跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.220.44.148) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/21 17:04
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:吳長霖
研究生(外文):Wu, Chang-Lin
論文名稱:微衛星不穩定性:誘導與預防
論文名稱(外文):Microsatellite instability: induction and prevention
指導教授:張玲張玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Christina Ling
口試委員:傅子芳黃溫雅沈孟儒許濤林常申郭靜娟
口試委員(外文):Tzu-Fun FuWen-Ya HuangMeng-Ru ShenTodd HsuChang-Shen LinChing-Chuan Kuo
口試日期:2016-12-19
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:基礎醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:141
中文關鍵詞:微衛星序列DNA錯誤配對修補機制微衛星不穩定氧化壓力
外文關鍵詞:microsatellitesDNA mismatch repair (MMR)microsatellite instability (MSI)oxidative stress
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:14
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
微衛星序列 (Microsatellite) 為一類重複性序列存在於基因體中,而它的穩定性主要是藉由DNA錯誤配對修補機制 (DNA mismatch repair, MMR)來維持。因此DNA錯誤配對修補機制缺損時,往往會導致微衛星不穩定 (Microsatellite instability, MSI) ,更進一步的引起突變及癌症發生。在過去文獻指出,發炎反應所產生的氧化壓力能引起微衛星不穩定並增加癌症發生率。近來研究更紛紛指出許多外在因子,譬如化療藥物及環境毒素,皆能誘發微衛星不穩定。然而對於化療藥物及環境毒素如何誘導微衛星不穩定的相關機制仍然是未知的,因此本研究論文將探討其中可能參預的機制,並找尋可能的預防方式。為了能夠在體外試驗中測量外在因子引起的微衛星不穩定,本研究分別將帶有(CA)13微衛星序列的雙螢光報導質體轉植入DNA錯誤配對修補缺損及完整的人類大腸癌細胞株HCT116與SW480細胞中。藉由偵測HCT116-(CA)13 及SW480-(CA)13螢光變化,便可測得化療藥物及環境毒素引起的微衛星不穩定。
在第一部分的研究中發現到cisplatin與oxaliplatin 皆能對MMR缺損的HCT116細胞造成MSI,並且也能誘發MMR正常的SW480細胞產生MSI,雖然效果不及HCT116細胞。N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) 合併處理降低cisplatin與oxaliplatin產生的氧化壓力後,cisplatin與oxaliplatin所引起的MSI也受到了抑制。除了NAC外,由小分子化合物篩檢實驗中發現gossypol (Gos) 與 curcumin (Cur) 能降低由oxaliplatin引起的MSI,並且提升其對細胞的毒性。我更進一步的探討Gos 與 Cur對於FOLFOX (leucovorin/ oxaliplatin/ 5-flurouracil) 療程上的影響。將leucovorin 取代為Gos 或 Cur,不僅降低了oxaliplatin/ 5-flurouracil引起的MSI,並提升了oxaliplatin/ 5-flurouracil對細胞的毒性。此一部分的研究顯示了cisplatin與oxaliplatin導致細胞產生MSI 係因這些化療藥物抑制MMR的功能與提升氧化壓力所造成。某些抗氧化物,如 Gos 與 Cur,藉由降低化療導致的MSI,並減少因MSI所引起的抗藥性與二級癌症發生。
在論文的第二部分研究中證明了環境毒素arsenite與 cadmium 能夠提升HCT116與SW480大腸癌細胞中MSI的發生率。Arsenite與 cadmium 能藉由提升細胞內氧化壓力並降低MMR的蛋白質表現量引起微衛星不穩定發生。除此之外,我建立了三組斑馬魚微衛星序列標的,用以偵測arsenite與 cadmium 導致的斑馬魚微衛星不穩定性。結果顯示,在斑馬魚經過arsenite與 cadmium處理後,MSI發生率皆因此提升。此外NAC能抑制arsenite與 cadmium誘導的MSI。額外實驗顯示了,參預在arsenite與 cadmium引起微衛星不穩定的可能相關機制,包含了氧化壓力所造成的DNA氧化傷害及MMR蛋白質表現量之降低。此外NAC 及其他抗氧化物能藉由降低arsenite或cadmium 引起的MSI 進而避免癌生成。
The integrity of microsatellites, widely distributed in genomic DNA, is mainly governed by DNA mismatch repair (MMR). Inactivation of MMR increases the mutation rate of microsatellites, termed as microsatellite instability (MSI), and contributes to cancer development. Inflammation is known to induce MSI, which is largely attributed by oxidative stress. Numerous studies have demonstrated that exogenous factors, such as chemotherapeutic agents and environmental pollutants, can increase the MSI frequency. However, the effects of exogenous factors on MSI induction remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to investigate the mechanism(s) by which chemotherapeutic agents and environmental pollutants induce MSI and potential prevention strategies.
The first part of this thesis shows that cisplatin or oxaliplatin elevated the MSI frequency in MMR-deficient HCT116 cells, and to a lesser extent, in MMR-proficient SW480 cells based on a dual-fluorescent MSI reporter containing a (CA)13 microsatellite. Moreover, cisplatin or oxaliplatin decreased the steady-state levels and DNA mismatch recognition ability of MMR proteins. On the other hand, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) co-treatment reduced cisplatin or oxaliplatin -induced MSI by lowering oxidative stress in the cells. Additional antioxidants such as gossypol and curcumin, discovered during a screen of a small compound library in our laboratory, were better than NAC to reduce oxaliplatin-induced MSI while enhancing the cytotoxicity. Therefore, gossypol and curcumin was compared with leucovorin in the FOLFOX regimen. FOLFOX is consisted of leucovorin, oxaliplatin and 5-flurouracil and has been used as a front line treatment for colorectal cancer patients. Compared to leucovorin, gossypol or curcumin was more potent in minimizing FOLFOX-induced MSI and enhancing FOLFOX’s cytotoxicity. These findings provide a novel link between cisplatin or oxaliplatin-induced oxidative stress, reduced MMR function and MSI occurrence. Antioxidants such as gossypol and curcumin are potentially valuable for enhancing the effectiveness of chemotherapy by minimizing MSI that is associated with drug resistance and secondary cancer.
