跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.221.73.157) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/15 11:40
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:張毓涵
研究生(外文):Chang, Yu-Han
論文名稱:以富含長鏈不飽和脂肪酸之微藻Aurantiochytrium sp. strain BL10作為點帶石斑魚苗及幼魚時期飼料功能性添加劑之研究
論文名稱(外文):The study of HUFA-containing microalga Aurantiochytrium sp. strain BL10 as dietary functional supplement for larval and juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)
指導教授:陳逸民陳逸民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Yi-Min
口試委員:陳宗嶽蕭錫延陳瑤湖張嘉修林鈺鴻許晉榮
口試委員(外文):Tzong-Yueh ChenShi-Yen ShiauYew-Hu ChienJo-Shu ChangYu-Hung LinJinn-Rong Hseu
口試日期:2017-03-10
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:生物科技研究所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物科技學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:石斑微藻二十二碳六烯酸殘食血清素可體松
外文關鍵詞:groupermicroalgaedocosahexaenoic acidcannibalismserotonincortisol
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:39
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本論文主要在探討富含高度不飽和脂肪酸之微藻Aurantiochytrium sp. strain BL10作為點帶石斑魚苗及幼魚時期豐年蝦滋養劑及飼料添加劑的可行性。結果顯示,滾筒乾燥BL10相較於噴霧乾燥者更適合滋養豐年蝦,除了有效的提昇豐年蝦的不飽和脂肪酸尤其是DHA的含量 (2.1%),還可讓脂肪酸更容易被魚苗吸收,可能使其有較佳抵抗缺氧的能力。在飼料中添加2~4% 滾筒乾燥BL10後,進行點帶石斑幼魚餵養的作法,雖無法有效提昇魚隻的成長,然卻能提高整體DHA的比例 (~13%),同時也發現可縮小魚隻間的個體差異。進一步研究BL10的添加是否能降低魚隻尺寸差異且可用於改善點帶石斑在2.5~6公分的殘食行為,結果發現添加2~6% BL10於飼料的添加均可有效降低殘食率,其中在2和4%的體長及體重之變異係數 (TL:8.1% and 8.7%;BW:21.9% and 24.3%) 相較於控制組 (TL:9.1%;26.5%) 有縮小的趨勢。由BL10的添加可降低魚隻血液中可體松及提高血清素濃度的結果 (P<0.05),推測其能降低殘食率的原因可能經由刺激血清素分泌,緩和魚隻攻擊行為,同時可使可體松濃度減低,魚隻恢復正常生長,個體差異縮小。綜而言之,BL10確為具潛力的點帶石斑飼料添加劑,可用於改善魚苗抗緊迫能力及降低殘食,有助於提高養殖成效。
The principal objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of using the Aurantiochytrium sp. strain BL10, which is rich in docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA), to enrich Artemia dietary supplement for larval and juvenile orange-spotted groupers. Our results indicate that drum-dried BL10 is more effective than spray-dried BL10 in increasing the content of HUFA (particularly DHA) in Artemia, thereby enhancing the growth of grouper larvae and promoting stress resistance. In rearing tests, we also varied the dosages (2~4%) of drum-dried BL10 powder administered to juvenile fish. In all experiment groups, these had little or no effect on growth performance, while the addition of BL10 was shown to elevate overall DHA content in fish muscle (~13%). Additionally, the size distribution of fish in all BL10-containing groups was more uniform than in control groups. Further, the administration of 2~6% BL10 also significantly mitigated intracohort cannibalism in 2.5~6.0 cm groupers, but only the CV values of BW and TL in 2 and 4% BL10 groups of fish were reduced. As BL10 was shown to decrease cortisol levels and elevate serotonin levels in fish, the possible reason we speculated that an increase in serotonin secretion could inhibit the aggressive behavior between fingerlings, and it might cause the cortisol reduction, thereby recovering the growth and ameliorating the size disparity in cluster of fish; ultimately, intracohort cannibalism was ameliorated. In conclusion, results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of drum-dried BL10 as a feed supplement for orange-spotted grouper, in terms of improving the anti-stress ability and reducing cannibalism among fingerlings.
Chinese Abstract (中文摘要) I
Abstract II
Acknowledgements VI
Table of Contents VII
Contents of Tables X
Contents of Figures XII
Abbreviation List XIII
Chapter 1 Research Background 1
1-1 Aquaculture from a Global Perspective 1
1-2 The Economic Importance in Grouper Aquaculture 2
1-3 Fatty Acid Requirements in Ontogeny and Growth of Marine Finfish 3
1-4 Lipid Resources for Fish Feed in Mariculture 4
1-5 Rearing and Nutritional Requirement of Grouper Larvae 5
1-6 Heterotrophic Microalgae as the Potential Replacement Source for Fish Oil 6
1-7 Aurantiochytrium sp. strain BL10 7
1-8 Research Objectives 9
Chapter 2 Use of BL10 to Enrich n-3 HUFA in Artemia nauplii for Growing
Grouper Larvae 10
2-1 Introduction 10
2-2 Materials and Methods 11
2-3 Results 15
2-4 Discussion 16
2-5 Summary 17
Chapter 3 Effects of Different Drum-Dried BL10-Containing Feed on Growth
Performance of 10-cm Juvenile Grouper 18
3-1 Introduction 18
3-2 Materials and Methods 18
3-3 Results 21
3-4 Discussion 22
3-5 Summary 23
Chapter 4 Effects of Different Drum-Dried BL10-Containing Feed on Growth
Performance of 14-cm Juvenile Grouper 24
4-1 Introduction 24
4-2 Materials and Methods 25
4-3 Results 26
4-4 Discussion 27
4-5 Summary 29
Chapter 5 Use of BL10 Meal as Dietary Supplement to Reduce Intracohort
Cannibalism among Juvenile Grouper 30
5-1 Introduction 30
5-2 Materials and Methods 34
5-3 Results 38
5-4 Discussion 39
5-5 Summary 41
Chapter 6 Conclusion 42
References 44
Tables 56
Figures 77
Related Paper Publications 82
Altman, I., Boumans, R., Roman, J., Gopal, S., and Kaufman, L. An ecosystem accounting framework for marine ecosystem-based management. Marine ecosystem-based management. The sea: ideas and observations on progress in the study of the seas. In: Fogarty, M. J. and McCarthy, J. J. (Eds.). Harvard University Press 16, Cambridge, USA, 245-276, 2014.

