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研究生:陳書瑋
研究生(外文):CHEN, SHU-WEI
論文名稱:不同跨步型態投法之下肢動作模式與肢段間能量傳遞
論文名稱(外文):Movement Pattern of Lower Extremity and Energy Transfer among Limbs in Different Stride Types of Baseball Pitching
指導教授:湯文慈湯文慈引用關係
指導教授(外文):TANG, WEN-TZU
口試委員:陳全壽櫻井伸二龔榮堂許志文
口試委員(外文):CHEN, CHUAN-SHOUSAKURAI, SHINJIKUNG, JUNG-TANGHSU, CHI-WEN
口試日期:2016-12-16
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立體育大學
系所名稱:競技與教練科學研究所
學門:民生學門
學類:競技運動學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:279
中文關鍵詞:高壓投法推蹬投法混合投法肢段間協調模式動力鍊
外文關鍵詞:tall-ana-falldrop-and-drivemixedcoordination of limbskinetic chain
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在投球動作當中,下肢、骨盆與軀幹的動作均會影響上肢的動作,進而影響投球速度以及傷害風險。本研究之目的為瞭解不同的下肢跨步型態 (高壓投法、推蹬投法、混合投法) 如何影響棒球投球動作當中的下肢、骨盆與軀幹間的動作模式、關節受力以及全身各肢段間的協調模式與能量傳遞情形。本研究利用先前的研究數據進行為回溯型研究,研究對象為自願參與先前研究的台灣大學甲組、台灣職棒以及美國職棒獨立聯盟投手共30位,其中包括右投手27人,左投手3人,年齡21.17±2.83歲,擔任投手球齡7.14±4.16年。本實驗先向研究對象說明實驗過程與注意事項後,請研究對象填寫同意書與基本資料,調查身高、體重、年齡、球齡、最快球速、傷病史及健康情形,再以Motion Analysys System三維動作分析系統進行投球動作拍攝(8-10台Eagle紅外線攝影機,拍攝頻率200~250Hz),同時以兩塊AMTI三軸測力板分別測量研究對象投球時軸心腳、前導腳的地面反作用力(擷取頻率1000~1250Hz),並以Stalker Sport測速槍測量研究對象投球球速。之後再以Cortex軟體將實驗所蒐集到的投球動作反射光點座標位置與測力板所得數據,進行資料平滑化、濾波,再以KinTools RT for Cortex 1.1軟體進行逆動力學參數計算,最後將結果輸出至Matlab、Microsoft Excel軟體進行實驗資料處理,包括時間標準化、數值分析等處理。結果顯示,高壓投法與推蹬投法的關鍵技術差異在於軸心腳將身體向前推蹬的時間點:採用推蹬投法的投手在投球動作跨步期當中較早開始啟動軸心腳的推蹬動作,而採用高壓投法的投手的推蹬動作直到接近前導腳著地前才開始,但是推蹬動作在手臂上舉加速期當中仍然持續進行;至於採用混合投法的投手,其軸心腳動作模式近似於推蹬投法,但時序稍晚於推蹬投法,介於推蹬投法與高壓投法之間。不過無論軸心腳的動作模式為何,均不影響前導腳的動作模式,顯示不同跨步型態投法當中前導腳的角色均相同。而高壓組投手在下肢力量的運用方式與推蹬組與混合組明顯不同,利用較多的下肢推蹬力量的推蹬投法,應可減少上肢的負荷,進而降低上肢運動傷害的風險。此外,不同跨步型態投法在軸心腳的膝關節、髖關節與骨盆的動作模式上有所不同,在骨盆水平旋轉的啟動順序與軸心腳髖關節與軸心腳膝關節之間的協調模式也有所差異,為了因應這些差異,不同跨步型態投法在前導腳踝關節與前導腳膝關節的協調模式亦有所不同。而這些差異雖然並未造成運動表現 (投球速度) 的差異,卻也代表了不同跨步型態投法間的技術差異。
The movement of the lower extremities, pelvis, and torso influence the movement of the upper extremities in pitching performance and the risk of injury while pitching. The aim of current study was to understand how the different stride patterns influences the movement pattern, joint force, coordination and energy transfer of lower extremities, pelvis, torso, and upper extremities. The current research was a retrospective research, and there were thirty elite Taiwanese male college and professional baseball pitchers (included 27 right handed, 3 left handed, age=21.17±2.83 years, pitcher career=7.14±4.16 years) volunteered to participate. All participants provided written informed consent to participate after its purpose and associated risks were explained, then the personal parameters (e.g., age, height, weight, length of baseball career, length of pitcher career, career maximum ball velocity, medical history and health status) were recorded. An Eagle System (Motion Analysis Corporation, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) was used to measure kinematic variables with 8 Eagle cameras at 200 or 250 Hz sampling rate, two Advanced Management Technology Inc. (AMTI) force plates with a 1,000 or 1,250 Hz sampling rate (AMTI, Watertown, MA, USA) were used to measure the ground reaction force of both legs, and a Stalker Sport speed gun (Stalker Sport, Stalker Radar/Applied Concepts, Inc., TX, USA) was used to measure ball velocity. The Cortex 1.1.4 software was used to filter and output the raw data of each marker and the raw data of forceplate during pitching. The KinTool RT for Cortex 1.1 software was used to calculate the inverse dynamic parameters. All data were saved by the Microsoft Excel 2013 software, and the Matlab R2010a software was used to optimize the time series. The result showed that the key difference between TF and DD stride types were the timing of the pivot leg started to drive the body forward: DD pitchers started their pivot knee extension and pivot hip adduction to move their bodies forward earlier; TF pitchers kept accelerating their body forward with their pivot legs until the middle of the arm cocking/acceleration phase; the MX group pitchers were similar to DD pitchers in terms of the movement pattern of their pivot legs during the stride phase. It showed that regardless of the movement pattern of the pivot leg, the movement pattern of the stride leg is not affected; it also represented that the role of stride leg were similar in different stride types. Compare with the DD and MX pitchers, the TF pitchers use the force of lower extremities in different way. The DD pitchers that use more press force of lower extremities should decrease the loading of upper extremities and lower injury risks of upper extremities. The movement patterm of pivot knee, pivot hip and pelvis were different among three stride types, the starting sequence of pelvis horizontal rotation and the coordination between pivot knee & pivot hip were also different. In response to these differences, the coordination between stride ankle & stride knee were differenet, too. Although these differences were not causing the different of performance (ball velocity), but showed the key technique different among three stride types.
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 研究假設 5
第四節 研究範圍與限制 6
第五節 名詞解釋 8
第六節 操作型定義 10