The second part of this thesis demonstrates that arsenite and cadmium increased the MSI frequency in MMR-deficient HCT116 and, to a lesser degree, in MMR-proficient SW480 cells. MSI induction by arsenite or cadmium was partially contributed by the metal-generated oxidative stress and by reducing the levels of MMR proteins. In addition to the cell model, AsIII and Cd also increased the MSI frequency in zebrafish based on a newly designed panel of microsatellite markers. Notably, arsenite or cadmium-induced MSI were reduced by NAC co-treatment in zebrafish. These results provide a mechanistic insight into the involvement of oxidative stress in arsenite or cadmium-induced MSI by increasing oxidative DNA damage and attenuating the MMR function. In addition, NAC and perhaps other antioxidants might prevent the carcinogenesis of arsenite or cadmium associated with MSI.
中文摘要 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- III
Abstract ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- V
致謝 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- VII
Table contents --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- X
Figure contents ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- XI
Abbreviations ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ XIII
Chapter 1 Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 01
1-1. DNA mismatch repair ----------------------------------------------------------- 02
1-2. Microsatellite instability in human diseases --------------------------------- 02
1-3. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and repair mechanisms -------------------- 05
1-4. Chemotherapy-related microsatellite instability ----------------------------- 08
1-5. Cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-induced DNA damage response ---------------- 09
1-6. 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/oxaliplatin regimen ------------------------------- 11
1-7. Arsenic-and cadmium-induced DNA damage ------------------------------- 12
1-8. Objectives of this study --------------------------------------------------------- 15
Chapter 2 Cisplatin and oxaliplatin cause microsatellite instability via generating reactive species and attenuating MMR function ------------------------------ 16
Rationale ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
Materials and Methods --------------------------------------------------------------- 18
Results ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29
Discussion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 40
Chapter 3 Arsenic and cadmium induce microsatellite instability by causing oxidative stress and mismatch repair deficiency ------------------------------------------- 45
Rationale ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 46
Materials and Methods --------------------------------------------------------------- 47
Results ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54
Discussion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 63
References ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 67
Tables ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 87
Figures ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 90
Appendices ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 124
Aaltonen, L. A., Peltomaki, P., Leach, F. S., Sistonen, P., Pylkkanen, L., Mecklin, J. P., Jarvinen, H., Powell, S. M., Jen, J., Hamilton, S. R., and et al. (1993). Clues to the pathogenesis of familial colorectal cancer. Science 260, 812-816.
Abu El-Saad, A. M., Al-Kahtani, M. A., and Abdel-Moneim, A. M. (2016). N-acetylcysteine and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid alleviate oxidative stress and hepatic dysfunction induced by sodium arsenite in male rats. Drug design, development and therapy 10, 3425-3434.
Aherne, G. W., Hardcastle, A., Raynaud, F., and Jackman, A. L. (1996). Immunoreactive dUMP and TTP pools as an index of thymidylate synthase inhibition; effect of tomudex (ZD1694) and a nonpolyglutamated quinazoline antifolate (CB30900) in L1210 mouse leukaemia cells. Biochemical pharmacology 51, 1293-1301.
Albanese, V., Biguet, N. F., Kiefer, H., Bayard, E., Mallet, J., and Meloni, R. (2001). Quantitative effects on gene silencing by allelic variation at a tetranucleotide microsatellite. Human molecular genetics 10, 1785-1792.
Andre, T., Boni, C., Mounedji-Boudiaf, L., Navarro, M., Tabernero, J., Hickish, T., Topham, C., Zaninelli, M., Clingan, P., Bridgewater, J., et al. (2004). Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer. The New England journal of medicine 350, 2343-2351.
Asmuss, M., Mullenders, L. H., Eker, A., and Hartwig, A. (2000). Differential effects of toxic metal compounds on the activities of Fpg and XPA, two zinc finger proteins involved in DNA repair. Carcinogenesis 21, 2097-2104.
Azmi, A. S., and Mohammad, R. M. (2009). Non-peptidic small molecule inhibitors against Bcl-2 for cancer therapy. Journal of cellular physiology 218, 13-21.
Banerjee, S., and Flores-Rozas, H. (2005). Cadmium inhibits mismatch repair by blocking the ATPase activity of the MSH2-MSH6 complex. Nucleic acids research 33, 1410-1419.
Barnes, D. E., and Lindahl, T. (2004). Repair and genetic consequences of endogenous DNA base damage in mammalian cells. Annual review of genetics 38, 445-476.
Beljanski, V., Marzilli, L. G., and Doetsch, P. W. (2004). DNA damage-processing pathways involved in the eukaryotic cellular response to anticancer DNA cross-linking drugs. Molecular pharmacology 65, 1496-1506.
Bertoni, F., Codegoni, A. M., Furlan, D., Tibiletti, M. G., Capella, C., and Broggini, M. (1999). CHK1 frameshift mutations in genetically unstable colorectal and endometrial cancers. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 26, 176-180.
Bhattacharjee, P., Banerjee, M., and Giri, A. K. (2013). Role of genomic instability in arsenic-induced carcinogenicity. A review. Environment international 53, 29-40.
Blechinger, S. R., Warren, J. T., Jr., Kuwada, J. Y., and Krone, P. H. (2002). Developmental toxicology of cadmium in living embryos of a stable transgenic zebrafish line. Environmental health perspectives 110, 1041-1046.
Boland, C. R., and Goel, A. (2010). Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 138, 2073-2087 e2073.
Boland, C. R., Thibodeau, S. N., Hamilton, S. R., Sidransky, D., Eshleman, J. R., Burt, R. W., Meltzer, S. J., Rodriguez-Bigas, M. A., Fodde, R., Ranzani, G. N., and Srivastava, S. (1998). A National Cancer Institute Workshop on Microsatellite Instability for cancer detection and familial predisposition: development of international criteria for the determination of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Cancer research 58, 5248-5257.
Bonanomi, L., and Gazzaniga, A. (1980). Toxicological, pharmacokinetic and metabolic studies on acetylcysteine. European journal of respiratory diseases Supplement 111, 45-51.
Bratasz, A., Weir, N. M., Parinandi, N. L., Zweier, J. L., Sridhar, R., Ignarro, L. J., and Kuppusamy, P. (2006). Reversal to cisplatin sensitivity in recurrent human ovarian cancer cells by NCX-4016, a nitro derivative of aspirin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103, 3914-3919.
Brentnall, T. A., Crispin, D. A., Bronner, M. P., Cherian, S. P., Hueffed, M., Rabinovitch, P. S., Rubin, C. E., Haggitt, R. C., and Boland, C. R. (1996). Microsatellite instability in nonneoplastic mucosa from patients with chronic ulcerative colitis. Cancer research 56, 1237-1240.