Apt, K. E. and Behrens, P. W. Commercial developments in microalgal biotechnology. Journal of Phycology 35, 215-226, 1999.

Atalah, E., Cruz, C. M. H., Izquierdo, M. S., Rosenlund, G., Caballero, M. J., Valencia, A., and Robaina, L. Two microalgae Crypthecodinium cohnii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as alternative source of essential fatty acids in starter feeds for seabream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 270, 178-185, 2007.

Baras, E., Hafsaridewi, R., Slembrouck, J., Priyadi, A., Moreau, Y., Pouyaud, L., and Legendre, M. Why is cannibalism so rare among cultured larvae and juveniles of Pangasius djambal? Morphological, behavioural and energetic answers. Aquaculture 305, 42-51, 2010.

Baras, E. and Jobling, M. Dynamics of intracohort cannibalism in cultured fish. Aquaculture Research 33, 461-479, 2002.

Baras, E., Silva del Aguila, D. V., Montalvan Naranjos, G. V., Dugué, R., Koo, F. C., Duponchelle, F., Renno, J. F., Garcia-Dávila, C., and Nuñez, J. How many meals a day to minimize cannibalism when rearing larvae of the Amazonian catfish Pseudoplatystoma punctifer? The cannibal’s point of view. Aquatic Living Resources 24, 379-390, 2011.

Barclay, W. and Zeller, S. Nutritional enhancement of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in rotifers and Artemia nauplii by feeding spray-dried Schizochytrium sp. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27, 314-322, 1996.

