫不決,因此遂成為本文研究動機。
本研究即是根據特徵因素與價格間的相關性為出發點,應用Rosen(1974)所提出的一套估價方式,其認為產品是由許多特徵所組成,故價格也應由各特徵的價格所決定,此即為特徵價格理論(Hedonic Price Theory),此理論優點在於能夠將葡萄酒的總值細分為個別特徵的價值,意即產品價格就是本身所有特徵價格的加總。本研究在專家評比分數這項特徵,特別放入兩本美國著名的葡萄酒評論專刊,Wine Advocate(WA)與Wine Spectator(WS)雜誌所公布的評分進行比較。
實證結果發現,所有特徵變數中,一級酒莊特徵對價格的影響性最大,說明法國列級酒莊的分級制度其公信力在人們心目中無法撼動的地位;專家評比分數的特徵,則呈現評分在95分以上的酒款,其特徵帶給價格的變動達到100美元以上至611美元的隱含價值,亦即當此雜誌給予95分的分數時,是具有參考作用且能顯著造成價格提高;年份特徵中,依本研究結果得出具影響力的年份符合法國葡萄酒公認採收的葡萄品質較好的釀造年份,故明顯反映在價格上。
另外依據WA與WS雜誌的評分不同,發現兩本雜誌所給予的評比分數皆具有影響價格的能力,亦即在選購葡萄酒時,可以參考此兩本雜誌的評分。但相比之下,WA雜誌給予的評分特徵較受讀者所信賴,故明顯反映在交易價格上。
關鍵詞:特徵價格函數、葡萄酒特徵、專家評比分數、線性與半對數模型。
When a wine beginner stands on the display window and face a bewildering array of choices, it may not be easy for him to make a choice because too little information of the wine label could be linked to its price tag. Features of the wine such as vintage, producing region, grape varieties, brewing technique, winery ranking and the scores given by the wine experts may all be confusing when consumers would like to make a wine purchasing decision.The motivation of this study regards to solving this problem for Bordeaux Grand Cru Classé wines .
This study aims to connect the feature factors of the wine to its price. As a result, hedonic model is the best choice. “Hedonic Price Theory”, a valuation method provided by Rosen (1974) considers that a product is composed of many features, so the product price should also be determined by the prices of each feature. The advantage of the model is that the value of a bottle of wine can be subdivided into individual feature values, which means that the product price is the sum of all the features’ values. In the empirical analysis, the Grand Cru Classé wines in the Bordeaux region of France were used. In this study, I use many feature factors, such as the winery ranking, the producing region, the quality score and wine vintage to establish the linear and semi-logarithmic regression models to estimate the hedonic price function. The expert score, which indicates the quality of the wine, have been considered having a significant influence on wine prices in the relevant literature. Therefore, in this study it was referred to two famous American wine commentary publishing: Wine Advocate (WA) and Wine Spectator (WS).
The empirical results show that among all the feature factors, the first-class winery affects the price most, which means that the ranking system of the Bordeaux Grand Cru Classé wines is unbreakable in public credibility; the score given by an wine expert is 95 or higher bring the value more than 100 US dollars for the bottle of wine. The vintage years, 1982, 1990, 1996, 2000, 2005, 2009 and 2010, were significant in price markup. These vintages are also cited as excellent years in the Bordeaux wine region.
In addition, by comparing the results between WA and WS magazine, it was found that the scores given by the two magazines both had the ability to influence the wine price, which means that when you purchase the wine, you could refer to the scores of the two magazines. In the WA magazine, when a score of 95 is given, the price will increase more than 50%, or be equivalent to 114 US dollars or more. In WS magazine, their scores didn’t affect the price that much. For the same score of 95 given by WS magazine, it only cause the price increase about 29%, valued as 60 US dollars. In contrast to WS magazine, WA magazine’s evaluation score is found more trusted by the reader and is significantly reflected in the transaction price.
Keyword: Hedonic price function, Features of the wine, Quality score, Linear and semi-logarithmic regression models
摘要 i
目錄 iv
表目錄 v
圖目錄 vi
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 5
第三節 研究對象與範圍 6
第四節 研究流程 7
第二章 文獻回顧 8
第一節 葡萄酒特徵與價格的關係 8
第二節 感官特徵之專家品評影響 11
第三章 研究方法 15
第一節 特徵價格模型基礎 15
第二節 葡萄酒特徵價格實證模型之建立 19
第三節 各項特徵屬性之變數說明 24
第四章 實證結果分析 30
第一節 敘述統計分析 30
第二節 特徵價格實證模型檢測 39
第三節 實證結果 44
第五章 結論與建議 62
第一節 結論 62
第二節 建議 63
第三節 後續研究建議 64
參考資料 65
附錄 68
一、中文部分:
林裕森,2012,『葡萄酒全書』台北市:積木文化。
吳宗正,1995,『迴歸分析-理論與應用』 台北市:復文書局。
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陳明健、莊慶達、陳凱俐、鄭蕙燕、蕭景楷、吳珮瑛等,2003,『自然資源與環境經濟學』 台北市: 雙葉書廊有限公司。
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二、網站部分:
Wine Advocate雜誌 https://www.robertparker.com/
wine Spectator雜誌http://www.winespectator.com/
Wine Enthusiasts電子刊物http://www.wineenthusiast.com/
Wine & Taste 品迷網https://www.winentaste.com/
WINENOTE葡萄酒筆記http://www.winenote.com.tw/
Wine-Searcher™ 葡萄酒價格搜尋網站http://www.wine-searcher.com/
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Lecocq, S., & Visser, M. (2006). What determines wine prices: Objective vs. sensory characteristics. Journal of Wine Economics, 1(01), 42-56.
Mitchell, V.-W., & Greatorex, M. (1988). Consumer risk perception in the UK wine market. European Journal of Marketing, 22(9), 5-15.
Rosen, S. (1974). Hedonic prices and implicit markets: product differentiation in pure competition. Journal of political economy, 82(1), 34-55.
Roshwalb, I. (1956). Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications. Journal of Marketing (pre-1986), 21, 129.
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Taylor, F. (1916). Relation between primary market prices and qualities of cotton: US Dept. of Agriculture.
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Westbrook, R. A. (1987). Product/consumption-based affective responses and postpurchase processes. Journal of marketing research, 258-270.
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