Brierley, D. J., and Martin, S. A. (2013). Oxidative stress and the DNA mismatch repair pathway. Antioxidants & redox signaling 18, 2420-2428.
Bubley, G. J., Ashburner, B. P., and Teicher, B. A. (1991). Spectrum of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)-induced mutations in a shuttle vector propagated in human cells. Molecular carcinogenesis 4, 397-406.
Burnouf, D., Duane, M., and Fuchs, R. P. (1987). Spectrum of cisplatin-induced mutations in Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 84, 3758-3762.
Casalino, E., Sblano, C., and Landriscina, C. (1997). Enzyme activity alteration by cadmium administration to rats: the possibility of iron involvement in lipid peroxidation. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics 346, 171-179.
Casorelli, I., Offman, J., Mele, L., Pagano, L., Sica, S., D'Errico, M., Giannini, G., Leone, G., Bignami, M., and Karran, P. (2003). Drug treatment in the development of mismatch repair defective acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. DNA repair 2, 547-559.
Chang, C. L., Marra, G., Chauhan, D. P., Ha, H. T., Chang, D. K., Ricciardiello, L., Randolph, A., Carethers, J. M., and Boland, C. R. (2002). Oxidative stress inactivates the human DNA mismatch repair system. American journal of physiology Cell physiology 283, C148-154.
Chang, D. K., Ricciardiello, L., Goel, A., Chang, C. L., and Boland, C. R. (2000). Steady-state regulation of the human DNA mismatch repair system. J Biol Chem 275, 18424-18431.
Chen, Z. S. (1991). Cadmium and Lead Contamination of Soils near Plastic Stabilizing Materials Producing Plants in Northern Taiwan. Water Air Soil Poll 57-8, 745-754.
Colussi, C., Parlanti, E., Degan, P., Aquilina, G., Barnes, D., Macpherson, P., Karran, P., Crescenzi, M., Dogliotti, E., and Bignami, M. (2002). The mammalian mismatch repair pathway removes DNA 8-oxodGMP incorporated from the oxidized dNTP pool. Current biology : CB 12, 912-918.
Cooke, M. S., Evans, M. D., Dizdaroglu, M., and Lunec, J. (2003). Oxidative DNA damage: mechanisms, mutation, and disease. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 17, 1195-1214.
Cravo, M. L., Albuquerque, C. M., Salazar de Sousa, L., Gloria, L. M., Chaves, P., Dias Pereira, A., Nobre Leitao, C., Quina, M. G., and Costa Mira, F. (1998). Microsatellite instability in non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis: effect of folate supplementation. The American journal of gastroenterology 93, 2060-2064.
de Boer, J. G., and Glickman, B. W. (1989). Sequence specificity of mutation induced by the anti-tumor drug cisplatin in the CHO aprt gene. Carcinogenesis 10, 1363-1367.
de Boer, J. G., and Glickman, B. W. (1992). Mutations recovered in the Chinese hamster aprt gene after exposure to carboplatin: a comparison with cisplatin. Carcinogenesis 13, 15-17.
de Gramont, A., Figer, A., Seymour, M., Homerin, M., Hmissi, A., Cassidy, J., Boni, C., Cortes-Funes, H., Cervantes, A., Freyer, G., et al. (2000). Leucovorin and fluorouracil with or without oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 18, 2938-2947.
de la Chapelle, A. (2003). Microsatellite instability. The New England journal of medicine 349, 209-210.
De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A., Barbier, O., Ruiz-Ramos, R., and Cebrian, M. E. (2009). Biomarkers of oxidative stress and damage in human populations exposed to arsenic. Mutation research 674, 85-92.
Deng, Y. I., Verron, E., and Rohanizadeh, R. (2016). Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-metastatic Activity of Curcumin. Anticancer research 36, 5639-5647.
DeWeese, T. L., Shipman, J. M., Larrier, N. A., Buckley, N. M., Kidd, L. R., Groopman, J. D., Cutler, R. G., te Riele, H., and Nelson, W. G. (1998). Mouse embryonic stem cells carrying one or two defective Msh2 alleles respond abnormally to oxidative stress inflicted by low-level radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95, 11915-11920.
Ding, W., Hudson, L. G., and Liu, K. J. (2005). Inorganic arsenic compounds cause oxidative damage to DNA and protein by inducing ROS and RNS generation in human keratinocytes. Molecular and cellular biochemistry 279, 105-112.
Drummond, J. T., Anthoney, A., Brown, R., and Modrich, P. (1996). Cisplatin and adriamycin resistance are associated with MutLalpha and mismatch repair deficiency in an ovarian tumor cell line. The Journal of biological chemistry 271, 19645-19648.
Duckett, D. R., Drummond, J. T., Murchie, A. I., Reardon, J. T., Sancar, A., Lilley, D. M., and Modrich, P. (1996). Human MutSalpha recognizes damaged DNA base pairs containing O6-methylguanine, O4-methylthymine, or the cisplatin-d(GpG) adduct. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93, 6443-6447.
Duval, A., Iacopetta, B., Ranzani, G. N., Lothe, R. A., Thomas, G., and Hamelin, R. (1999). Variable mutation frequencies in coding repeats of TCF-4 and other target genes in colon, gastric and endometrial carcinoma showing microsatellite instability. Oncogene 18, 6806-6809.
Eaden, J. (2004). Review article: colorectal carcinoma and inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 20 Suppl 4, 24-30.
Eastman, A. (1987). The formation, isolation and characterization of DNA adducts produced by anticancer platinum complexes. Pharmacology & therapeutics 34, 155-166.
El-Ghor, A. A., Noshy, M. M., and Eid, J. I. (2011). Lead acetate and arsenic trioxide induce instability of microsatellites at three different fragile sites (6q21, 9q32-9q33 and 15p14) within the genome of the rat. Mutation research 726, 195-199.
Ellegren, H. (2000). Microsatellite mutations in the germline: implications for evolutionary inference. Trends Genet 16, 551-558.
Emerit, J., Edeas, M., and Bricaire, F. (2004). Neurodegenerative diseases and oxidative stress. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie 58, 39-46.
