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研究生:洪丞漢
研究生(外文):Hong, Cheng-Han
論文名稱:使用超聲波換能器於車室溫度量測之研究
論文名稱(外文):Temperature measurements of the vehicle cabin using ultrasonic transducers
指導教授:曾文功
指導教授(外文):Tseng, Wen-Kung
口試委員:劉文雄吳建達曾文功
口試委員(外文): Tseng, Wen-Kung
口試日期:2017-07-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:車輛科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:汽車空調(ACC)溫度計超聲波溫度計飛行時間(TOF)卡爾曼濾波器非接觸式
外文關鍵詞:Automatic Climate Control (ACC)ThermometerUltrasonic temperature sensorTime of flight (TOF)Kalman filterNon-contact
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汽車空調系統(ACC)最佳的溫度控制取決於溫度計是否能夠測量到人類周圍的溫度,然而大多數的車內溫度感知器都無法測量。本論文使用超聲波溫度計基於測量超聲波飛行時間(TOF)的方法來克服這個問題。測量方法分為對射式與回音式,兩種方式為了調查性能將會分別進行溫度變化實驗與擾流實驗,測量數據為了降低噪音和提高精準度將會進行卡爾曼濾波器進行濾波和濕度補償。實驗結果顯示超聲波溫度計具有非接觸式、反應速度快、精準、抗干擾等優點,應用在車內測量人類周圍溫度以代替車內溫度感知器具有極高的潛力。
The optimum temperature control of the Automatic Climate Control(ACC)in vehicle cabin is dependent on whether or not the thermometer can measure temperatures around occupants. Most in-car temperature sensors are difficult to achieve that. In order to measure the temperature around occupants, this thesis presents a technique based on ultrasonic temperature sensors using sampling of the ultrasonic time of flight (TOF). Two modes of measurements were used for investigation, including a changed temperature environment, and a disturbance environment. The data were processed by Kalman filter and humidity compensated for lowering noises and increasing accuracy. The experimental results showed that the ultrasonic temperature sensors are able to provide accurate temperature measurements, fast response to temperature changes, non-contact and anti-interference.
CONTENTS
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
謝誌 III
CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
LIST OF SYMBOLS XII

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION 1

CHAPTER 2
ACOUSTIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT 4
2-1 Relationship between Speed of Sound and Temperature 4
2-2 Relationship between Speed of Sound and Humidity 6
2-3 Relationship between Speed of Sound and Pressure 9
2-4 Time of Flights Measurement 11
2-4-1 Signal Amplifications 11
2-4-2 Mutual-Emit Mode Temperature Measurement 11
2-4-3 Echo Mode Temperature Measurement 13
2-5 TOF and Temperature Calculation 14
2-5-1 TOF Measurement 15
2-5-2 Receiver Processing 16

CHAPTER 3
EXPERIMENTAL WORK AND ANALYSIS 18
3-1 Experimental Arrangement 18
3-2 Measurement Error 20
3-3 Kalman Filter Algorithm 21
3-4 Filtering Analysis 24
3-5 Humidity Compensation 26
3-6 The Experiment of Mutual-Emit mode 29
3-6-1 Changed Temperature Environment 29
3-6-2 Changed Temperature Environment and Humidity Compensation 31
3-6-3 Disturbance Environment 33
3-6-4 Disturbance Environment and Humidity Compensation 35
3-7 Experiment of Echo Mode 37
3-7-1 Temperature Changed Environment 37
3-7-2 Temperature Changed Environment and Humidity Compensation 39
3-7-3 Disturbance Environment 41
3-7-4 Disturbance Environment and Humidity Compensation 43

CHAPTER 4
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS INSIDE CAR CABIN 45
4-1 Cabin Measurement by Mutual-Emit Mode 45
4-2 Humidity Compensation of Mutual-Emit Mode 48
4-3 Cabin Measurements by Echo Mode 50
4-4 Humidity Compensation of Echo Mode 52

CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 54
5-1 Discussion 54
5-2 Conclusions 55
REFERENCES 57
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[2] Han, T., Lambert, D. K., Oberdier, L. M., Partin, D. L., & Sultan, M. F. "Ultrasonic Air Temperature Sensing for Automatic Climate Control – Sensor Development." SAE Technical Paper 2003.

[3] Han, T., Lambert, D. K., Partin, D. L., & Sultan, M. F. "Ultrasonic Air Temperature Sensing for Automatic Climate Control –Vehicle Test." SAE Technical Paper 2004.

[4] Moore, G. "Acoustic thermometry. A sound way to measure temperature." Electronics and Power, vol. 30, pp. 675-677, 1984.

[5] Dai, W., Wang, Y., Qiao, C., Huang, Z., & Zhou, C. "Accurate ultrasound speed measurement using an MLS-modulated continuous wave." Measurement, vol. 92, pp.150-156, 2016.

[6] Tsai, W. Y., Chen, H. C., & Liao, T. L. "High accuracy ultrasonic air temperature measurement using multi-frequency continuous wave." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 13, pp. 2242-2449, 2013.

[7] Püttmer, A., Nowottnick, J., & Hauptmann, P. "High-accuracy measurement of pulse amplitudes for new applications of ultrasonic sensors." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 68, pp. 454-459, 1998.

[8] Tsai, W. Y., Huang, C. F., & Liao, T. L. "New implementation of high-precision and instant-response air thermometer by ultrasonic sensors." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 117, pp. 88-94, 2005.

[9] Tsai, W. Y., Chen, H. C., & Liao, T. L. "High accuracy ultrasonic air temperature measurement using multi-frequency continuous wave." Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 132, pp. 526-532, 2006.

[10] Wong, G. S., & Embleton, T. F. "Variation of specific heats and of specific heat ratio in air with humidity." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 76.2, pp. 555-559, 1984.

[11] Bohn, D. A. "Environmental Effects on the Speed of Sound." Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, vol. 36, pp. 8690-8710, 1988.

[12] Cramer, O. "The variation of the specific heat ratio and the speed of sound in air with temperature, pressure, humidity, and CO2 concentration." The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America vol. 93, pp. 2510-2516, 1993.
[13] Texas Instruments, "Analog Electronics Design to Improve Performance of Ultrasonic Gas Flow Meter." SNAA284A-Datasheet, 2015.

[14] Texas Instruments, " TDC1000 Ultrasonic Sensing Analog Front End (AFE) for Level Sensing, Flow Sensing, Concentration Sensing, and Proximity Sensing Applications." SNAS648B-Datasheet, 2014.

[15] 黄小平. 卡尔曼滤波原理及应用: MATLAB 仿真. 电子工业出版社, 2015.

[16] Texas Instruments, "TDC1000-GASEVM USER’s Guide." SNIU026A-Datasheet, 2015.
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