Barclay, W.R., Meager, K.M., and Abril, J.R. Heterotrophic production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids utilizing algae and algae-like microorganisms. Journal of Applied Phycology 6, 123-129, 1994.

Benitez-Santana, T., Masuda, R., Juárez Carrillo, E. J., Ganuza, E., Valencia, A., Hernández- Cruz, C. M., and Izquierdo, M. S. Dietary n-3 HUFA deficiency induces a reduced visual response in gilthead seabream Sparus aurata larvae. Aquaculture 264, 408-417, 2007.

Bernier, N. J., Alderman, S. L., and Bristow, E. N. Heads or tails? Stressor-specific expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and urotensin I in the preoptic area and caudal neurosecretory system of rainbow trout. Journal of Endocrinology 196, 637-648, 2008.

Bonga, S. E. W. The stress response in fish. Physiological Reviews 77, 591-625, 1997.

Borlongan, I. G. The essential fatty acid requirement of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 9, 401-407, 1992.

Brownell, C. L. Laboratory Analysis of Cannibalism by Larvae of the Cape Anchovy Engraulis capensis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 114, 512-518, 1985.

Burja, A. M., Radianingtyas, H., Windust, A., and Barrow, C. J. Isolation and characterization of polyunsaturated fatty acid producing Thraustochytrium species: screening of strains and optimization of omega-3 production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 72, 1161-1169, 2006.

Caballero, M. J., Obach, A., Rosenlund, G., Montero, D., Gisvold, M., and Izquierdo, M. S. Impact of different dietary lipid sources on growth, lipid digestibility, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 214, 253-271, 2002.

Carter, C. G., Bransden, M. P., Lewis, T. E., and Nichols, P. D. Potential of thraustochytrids to partially replace fish oil in Atlantic salmon feeds. Marine Biotechnology 5, 480-492, 2003.

Chang, Y. H., Kang, Y. Y., and Chen, Y. M. Effects of DHA-rich Aurantiochytrium sp. BL10 as dietary supplement in larva and juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Ephinephelus coioides). The 2015 Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 2015.

Chaung, K. C., Chu, C. Y., Su, Y. M., and Chen, Y. M. Effect of culture conditions on growth, lipid content, and fatty acid composition of Aurantiochytrium mangrovei strain BL10. Applied and Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology Express 2, 42-53, 2012.

Chaung, K. C., Chen, P. C., Lin, C. C., and Chen, Y. M. Feasibility estimation of enrichment products development derived from heterotrophic microalga BL10. The 2010 Annual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 2010.

Chen, H. H., Lin, H. T., Foung, Y. F., and Lin, H. Y. The bioactivity of teleost IL-6: IL-6 protein in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) induces Th2 cell differentiation pathway and antibody production. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 38, 285-294, 2012.

Chen, T. Y., Lin, H. Y., Lin, C. C., Lu, C. K., and Chen, Y. M. Picochlorum as an alternative to Nannochloropsis for grouper larval rearing. Aquaculture 338, 82-88, 2012.

Chen, H. Y. and Tsai, J. C. Optimal dietary protein level for the growth of juvenile grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, fed semipurified diets. Aquaculture 119, 265-271, 1994.

Chen, S. F. and Chien, C. Y. Six proliferous species of Thraustochytrium from Taiwan. Taiwania 47, 106-114, 2002.

Chiu, S. T., Chang Chien, T. C., Zhuo, L. C., Chiu, M. T., and Lin, Y. H. Effects of dietary fishmeal replacement by soybean meal on growth, body composition and hematological responses of round batfish Platax orbicularis. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan 41, 249-255, 2014.

Cochrane, K., Bianchi, G., Fletcher, W., Fluarty, D., Mahon, R., and Misund, O.A. Marine ecosystem-based management. The sea: ideas and observations on progress in the study of the seas. In: Fogarty, M. J. and McCarthy, J. J. (Eds.). Harvard University Press 16, Cambridge, USA, 77-120, 2014.