Field, D., and Wills, C. (1998). Abundant microsatellite polymorphism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the different distributions of microsatellites in eight prokaryotes and S. cerevisiae, result from strong mutation pressures and a variety of selective forces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95, 1647-1652.
Filipic, M. (2012). Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability. Mutation research 733, 69-77.
Fink, D., Nebel, S., Aebi, S., Zheng, H., Cenni, B., Nehme, A., Christen, R. D., and Howell, S. B. (1996). The role of DNA mismatch repair in platinum drug resistance. Cancer research 56, 4881-4886.
Fleisher, A. S., Esteller, M., Harpaz, N., Leytin, A., Rashid, A., Xu, Y., Liang, J., Stine, O. C., Yin, J., Zou, T. T., et al. (2000). Microsatellite instability in inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplastic lesions is associated with hypermethylation and diminished expression of the DNA mismatch repair gene, hMLH1. Cancer research 60, 4864-4868.
Flora, S. J. (2011). Arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its reversibility. Free radical biology & medicine 51, 257-281.
Fonseca, F. L., Sant Ana, A. V., Bendit, I., Arias, V., Costa, L. J., Pinhal, A. A., and del Giglio, A. (2005). Systemic chemotherapy induces microsatellite instability in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients. Breast cancer research : BCR 7, R28-32.
Fourrier, L., Brooks, P., and Malinge, J. M. (2003). Binding discrimination of MutS to a set of lesions and compound lesions (base damage and mismatch) reveals its potential role as a cisplatin-damaged DNA sensing protein. The Journal of biological chemistry 278, 21267-21275.
Fujiwara, I., Yashiro, M., Kubo, N., Maeda, K., and Hirakawa, K. (2008). Ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer is frequently associated with the microsatellite instability pathway. Diseases of the colon and rectum 51, 1387-1394.
Geiger, G. A., Parker, S. E., Beothy, A. P., Tucker, J. A., Mullins, M. C., and Kao, G. D. (2006). Zebrafish as a "biosensor"? Effects of ionizing radiation and amifostine on embryonic viability and development. Cancer research 66, 8172-8181.
Geyik, S., Altunisik, E., Neyal, A. M., and Taysi, S. (2016). Oxidative stress and DNA damage in patients with migraine. The journal of headache and pain 17, 10.
Ghosh, P., Basu, A., Mahata, J., Basu, S., Sengupta, M., Das, J. K., Mukherjee, A., Sarkar, A. K., Mondal, L., Ray, K., and Giri, A. K. (2006). Cytogenetic damage and genetic variants in the individuals susceptible to arsenic-induced cancer through drinking water. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer 118, 2470-2478.
Giaginis, C., Gatzidou, E., and Theocharis, S. (2006). DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity. Toxicology and applied pharmacology 213, 282-290.
Gibbons, G. R., Page, J. D., Mauldin, S. K., Husain, I., and Chaney, S. G. (1990). Role of carrier ligand in platinum resistance in L1210 cells. Cancer research 50, 6497-6501.
Goodisman, J., Hagrman, D., Tacka, K. A., and Souid, A. K. (2006). Analysis of cytotoxicities of platinum compounds. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 57, 257-267.
Gu, Y., Parker, A., Wilson, T. M., Bai, H., Chang, D. Y., and Lu, A. L. (2002). Human MutY homolog, a DNA glycosylase involved in base excision repair, physically and functionally interacts with mismatch repair proteins human MutS homolog 2/human MutS homolog 6. The Journal of biological chemistry 277, 11135-11142.
Guo, L. D., Shen, Y. Q., Zhao, X. H., Guo, L. J., Yu, Z. J., Wang, D., Liu, L. M., and Liu, J. Z. (2014). Curcumin Combined with Oxaliplatin Effectively Suppress Colorectal Carcinoma in vivo Through Inducing Apoptosis. Phytotherapy research : PTR.
Gustavsson, B., Carlsson, G., Machover, D., Petrelli, N., Roth, A., Schmoll, H. J., Tveit, K. M., and Gibson, F. (2015). A review of the evolution of systemic chemotherapy in the management of colorectal cancer. Clinical colorectal cancer 14, 1-10.
Hagrman, D., Goodisman, J., and Souid, A. K. (2004). Kinetic study on the reactions of platinum drugs with glutathione. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 308, 658-666.
Hayakawa, T., Kobayashi, Y., Cui, X., and Hirano, S. (2005). A new metabolic pathway of arsenite: arsenic-glutathione complexes are substrates for human arsenic methyltransferase Cyt19. Archives of toxicology 79, 183-191.
Heinen, C. D. (2014). Translating mismatch repair mechanism into cancer care. Current drug targets 15, 53-64.
Heinen, C. D., Noffsinger, A. E., Belli, J., Straughen, J., Fischer, J., Groden, J., and Fenoglio-Preiser, C. M. (1997). Regenerative lesions in ulcerative colitis are characterized by microsatellite mutation. Genes, chromosomes & cancer 19, 170-175.
Hou, C., Chan, N. L., Gu, L., and Li, G. M. (2009). Incision-dependent and error-free repair of (CAG)(n)/(CTG)(n) hairpins in human cell extracts. Nature structural & molecular biology 16, 869-875.
Hsu, T., Huang, K. M., Tsai, H. T., Sung, S. T., and Ho, T. N. (2013). Cadmium(Cd)-induced oxidative stress down-regulates the gene expression of DNA mismatch recognition proteins MutS homolog 2 (MSH2) and MSH6 in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Aquat Toxicol 126, 9-16.
Hsu, T., Tsai, H. T., Huang, K. M., Luan, M. C., and Hsieh, C. R. (2010). Sublethal levels of cadmium down-regulate the gene expression of DNA mismatch recognition protein MutS homolog 6 (MSH6) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Chemosphere 81, 748-754.
Huang, L. Y. (2014) Chemotherapeutic agents induce microsatellite instability and which is partially preventable, National Cheng Kung University.
Hughes, M. F. (2002). Arsenic toxicity and potential mechanisms of action. Toxicology letters 133, 1-16.
Humbert, O., Hermine, T., Hernandez, H., Bouget, T., Selves, J., Laurent, G., Salles, B., and Lautier, D. (2002). Implication of protein kinase C in the regulation of DNA mismatch repair protein expression and function. The Journal of biological chemistry 277, 18061-18068.
Iaccarino, I., Marra, G., Palombo, F., and Jiricny, J. (1998). hMSH2 and hMSH6 play distinct roles in mismatch binding and contribute differently to the ATPase activity of hMutSalpha. The EMBO journal 17, 2677-2686.