第貳章 文獻探討 15
第一節 研究一:不同跨步型態投法的下肢動作特徵 15
第二節 研究二:不同跨步型態投法間的下肢受力 19
第三節 研究三:不同下肢跨步型態的肢段間協調模式與能量傳遞 24
第四節 文獻總結 31

第參章 研究方法 33
第一節 研究對象 33
第二節 實驗時間與地點 34
第三節 實驗儀器與設備 34
第四節 實驗儀器場地佈置 36
第五節 實驗流程與步驟 38
第六節 實驗資料蒐集與處理 44
第七節 研究對象分組依據 47
第八節 統計分析 49

第肆章 研究對象基本資料與投球表現 51
第一節 研究對象基本資料 51
第二節 研究對象投球表現 52
第三節 討論與結論 54

第伍章 研究一 不同跨步型態投法的下肢動作特徵 55
第一節 軸心腳髖、膝、踝關節運動學參數 55
第二節 前導腳髖、膝、踝關節運動學參數 68
第三節 不同跨步型態投法間的下肢動作差異 81
第四節 討論 87
第五節 結論 89

第陸章 研究二 不同跨步型態投法的下肢受力 90
第一節 地面反作用力 90
第二節 關節受力 101
第三節 關節力矩 118
第四節 不同跨步型態投法間的下肢受力差異 130
第五節 討論 142
第六節 結論 147

第柒章 研究三 不同下肢跨步型態的肢段間協調模式與能量傳遞 148
第一節 關節輪動與肢段協調模式 148
第二節 肢段間能量傳遞 165
第三節 討論 235
第四節 結論 242

參考文獻 243

附錄
附錄一 關節角度定義 253
附錄二 國立體育大學人體試驗委員會審查通過函 256
附錄三 研究對象分組依據 257
附錄四 於投球臂中指掌指關節加入棒球重量進行逆動力學計算之設定方式 259

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