Conklin, S. M., Harris, J. I., Manuck, S. B., Yao, J. K., Hibbeln, J. R., and Muldoon, M. F. Serum ω-3 fatty acids are associated with variation in mood, personality and behavior in hypercholesterolemic community volunteers. Psychiatry Research 152, 1-10, 2007.

De Swaaf, M. E., Pronk, J., and Sijtsma, L. Fed-batch cultivation of the docosahexaenoic-acid-producing marine alga Crypthecodinium cohnii on ethanol. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 61, 40-43, 2003.

Dhert, P., Lavens, P., Duray, M., and Sorgeloos, P. Improved larval survival at metamorphosis of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) using ω-3-HUFA-enriched live food. Aquaculture 90, 63-74, 1990.

Estévez, A., McEvoy, L. A., Bell, J. G., and Sargent, J. R. Growth, survival, lipid composition and pigmentation of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae fed live-prey enriched in Arachidonic and Eicosapentaenoic acids. Aquaculture 180, 321-343, 1999.

Eepert Consultation on Catch Documentation Schemes (CDS). Food and Agriculture Organization of the Unitied Nations, Rome, 2015.

Fracalossi, D. M., Craig-Schmidt, M. C., and Lovell, R. T. Effect of dietary lipid sources on production of leukotriene B by head kidney of channel catfish held at different water temperatures. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 6, 242-250, 1994.

Ganuza, E., Benitez-Santana, T., Atalah, E., Vega-Orellana, O., Ganga, R., and Izquierdo, M. S. Crypthecodinium cohnii and Schizochytrium sp. as potential substitutes to fisheries-derived oils from seabream (Sparus aurata) microdiets. Aquaculture 277, 109-116, 2008.

Ganuza, E. and Izquierdo, M. S. Lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium G13/2S produced in continuous culture. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 76, 985-990, 2007.

Greene, D. H. S. and Selivonchick, D. P. Lipid metabolism in fish. Progress in Lipid Research 26, 53-85, 1987.

Hafezieh, M., Kamarudin, M. S., Bin Saad, C. R., Sattar, M. K. A., Agh, N., and Hosseinpour, H. Effect of enriched Artemia urmiana on growth, survival and composition of larval Persian Sturgeon. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9, 201-207, 2009.

Hallahan, B., Hibbeln, J. R., Davis, J. M., and Garland, M. R. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with recurrent self-harm. The British Journal of Psychiatry 190, 118-122, 2007.

Hamre, K. Nutrition in cod (Gadus morhua) larvae and juveniles. Ices Journal of Marine Science 63, 267-274, 2006.

Harel, M., Koven, W., Lein, I., Bar, Y., Behrens, P., Stubblefield, J., Zohar, Y., and Place, A. R. Advanced DHA, EPA and ArA enrichment materials for marine aquaculture using single cell heterotrophs. Aquaculture 213, 347-362, 2002.

Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaram, C., and Heo, M.S. Molecular studies, disease status and prophylactic measures in grouper aquaculture: Economic importance, diseases and immunology. Aquaculture 309, 1-14, 2010.

Hecht, T. and Appelbaum, S. Observations on intraspecific aggression and coeval sibling cannibalism by larval and juvenile Claias gariepinus (Clariidae: Pisces) under controlled conditions. Journal of Zoology 214, 21-44, 1988.

Hecht, T. and Pienaar, A. G. A review of cannibalism and its implications in fish larviculture. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 24, 246-261, 1993.

Hoffman, E. A. and Pfennig, D. W. Proximate causes of cannibalistic polyphenism in larval tiger salamander. Ecology 80, 1076-1080, 1999.

Höglund, E., Bakke, M. J., Øverli, Ø., Winberg, S., and Nilsson, G. E. Suppression of aggressive behaviour in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) by L-tryptophan supplementation. Aquaculture 249, 525-531, 2005.

Hseu, J. R., Hwang, P. P., and Ting, Y. Y. Morphometric model and laboratory analysis of intracohort cannibalism in giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus fry. Fisheries Science 70, 482-486, 2004.