Imai, K., and Yamamoto, H. (2008). Carcinogenesis and microsatellite instability: the interrelationship between genetics and epigenetics. Carcinogenesis 29, 673-680.
Ionov, Y., Peinado, M. A., Malkhosyan, S., Shibata, D., and Perucho, M. (1993). Ubiquitous somatic mutations in simple repeated sequences reveal a new mechanism for colonic carcinogenesis. Nature 363, 558-561.
Iyer, R. R., Pluciennik, A., Napierala, M., and Wells, R. D. (2015). DNA Triplet Repeat Expansion and Mismatch Repair. Annual review of biochemistry.
Jalilehvand, F., Amini, Z., Parmar, K., and Kang, E. Y. (2011). Cadmium(II) N-acetylcysteine complex formation in aqueous solution. Dalton Trans 40, 12771-12778.
Jamieson, E. R., and Lippard, S. J. (1999). Structure, Recognition, and Processing of Cisplatin-DNA Adducts. Chemical reviews 99, 2467-2498.
Jascur, T., and Boland, C. R. (2006). Structure and function of the components of the human DNA mismatch repair system. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer 119, 2030-2035.
Jena, G., Trivedi, P. P., and Sandala, B. (2012). Oxidative stress in ulcerative colitis: an old concept but a new concern. Free radical research 46, 1339-1345.
Jennerwein, M. M., Eastman, A., and Khokhar, A. (1989). Characterization of adducts produced in DNA by isomeric 1,2-diaminocyclohexaneplatinum(II) complexes. Chemico-biological interactions 70, 39-49.
Jin, Y. H., Clark, A. B., Slebos, R. J., Al-Refai, H., Taylor, J. A., Kunkel, T. A., Resnick, M. A., and Gordenin, D. A. (2003). Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair. Nature genetics 34, 326-329.
Jiricny, J., Hughes, M., Corman, N., and Rudkin, B. B. (1988). A human 200-kDa protein binds selectively to DNA fragments containing G.T mismatches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85, 8860-8864.
Jomova, K., Jenisova, Z., Feszterova, M., Baros, S., Liska, J., Hudecova, D., Rhodes, C. J., and Valko, M. (2011). Arsenic: toxicity, oxidative stress and human disease. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT 31, 95-107.
Jomova, K., and Valko, M. (2011). Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease. Toxicology 283, 65-87.
Kasai, H. (2002). Chemistry-based studies on oxidative DNA damage: formation, repair, and mutagenesis. Free radical biology & medicine 33, 450-456.
Kim, N. G., Choi, Y. R., Baek, M. J., Kim, Y. H., Kang, H., Kim, N. K., Min, J. S., and Kim, H. (2001). Frameshift mutations at coding mononucleotide repeats of the hRAD50 gene in gastrointestinal carcinomas with microsatellite instability. Cancer Res 61, 36-38.
Koizumi, T., Li, Z. G., and Tatsumoto, H. (1992). DNA damaging activity of cadmium in Leydig cells, a target cell population for cadmium carcinogenesis in the rat testis. Toxicology letters 63, 211-220.
Koole, W., and Tijsterman, M. (2014). Mosaic analysis and tumor induction in zebrafish by microsatellite instability-mediated stochastic gene expression. Disease models & mechanisms 7, 929-936.
Kunkel, T. A., and Erie, D. A. (2005). DNA mismatch repair. Annual review of biochemistry 74, 681-710.
Kwan, K. M., Fujimoto, E., Grabher, C., Mangum, B. D., Hardy, M. E., Campbell, D. S., Parant, J. M., Yost, H. J., Kanki, J. P., and Chien, C. B. (2007). The Tol2kit: a multisite gateway-based construction kit for Tol2 transposon transgenesis constructs. Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists 236, 3088-3099.
Lamers, M. H., Winterwerp, H. H., and Sixma, T. K. (2003). The alternating ATPase domains of MutS control DNA mismatch repair. EMBO J 22, 746-756.
Lamm, S. H., Engel, A., Penn, C. A., Chen, R., and Feinleib, M. (2006). Arsenic cancer risk confounder in southwest Taiwan data set. Environmental health perspectives 114, 1077-1082.
Lan, C. C., Yu, H. S., and Ko, Y. C. (2011). Chronic arsenic exposure and its adverse health effects in Taiwan: A paradigm for management of a global environmental problem. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 27, 411-416.
Lennard-Jones, J. E., Morson, B. C., Ritchie, J. K., and Williams, C. B. (1983). Cancer surveillance in ulcerative colitis. Experience over 15 years. Lancet 2, 149-152.
Lheureux, S., N'Diaye, M., Blanc-Fournier, C., Dugue, A. E., Clarisse, B., Dutoit, S., Giffard, F., Abeilard, E., Briand, M., Labiche, A., et al. (2015). Identification of predictive factors of response to the BH3-mimetic molecule ABT-737: an ex vivo experiment in human serous ovarian carcinoma. International journal of cancer Journal international du cancer 136, E340-350.
Li, D., Lu, C., Wang, J., Hu, W., Cao, Z., Sun, D., Xia, H., and Ma, X. (2009). Developmental mechanisms of arsenite toxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Aquat Toxicol 91, 229-237.
Li, I. C., Chiu, C. Y., Wu, C. L., Chi, J. Y., Jian, S. R., Wang, S. W., and Chang, C. L. (2014). A dual-fluorescent reporter facilitates identification of thiol compounds that suppress microsatellite instability induced by oxidative stress. Free radical biology & medicine 69, 86-95.
Li, X., Pi, J., Li, B., Xu, Y., Jin, Y., and Sun, G. (2008). Urinary arsenic speciation and its correlation with 8-OHdG in Chinese residents exposed to arsenic through coal burning. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 81, 406-411.
Li, Y. C., Korol, A. B., Fahima, T., Beiles, A., and Nevo, E. (2002). Microsatellites: genomic distribution, putative functions and mutational mechanisms: a review. Mol Ecol 11, 2453-2465.
Lin, X., and Howell, S. B. (1999). Effect of loss of DNA mismatch repair on development of topotecan-, gemcitabine-, and paclitaxel-resistant variants after exposure to cisplatin. Molecular pharmacology 56, 390-395.
