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研究生(外文):Fu, Chao-Yang
論文名稱(外文):Precision of Orientation Data of Dual Forwards Photographing Cameras on MMS Determined by Visual Odometry Based on Disparity Changing
指導教授(外文):Tsay, Jaan-Rong
口試委員(外文):Jen-Jer JawShih-Hong Chio
外文關鍵詞:Visual Odometry6-DOFEgo-motionPose EstimationDisparity
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本文使用基於視差變化的視覺里程器(DBVO)於室外估計測繪車(MMS)前拍雙相機的位置與姿態。執行DBVO所需之輸入資料為序列前拍立體像對、雙相機之內方位以及它們之間的相對方位,而雙相機之內方位與相對方位在拍攝過程中視為已知且固定不變。在本實驗中,利用序列影像中第一組立體像對的外方位,將DBVO的成果轉換至製圖框架(Mapping frame)。DBVO分為4個步驟: (1)共軛像點的偵測與匹配。(2)以視差方程式計算像點對應物點的坐標。(3)以三維正形轉換決定相機的自運動(Ego-motion)。(4)估計序列影像在製圖框架的位置與姿態。實驗區域為一個閉合街區外加一個U形迴轉,MMS行駛約1.5公里,並取得447組前拍立體像對。以DBVO決定自運動的品質,在平行與垂直景深方向的平移量RMSD分別為0.19公尺與0.05公尺,而三個旋轉角ω, φ, κ的RMSD分別為0.0416°、0.0837°與0.0664°,且自運動的RMSD在實驗區直線與轉彎路段並無明顯差異。以DBVO在製圖框架中定位定向的品質,平面位置的絕對較差根據路況不同而有所差異,相對較差則隨著移動距離增加而呈現階梯式遞減,當MMS移動距離超過650公尺,相對較差降到1%以下。高程的絕對較差隨著MMS移動距離增加而緩步線性成長,而相對較差則微幅線性降低,當MMS行駛約1.2公里時,高程相對較差約為0.20%。以DBVO成果在製圖框架中前方交會定點的品質,在不同立體像會因其定位定向成果品質而有所差異,在起點附近之立體像對,其定點之坐標較差在平面與高程方向分別為0.88公尺與-0.04公尺; 隨著MMS行駛約550公尺,定點的坐標較差在平面與高程方向分別達到138.73公尺與3.83公尺。
This thesis uses Disparity Based Visual Odometry (DBVO) to estimate the pose of dual forwards photographing cameras on MMS in outdoor environment. The input data of DBVO contain a sequence of forwards photographing stereo pairs, Interior Orientation (IO) of dual cameras and their Relative Orientation (RO). The IO and RO are assumed to be invariant during taking images. In the experiment, the results of DBVO are transformed into mapping frame by means of the Exterior Orientation (EO) of first exposure station. DBVO includes 4 steps: (1) Keypoint detection and matching. (2) Calculating coordinates of object points by parallax equations. (3) Determining ego-motion by 3D conformal transformation. (4) Estimating pose of sequential images in mapping frame. Test area is a block with an extra U turn. MMS drives about 1.5 km and takes 447 stereo pairs. In quality of ego-motion determination, the RMSD of translations is 0.19 m and 0.05 m along and across depth direction, respectively. The RMSD of rotation angles ω, φ and κ is 0.0416°, 0.0837° and 0.0664°, respectively. Besides, ego-motion determination has the same performance along straight and turning paths. In quality of pose estimation in mapping frame. The Absolute Difference (AD) of horizontal position depends on the scenes along the paths, but the Relative Difference (RD) has elevated reduction when the moving distance increases. The RD is lower than 1% when MMS drives more than 650 m. The AD of elevation grows gradually as moving distance increases, but the RD decreases slightly, which is 0.20% when MMS drives 1.2 km. In quality of object points determination. The horizontal and vertical coordinate difference is 0.88 m and -0.04 m in the beginning. As MMS drives about 550 m, the horizontal and vertical coordinate difference is 138.73 m and 10.79 m, respectively.
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
Contents IV
List of Tables VI
List of Figures VII
List of Abbreviations IX
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.1.1 Mobile Mapping System (MMS) 1
1.1.2 Visual Odometry (VO) 2
1.2 Motivation 4
1.3 Contribution 5
Chapter 2. Methodology 7
2.1 Equipment of MMS 7
2.2 Control surveying 11
2.3 Photo Triangulation (PT) 12
2.4 Disparity Based Visual Odometry (DBVO) 14
2.4.1 Keypoint Detection & Matching 15
2.4.2 Calculating Coordinates of Object Points 20
2.4.3 Determining 6-DOF Ego-motion 24
2.4.4 Estimating The Pose of Images in Mapping Frame 25
Chapter 3. Results 26
3.1 Test Data 26
3.2 Object points measured by e-GPS 27
3.3 Reference Data Derived by PT 30
3.3.1 Report of Minimal Constraint Adjustment 30
3.3.2 Report of General Constraint Adjustment 34
3.4 The Result of DBVO 35
3.4.1 The Influence of Lens Distortion 35
3.4.2 Keypoints under Epipolar Geometry 37
3.4.3 Object Points determined by Parallax Equations 39
3.4.4 Ego-motion Determined by DBVO 40
3.4.5 Pose of Each Exposure Stations Estimated by DBVO 41
Chapter 4. Discussion 43
4.1 Quality of Ego-motion Determination 43
4.1.1 Compare Parallax Equations and Intersection 43
4.1.2 Evaluated by Posteriori STD 44
4.1.3 Evaluated by Reference Data 47
4.2 Quality of Pose Estimation in Mapping Frame 49
4.2.1 Evaluated by Reference Trajectory 49
4.2.2 Evaluated by Check Points 58
Chapter 5. Conclusion 61
References 65
Appendix A. 67
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