Hseu, J. R., Shen, P. S., Huang, W. B., and Hwang, P. P. Logistic regression analysis applied to cannibalism in the giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus fry. Fisheries Science 73, 472-474, 2007.

Hseu, J. R. Effects of size difference and stocking density on cannibalism rate of juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides. Fisheries Science 68, 1384-1386, 2002.

Hseu, J. R., Chang, H. F., and Ting, Y. Y. Morphometric prediction of cannibalism in larviculture of orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Aquaculture 218, 203-207, 2003a.

Hseu, J. R. and Huang, W. B. Application of logistic regression analysis to predict cannibalism in orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) fry. Aquaculture Research 45, 868-873, 2014.

Hseu, J. R., Lu, F. I., Su, H. M., Wang, L. S., Tsai, C. L. and Hwang, P. P. Effect of exogenous tryptophan on cannibalism, survival and growth in juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Aquaculture 218, 251-263, 2003b.

Liao, I. C., Su, H. M., and Chang, E. Y. Techniques in finfish larviculture in Taiwan. Aquaculture 200, 1-31, 2001.

Ishizaki, Y., Masuda, R., and Uematsu, K. The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid on schooling behaviour and brain development in larval yellowtail. Journal of Fish Biology 58, 1691-1703, 2001.

Izquierdo, M. S. Essential fatty acid requirements of cultured marine fish larvae. Aquaculture Nutrition 2, 183-191, 1996.

Izquierdo, M. S., Arakawa, T., Takeuchi, T., Haroun, R., and Watanabe, T. Effect of n-3 HUFA levels in Artemia on growth of larval Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Aquaculture 105, 73-82, 1992.

Izquierdo, M. S., Obach, A., Arantzamendi, L., Montero, D., Robaina, L., and Rosenlund, G. Dietary lipid sources for seabream and seabass: growth performance, tissue composition and flesh quality. Aquaculture Nutrition 9, 397-407, 2003.

Jia, G., Feng, J., and Qin, Z. Studies on the Fatty Liver Diseases of Sciaenops ocellatus caused by different ether extract levels in diets. Frontiers of Biology in China 1, 9-12, 2006.

Johnson, J. M. and Post, D. M. Morphological constraints on intracohort cannibalism in age-0 largemouth bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125, 809-812, 1996.

Kalogeropoulos, N., Alexis, M. N., and Henderson, R. J. Effects of dietary soybean and cod-liver oil levels on growth and body composition of gilthead bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture, 104, 293-308, 1992.

Kanazawa, A. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid and phospholipids on stress tolerance of fish. Aquaculture 155, 129-134, 1997.

Kohno, H., Ordonio-Aguilar, R. S., Ohno, A., and Taki, Y. Why is grouper larval rearing difficult?: an approach from the development of the feeding apparatus in early stage larvae of the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ichthyological Research 44, 267-274, 1997.

Lewis, T. E., Nichols, P. D., and McMeekin, T. A. The biotechnological potential of Thraustochytrids. Marine Biotechnology 1, 580-587, 1999.

Liao, I. C., Su, H. M., and Chang, E. Y. Techniques in finfish larviculture in Taiwan. Aquaculture 200, 1-31, 2001.
Lim, L. C. Larviculture of the Greasy Grouper Epinephelus tauvina F. and the Brown-Marbled Grouper E. fuscoguttatus F. in Singapore. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 24, 262-274, 1993.

Lin, H. Z., Liu, Y. J., He, J. G., Zheng, W. H., and Tian, L. X. Alternative vegetable lipid sources in diets for grouper, Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton): effects on growth, and muscle and liver fatty acid composition. Aquaculture Research 38, 1605-1611, 2007.

Liu, C. N. Polyketide synthase gene sequence and expression analysis in Aurantiochytrium sp. strain L-BL10. Master Thesis, Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, 18-19, 2013.