Lin, X., Kim, H. K., and Howell, S. B. (1999). The role of DNA mismatch repair in cisplatin mutagenicity. Journal of inorganic biochemistry 77, 89-93.
Liu, J., Chen, H., Miller, D. S., Saavedra, J. E., Keefer, L. K., Johnson, D. R., Klaassen, C. D., and Waalkes, M. P. (2001). Overexpression of glutathione S-transferase II and multidrug resistance transport proteins is associated with acquired tolerance to inorganic arsenic. Molecular pharmacology 60, 302-309.
Longley, D. B., Harkin, D. P., and Johnston, P. G. (2003). 5-fluorouracil: mechanisms of action and clinical strategies. Nature reviews Cancer 3, 330-338.
Luevano, J., and Damodaran, C. (2014). A review of molecular events of cadmium-induced carcinogenesis. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer 33, 183-194.
Lutzen, A., Liberti, S. E., and Rasmussen, L. J. (2004). Cadmium inhibits human DNA mismatch repair in vivo. Biochemical and biophysical research communications 321, 21-25.
Macpherson, P., Barone, F., Maga, G., Mazzei, F., Karran, P., and Bignami, M. (2005). 8-oxoguanine incorporation into DNA repeats in vitro and mismatch recognition by MutSalpha. Nucleic acids research 33, 5094-5105.
Marchetti, P., Zamzami, N., Joseph, B., Schraen-Maschke, S., Mereau-Richard, C., Costantini, P., Metivier, D., Susin, S. A., Kroemer, G., and Formstecher, P. (1999). The novel retinoid 6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphtalene carboxylic acid can trigger apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway independent of the nucleus. Cancer research 59, 6257-6266.
Mazurek, A., Berardini, M., and Fishel, R. (2002). Activation of human MutS homologs by 8-oxo-guanine DNA damage. The Journal of biological chemistry 277, 8260-8266.
McNeill, D. R., Narayana, A., Wong, H. K., and Wilson, D. M., 3rd (2004). Inhibition of Ape1 nuclease activity by lead, iron, and cadmium. Environmental health perspectives 112, 799-804.
Meplan, C., Mann, K., and Hainaut, P. (1999). Cadmium induces conformational modifications of wild-type p53 and suppresses p53 response to DNA damage in cultured cells. The Journal of biological chemistry 274, 31663-31670.
Mikhailova, M. V., Littlefield, N. A., Hass, B. S., Poirier, L. A., and Chou, M. W. (1997). Cadmium-induced 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation, DNA strand breaks and antioxidant enzyme activities in lymphoblastoid cells. Cancer letters 115, 141-148.
Mitrovski, B., Pressacco, J., Mandelbaum, S., and Erlichman, C. (1994). Biochemical effects of folate-based inhibitors of thymidylate synthase in MGH-U1 cells. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 35, 109-114.
Moiseeva, O., Bourdeau, V., Roux, A., Deschenes-Simard, X., and Ferbeyre, G. (2009). Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to oncogene-induced senescence. Molecular and cellular biology 29, 4495-4507.
Mu, D., Tursun, M., Duckett, D. R., Drummond, J. T., Modrich, P., and Sancar, A. (1997). Recognition and repair of compound DNA lesions (base damage and mismatch) by human mismatch repair and excision repair systems. Molecular and cellular biology 17, 760-769.
Nadal, J. C., Van Groeningen, C. J., Pinedo, H. M., and Peters, G. J. (1988). In vivo potentiation of 5-fluorouracil by leucovorin in murine colon carcinoma. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie 42, 387-393.
Nehme, A., Baskaran, R., Nebel, S., Fink, D., Howell, S. B., Wang, J. Y., and Christen, R. D. (1999). Induction of JNK and c-Abl signalling by cisplatin and oxaliplatin in mismatch repair-proficient and -deficient cells. British journal of cancer 79, 1104-1110.
Nemmiche, S., Chabane-Sari, D., Kadri, M., and Guiraud, P. (2012). Cadmium-induced apoptosis in the BJAB human B cell line: involvement of PKC/ERK1/2/JNK signaling pathways in HO-1 expression. Toxicology 300, 103-111.
Ni, T. T., Marsischky, G. T., and Kolodner, R. D. (1999). MSH2 and MSH6 are required for removal of adenine misincorporated opposite 8-oxo-guanine in S. cerevisiae. Molecular cell 4, 439-444.
Nikitina, T. V., and Nazarenko, S. A. (2004). [Human microsatellites: mutation and evolution]. Genetika 40, 1301-1318.
Notario, B., Zamora, M., Vinas, O., and Mampel, T. (2003). All-trans-retinoic acid binds to and inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase and induces mitochondrial permeability transition. Molecular pharmacology 63, 224-231.
O'Brien, V., and Brown, R. (2006). Signalling cell cycle arrest and cell death through the MMR System. Carcinogenesis 27, 682-692.
Page, J. D., Husain, I., Sancar, A., and Chaney, S. G. (1990). Effect of the diaminocyclohexane carrier ligand on platinum adduct formation, repair, and lethality. Biochemistry 29, 1016-1024.
Palombo, F., Iaccarino, I., Nakajima, E., Ikejima, M., Shimada, T., and Jiricny, J. (1996). hMutSbeta, a heterodimer of hMSH2 and hMSH3, binds to insertion/deletion loops in DNA. Current biology : CB 6, 1181-1184.
Paraskakis, E., Sourvinos, G., Passam, F., Tzanakis, N., Tzortzaki, E. G., Zervou, M., Spandidos, D., and Siafakas, N. M. (2003). Microsatellite DNA instability and loss of heterozygosity in bronchial asthma. The European respiratory journal 22, 951-955.
Pavan, A. R., Silva, G. D., Jornada, D. H., Chiba, D. E., Fernandes, G. F., Man Chin, C., and Dos Santos, J. L. (2016). Unraveling the Anticancer Effect of Curcumin and Resveratrol. Nutrients 8.
Pearson, C. E., and Sinden, R. R. (1998). Trinucleotide repeat DNA structures: dynamic mutations from dynamic DNA. Curr Opin Struct Biol 8, 321-330.
Perry, J., Powles, T., Shamash, J., Veerupillai, A., McGrowder, E., Noel, E., Lu, Y. J., Oliver, T., and Joel, S. (2009). The relative activity of cisplatin, oxaliplatin and satraplatin in testicular germ cell tumour sensitive and resistant cell lines. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 64, 925-933.
Pillaire, M. J., Margot, A., Villani, G., Sarasin, A., Defais, M., and Gentil, A. (1994). Mutagenesis in monkey cells of a vector containing a single d(GPG) cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adduct placed on codon 13 of the human H-ras proto-oncogene. Nucleic acids research 22, 2519-2524.
Rahman, K. (2007). Studies on free radicals, antioxidants, and co-factors. Clinical interventions in aging 2, 219-236.
Ralph, S. J., Rodriguez-Enriquez, S., Neuzil, J., Saavedra, E., and Moreno-Sanchez, R. (2010). The causes of cancer revisited: "mitochondrial malignancy" and ROS-induced oncogenic transformation - why mitochondria are targets for cancer therapy. Molecular aspects of medicine 31, 145-170.
Ruiz-Ramos, R., Lopez-Carrillo, L., Rios-Perez, A. D., De Vizcaya-Ruiz, A., and Cebrian, M. E. (2009). Sodium arsenite induces ROS generation, DNA oxidative damage, HO-1 and c-Myc proteins, NF-kappaB activation and cell proliferation in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Mutation research 674, 109-115.
Ruscher, K., Reuter, M., Kupper, D., Trendelenburg, G., Dirnagl, U., and Meisel, A. (2000). A fluorescence based non-radioactive electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Journal of biotechnology 78, 163-170.
Russo, M. T., Blasi, M. F., Chiera, F., Fortini, P., Degan, P., Macpherson, P., Furuichi, M., Nakabeppu, Y., Karran, P., Aquilina, G., and Bignami, M. (2004). The oxidized deoxynucleoside triphosphate pool is a significant contributor to genetic instability in mismatch repair-deficient cells. Molecular and cellular biology 24, 465-474.
Saif, M. W., Makrilia, N., and Syrigos, K. (2010). CoFactor: Folate Requirement for Optimization of 5-Fluouracil Activity in Anticancer Chemotherapy. Journal of oncology 2010, 934359.
Samimi, G., Fink, D., Varki, N. M., Husain, A., Hoskins, W. J., Alberts, D. S., and Howell, S. B. (2000). Analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 expression in ovarian cancer before and after platinum drug-based chemotherapy. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research 6, 1415-1421.
Santi, D. V., McHenry, C. S., and Sommer, H. (1974). Mechanism of interaction of thymidylate synthetase with 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate. Biochemistry 13, 471-481.
Saris, C. P., van de Vaart, P. J., Rietbroek, R. C., and Blommaert, F. A. (1996). In vitro formation of DNA adducts by cisplatin, lobaplatin and oxaliplatin in calf thymus DNA in solution and in cultured human cells. Carcinogenesis 17, 2763-2769.
Sciandrello, G., Barbaro, R., Caradonna, F., and Barbata, G. (2002). Early induction of genetic instability and apoptosis by arsenic in cultured Chinese hamster cells. Mutagenesis 17, 99-103.
Sergent, C., Franco, N., Chapusot, C., Lizard-Nacol, S., Isambert, N., Correia, M., and Chauffert, B. (2002). Human colon cancer cells surviving high doses of cisplatin or oxaliplatin in vitro are not defective in DNA mismatch repair proteins. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology 49, 445-452.
Shafirovich, V., and Geacintov, N. E. (2016). Removal of oxidatively generated DNA damage by overlapping repair pathways. Free radical biology & medicine.
Shishodia, S. (2013). Molecular mechanisms of curcumin action: gene expression. Biofactors 39, 37-55.
Shishodia, S., Amin, H. M., Lai, R., and Aggarwal, B. B. (2005). Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits constitutive NF-kappaB activation, induces G1/S arrest, suppresses proliferation, and induces apoptosis in mantle cell lymphoma. Biochemical pharmacology 70, 700-713.
Siafakas, N. M., Tzortzaki, E. G., Sourvinos, G., Bouros, D., Tzanakis, N., Kafatos, A., and Spandidos, D. (1999). Microsatellite DNA instability in COPD. Chest 116, 47-51.
Snow, E. T. (1992). Metal carcinogenesis: mechanistic implications. Pharmacology & therapeutics 53, 31-65.
Suzuki, H., Harpaz, N., Tarmin, L., Yin, J., Jiang, H. Y., Bell, J. D., Hontanosas, M., Groisman, G. M., Abraham, J. M., and Meltzer, S. J. (1994). Microsatellite instability in ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal dysplasias and cancers. Cancer research 54, 4841-4844.
Tabur, S., Aksoy, S. N., Korkmaz, H., Ozkaya, M., Aksoy, N., and Akarsu, E. (2015). Investigation of the role of 8-OHdG and oxidative stress in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine 36, 2667-2674.
Tahara, T., Inoue, N., Hisamatsu, T., Kashiwagi, K., Takaishi, H., Kanai, T., Watanabe, M., Ishii, H., and Hibi, T. (2005). Clinical significance of microsatellite instability in the inflamed mucosa for the prediction of colonic neoplasms in patients with ulcerative colitis. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology 20, 710-715.
Takenaka, S., Oldiges, H., Konig, H., Hochrainer, D., and Oberdorster, G. (1983). Carcinogenicity of cadmium chloride aerosols in W rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 70, 367-373.
Tan, X., Grollman, A. P., and Shibutani, S. (1999). Comparison of the mutagenic properties of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA lesions in mammalian cells. Carcinogenesis 20, 2287-2292.
Thibodeau, S. N., Bren, G., and Schaid, D. (1993). Microsatellite instability in cancer of the proximal colon. Science 260, 816-819.
Thirman, M. J., and Larson, R. A. (1996). Therapy-related myeloid leukemia. Hematology/oncology clinics of North America 10, 293-320.
Tietze, F. (1969). Enzymic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione: applications to mammalian blood and other tissues. Analytical biochemistry 27, 502-522.
Toth, G., Gaspari, Z., and Jurka, J. (2000). Microsatellites in different eukaryotic genomes: survey and analysis. Genome Res 10, 967-981.
Tournigand, C., Cervantes, A., Figer, A., Lledo, G., Flesch, M., Buyse, M., Mineur, L., Carola, E., Etienne, P. L., Rivera, F., et al. (2006). OPTIMOX1: a randomized study of FOLFOX4 or FOLFOX7 with oxaliplatin in a stop-and-Go fashion in advanced colorectal cancer--a GERCOR study. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 24, 394-400.