Lund, I., Steenfeldt, S. J., and Hansen, W. B. Influence of dietary arachidonic acid combined with light intensity and tank colour on pigmentation of common sole (Solea solea L). Aquaculture 308, 159-165, 2010.

Maler, L. and Ellis, W. G. Inter-male aggressive signals in weakly electric fish are modulated by monoamines. Behavioural Brain Research 25, 75-81, 1987.

Masuda, R. and Tsukamoto, K. School formation and concurrent developmental changes in carangid fish with reference to dietary conditions. Environmental Biology of Fishes 56, 243-252, 1999.

McEvoy, L.A., Naess, T., Bell, J.G., and Lie, Ø. Lipid and fatty acid composition of normal and malpigmented Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) fed enriched Artemia: a comparison with fry fed wild copepods. Aquaculture, 163, 237-250, 1998.

McKinnon, A. D., Duggan, S., Nichols, P. D., Rimmer, M. A., Semmens, G., and Robino, B. The potential of tropical paracalanid copepods as live feeds in aquaculture. Aquaculture 223, 89-106, 2003.

Miller, M. R., Nichols, P. D., and Carter, C. G. Replacement of fish oil with thraustochytrid Schizochytrium sp. L oil in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L) diets. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular and Integrative Physiology 148, 382-392, 2007.

Montero, D., Kalinowski, T., Obach, A., Robaina, L., Tort, L., Caballero, M. J., and Izquierdo, M. S. Vegetable lipid sources for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): effects on fish health. Aquaculture 225, 353-370, 2003.

Mourente, G. Accumulation of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid: 22:6n-3) in larval and juvenile fish brain. The Big Fish Bang. In: Browman, H.I., Skiftesvik, A.B. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 26th Annual Larval Fish Conference, Bergen, Norway, 239-248, 2003.

Munro, A.D. Effects of melatonin, serotonin, and naloxone on aggression in isolated cichlid fish (Aequidens pulcher). Journal of Pineal Research 3, 257-262, 1986.

Nasopoulou, C. and Zabetakis, I. Benefits of fish oil replacement by plant originated oils in compounded fish feeds. A review. LWT - Food Science and Technology 47, 217-224, 2012.

Naylor, R. L., Goldburg, R. J., Primavera, J. H., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M. C. M., Clay, J., Folke, C., Lubchenco, J., Mooney, H., and Troell, M. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405, 1017-1024, 2000.

Olivotto, I., Di Stefano, M., Rosetti, S., Cossignani, L., Pugnaloni, A., Giantomassi, F., and Carnevali, O. Live prey enrichment, with particular emphasis on HUFAs, as limiting factor in false percula clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris, Pomacentridae) larval development and metamorphosis: Molecular and biochemical implications. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology a-Molecular and Integrative Physiology 159, 207-218, 2011.

Patrick, R. P. and Ames, B. N. Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal 29, 2207-2222, 2015.

Pekic, S., Doknic, M., Djurovic, M., Damjanovic, S., Petakov, M., Miljic, D., Dieguez, C., Casanueva, F. F., and Popovic, V. The influence of serum cortisol levels on growth hormone responsiveness to GH-releasing hormone plus GH-releasing peptide-6 in patients with hypocortisolism. Hormones 2, 243-249, 2003.

Rainuzzo, J. R., Reitan, K. I., and Olsen, Y. The significance of lipids at early stages of marine fish: a review. Aquaculture 155, 103-115, 1997.

Rimmer, M. A. Section 2 larval rearing. Advances in grouper acquaculture. In: Rimmer M. A., McBride S., and Williams K. C. (Eds.). Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Monograph 110, Canberra, Australia, 7-9, 2004.

Sargent, J., Bell, G., McEvoy, L., Tocher, D., and Estevez, A. Recent developments in the essential fatty acid nutrition of fish. Aquaculture 177, 191-199, 1999a.

Sargent, J., McEvoy, L., Estevez, A., Bell, G., Bell, M., Henderson, J., and Tocher, D. Lipid nutrition of marine fish during early development: current status and future directions. Aquaculture 179, 217-229, 1999b.