Tsang, R. Y., Al-Fayea, T., and Au, H. J. (2009). Cisplatin overdose: toxicities and management. Drug safety 32, 1109-1122.
Vaisman, A., Varchenko, M., Umar, A., Kunkel, T. A., Risinger, J. I., Barrett, J. C., Hamilton, T. C., and Chaney, S. G. (1998). The role of hMLH1, hMSH3, and hMSH6 defects in cisplatin and oxaliplatin resistance: correlation with replicative bypass of platinum-DNA adducts. Cancer research 58, 3579-3585.
Valavanidis, A., Vlachogianni, T., and Fiotakis, C. (2009). 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): A critical biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. Journal of environmental science and health Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology reviews 27, 120-139.
Valentini, A. M., Armentano, R., Pirrelli, M., and Caruso, M. L. (2006). Chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal cancer with a defective mismatch repair system: the state of the art. Cancer treatment reviews 32, 607-618.
van Waardenburg, R. C., de Jong, L. A., van Delft, F., van Eijndhoven, M. A., Bohlander, M., Bjornsti, M. A., Brouwer, J., and Schellens, J. H. (2004). Homologous recombination is a highly conserved determinant of the synergistic cytotoxicity between cisplatin and DNA topoisomerase I poisons. Molecular cancer therapeutics 3, 393-402.
Vassilakis, D. A., Sourvinos, G., Markatos, M., Psathakis, K., Spandidos, D. A., Siafakas, N. M., and Bouros, D. (1999). Microsatellite DNA instability and loss of heterozygosity in pulmonary sarcoidosis. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 160, 1729-1733.
Vassilakis, D. A., Sourvinos, G., Spandidos, D. A., Siafakas, N. M., and Bouros, D. (2000). Frequent genetic alterations at the microsatellite level in cytologic sputum samples of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 162, 1115-1119.
Waalkes, M. P. (2003). Cadmium carcinogenesis. Mutation research 533, 107-120.
Wahls, W. P., Wallace, L. J., and Moore, P. D. (1990). The Z-DNA motif d(TG)30 promotes reception of information during gene conversion events while stimulating homologous recombination in human cells in culture. Molecular and cellular biology 10, 785-793.
Waisberg, M., Joseph, P., Hale, B., and Beyersmann, D. (2003). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenesis. Toxicology 192, 95-117.
Waly, M. I., Al Moundhri, M. S., and Ali, B. H. (2011). Effect of curcumin on cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-induced oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. Renal failure 33, 518-523.
Warren, J. J., Pohlhaus, T. J., Changela, A., Iyer, R. R., Modrich, P. L., and Beese, L. S. (2007). Structure of the human MutSalpha DNA lesion recognition complex. Mol Cell 26, 579-592.
Watanabe, Y., Koi, M., Hemmi, H., Hoshai, H., and Noda, K. (2001). A change in microsatellite instability caused by cisplatin-based chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. British journal of cancer 85, 1064-1069.
Wohlhueter, R. M., McIvor, R. S., and Plagemann, P. G. (1980). Facilitated transport of uracil and 5-fluorouracil, and permeation of orotic acid into cultured mammalian cells. Journal of cellular physiology 104, 309-319.
Woynarowski, J. M., Chapman, W. G., Napier, C., Herzig, M. C., and Juniewicz, P. (1998). Sequence- and region-specificity of oxaliplatin adducts in naked and cellular DNA. Molecular pharmacology 54, 770-777.
Woynarowski, J. M., Faivre, S., Herzig, M. C., Arnett, B., Chapman, W. G., Trevino, A. V., Raymond, E., Chaney, S. G., Vaisman, A., Varchenko, M., and Juniewicz, P. E. (2000). Oxaliplatin-induced damage of cellular DNA. Molecular pharmacology 58, 920-927.
Wright, J. E., Dreyfuss, A., el-Magharbel, I., Trites, D., Jones, S. M., Holden, S. A., Rosowsky, A., and Frei, E., 3rd (1989). Selective expansion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate pools and modulation of 5-fluorouracil antitumor activity by leucovorin in vivo. Cancer research 49, 2592-2596.
Wu, G., Fang, Y. Z., Yang, S., Lupton, J. R., and Turner, N. D. (2004a). Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. The Journal of nutrition 134, 489-492.
Wu, H. I., Brown, J. A., Dorie, M. J., Lazzeroni, L., and Brown, J. M. (2004b). Genome-wide identification of genes conferring resistance to the anticancer agents cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and mitomycin C. Cancer research 64, 3940-3948.
Wyrzykowski, J., and Volkert, M. R. (2003). The Escherichia coli methyl-directed mismatch repair system repairs base pairs containing oxidative lesions. Journal of bacteriology 185, 1701-1704.
Yamada, M., O'Regan, E., Brown, R., and Karran, P. (1997). Selective recognition of a cisplatin-DNA adduct by human mismatch repair proteins. Nucleic acids research 25, 491-496.
Yang, S. W., Becker, F. F., and Chan, J. Y. (1996). Inhibition of human DNA ligase I activity by zinc and cadmium and the fidelity of ligation. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis 28, 19-25.
Yarema, K. J., Lippard, S. J., and Essigmann, J. M. (1995). Mutagenic and genotoxic effects of DNA adducts formed by the anticancer drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II). Nucleic acids research 23, 4066-4072.
Zdraveski, Z. Z., Mello, J. A., Farinelli, C. K., Essigmann, J. M., and Marinus, M. G. (2002). MutS preferentially recognizes cisplatin- over oxaliplatin-modified DNA. The Journal of biological chemistry 277, 1255-1260.
Zhou, Z., Wang, C., Liu, H., Huang, Q., Wang, M., and Lei, Y. (2013). Cadmium induced cell apoptosis, DNA damage, decreased DNA repair capacity, and genomic instability during malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. International journal of medical sciences 10, 1485-1496.
Zhu, Y. M., Das-Gupta, E. P., and Russell, N. H. (1999). Microsatellite instability and p53 mutations are associated with abnormal expression of the MSH2 gene in adult acute leukemia. Blood 94, 733-740.
Zienolddiny, S., Ryberg, D., and Haugen, A. (2000). Induction of microsatellite mutations by oxidative agents in human lung cancer cell lines. Carcinogenesis 21, 1521-1526.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top