Seierstad, S.L., Seljeflot, I., Johansen, O., Hansen, R., Haugen, M., Rosenlund, G., Frøyland, L., and Arnesen, H. Dietary intake of differently fed salmon; the influence on markers of human atherosclerosis. European Journal of Clinical Investigation 35, 52-59, 2005.

Shiau, S.Y. and Lan, C.W. Optimum dietary protein level and protein to energy ratio for growth of grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus). Aquaculture 145, 259-266, 1996.

Sinn, N., Milte, C. and Howe, P.R.C. Oiling the brain: a review of randomized controlled trials of omega-3 fatty acids in psychopathology across the lifespan. Nutrients 2, 128-170, 2010.

Takeshita, A. and Soyano, K. Effects of fish size and size-grading on cannibalistic mortality in hatchery-reared orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides juveniles. Fisheries Science 75, 1253-1258, 2009.

Takeuchi, T. Essential fatty acid requirements of aquatic animals with emphasis on fish larvae and fingerlings. Reviews in Fisheries Science 5, 1-25, 1997.

The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the Unitied Nations, Rome, 2016.

Watanabe, T. Importance of docosahexaenoic acid in marine larval fish. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 24, 152-161, 1993.

Watanabe, T. and Kiron, V. Prospects in larval fish dietetics. Aquaculture 124, 223-251, 1994.

Watanabe, W. O., Ellis, S. C., Ellis, E. P., Lopez, V. G., Bass, P., Ginoza, J., and Moriwake, A. Evaluation of first-feeding regimens for larval nassau grouper Epinephelus straitus and preliminary, pilot-scale culture through metamorphosis. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 27, 323-331, 1996.

Winberg, S. and Nilsson, G. E. Roles of brain monoamine neurotransmitters in agonistic behaviour and stress reactions, with particular reference to fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology and Endocrinology 106, 597-614, 1993.

Winberg, S., Øverli, Ø., and Lepage, O. Suppression of aggression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by dietary L-tryptophan. Journal of Experimental Biology 204, 3867-3876, 2001.

Wu, F. C., Ting, Y. Y., and Chen, H. Y. Docosahexaenoic acid is superior to eicosapentaenoic acid as the essential fatty acid for growth of grouper, Epinephelus malabancus. Journal of Nutrition 132, 72-79, 2002.

Wu, S. T., Yu, S. T., and Lin, L. P. Effect of culture conditions on docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. S31. Process Biochemistry 40, 3103-3108, 2005.

Yaguchi, T., Tanaka, S., Yokochi, T., Nakahara, T., and Higashihara, T. Production of high yields of docosahexaenoic acid by Schizochytrium sp. strain SR21. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 74, 1431-1434, 1997.

Yamasaki, T., Aki, T., Mori, Y., Yamamoto, T., Shinozaki, M., Kawamoto, S., and Ono, K. Nutritional enrichment of larval fish feed with thraustochytrid producing polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 104, 200-206, 2007.

Yang, H. L., Lu, C. K., Chen, S. F., Chen, Y. M., and Chen, Y. M. Isolation and characterization of Taiwanese heterotrophic microalgae: screening of strains for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production. Marine Biotechnology (New York) 12, 173-185, 2010.

Yeh, S. L., Kuo, C. M., Ting, Y. Y., and Chang, C. F. Androgens stimulate sex change in protogynous grouper, Epinephelus coioides: spawning performance in sex-changed males. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C 135, 375-382, 2003.

Yokoyama, R. and Honda, D. Taxonomic rearrangement of the genus Schizochytrium sensu lato based on morphology, chemotaxonomic characteristics, and 18S rRNA gene phylogeny (Thraustochytriaceae, Labyrinthulomycetes): emendation for Schizochytrium and erection of Aurantiochytrium and Oblongichytrium gen. nov. Mycoscience 48, 199-211, 2007.

Young, S. N. Behavioral effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors: Basic and clinical aspects. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 20, 313-323, 1996.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