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研究生:沈建良
研究生(外文):Shen, Chien-Liang
論文名稱:台灣與國際期刊報導動詞語料庫研究
論文名稱(外文):A Corpus-based Analysis on the Uses of Reporting Verbs and Their Tense Choices in Taiwanese and International Journals
指導教授:游毓玲游毓玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):You, Yu-Ling
口試委員:周碩貴陳正賢游毓玲
口試委員(外文):Joe, Shih-GueyChen, Cheng-HsienYou, Yu-Ling
口試日期:2017/06/19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:110
中文關鍵詞:報導動詞時態
外文關鍵詞:reporting verbstense
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在學術寫作中,引用文獻是重要常規。適當的引用可幫助研究者為自己的研究找到適切的理論依據,亦可在論文當中為自己的研究找到適切的立足地與研究價值。然而,先前的研究所示,文獻報導所牽涉的不僅僅只是隨機選用一個動詞而已。他所牽涉的是更為複雜的過程,有諸多的因素,如評論與時態等須納入考量。但先前的研究指出,許多的研究生在報導引用時,常傾向於使用相當有限的動詞,且在報導時也較少對引用的文獻有所評價。有鑑於引用前作在學術寫作中扮演重要的角色,使學生具有正確的引用能力顯得格外的重要。
本研究的目的在透過探討台灣與國際的期刊學者組內與組間在期刊的序論與文獻探討的撰寫中時態的選用與報導動詞的使用情形,藉以拓廣學生在報導動詞上的單字量,並且使用生孰悉如何報導中有正確的引用能力與選擇適當的時態。
為了達成研究目的,本研究建立了兩個語料庫。一個語料庫集結了一百篇發表於兩本台灣知名的英語教學期刊的研究報告,而另一個語料庫則集結了一百篇發表於兩本國際知名的英語教學期刊的研究報告。研究報告中的報導動詞會依據時態做標記,並且也會依Hyland (2002)提出的分類法將報導動詞根據他們潛在的評論意涵來標記。為了比較組內與組間的差異,本研究使用了卡方檢定。
本研究的研究結果如下。第一,在字面上的程序階段,兩組人都頻繁地使用研究類動詞,其次是言談類動詞,而認知性動詞則最少。在評價的層面,兩組人的報導動詞使用也類似,唯獨國際期刊作者在非敘實性研究結果動詞(NonFactive Finding Research)與非敘實性言談動詞(NonFactive Discourse)兩類動詞的使用頻率比台灣期刊學者來的高,而台灣期刊學者則使用較多的假定性認知動詞(Tentative Cognition)及假定性言談動詞(Tentative Discourse)。此發現指出,在評論先前文獻時,國際期刊學者傾向採取中立立場,而台灣學者則傾向表露其對先前文獻的不確定性。第二,在比較個別兩組組中時態選用與報導動詞的使用情形中,兩組人的使用情形也雷同,兩組皆使用過去簡單式最多,接著是現在簡單式,現在完成式則最少。而當深入探討動詞子類的話,兩組人都傾向使用現在完成式時態的敘實性動詞來報導過去研究的普遍發現與結論,而過去簡單式時態的非敘實性研究與研究程序動詞則被用來報導過去單一文獻的研究結果或研究程序。至於認知與言談類動詞,兩組人傾向運用較多的現在簡單式。第三,論到組間的差異,研究發現台灣的期刊學者比國際期刊學者運用更多的過去簡單式,而後者則運用較多的現在簡單式。整體而論,研究結果指出報導動詞的時態使用與報導動詞使用之間存在關聯性,且似乎與期刊作者本身對所報導的資訊的立場論點有所關連。
總結而論,本研究的結果直指了報導動詞的字面意義,報導動詞中所潛在的評價意涵與時態選用三者之間有某程度上的交互關係。因此,讓研究者本身具備如此的能力並且在報導中對之格外留意就顯得相當重要。
Referencing to prior research is a requisite convention in academic writing. An appropriate citation helps researchers build their own research on a proper theoretical framework and find a proper stand and value for their own study to fit into the discourse community. However, as shown by previous research, reporting is not simply a matter of random lexical verb choosing. Rather, it is a complex process, in which many factors, such as evaluation and tense, should be considered. Yet, previous studies also show that many graduate students tend to employ a very limited set of reporting verbs and that they tend to simply report prior research with very little evaluation. However, since referring to previous research is an important technique in academic writing, it is extremely essential to equip students with such ability.
Thus, the current study hopes to broaden students’ repertoire of reporting verbs and familiarize students with proper citing skills and with proper tense by investigating the tense choice and use of reporting verbs concerning their evaluative potentials by Taiwanese and International published scholars with a particular focus on the Introduction and Literature Review sections of journal articles.
To achieve the goals, two corpora were built. One consists of 100 research articles from two well-known TESOL journals in Taiwan and the other is composed of 100 articles from two notable international TESOL journals. The reporting verbs identified were coded based on their tense, also on their evaluative potentials, and were further categorized using Hyland’s (2002) taxonomy. To compare the results within and between groups, Chi-square test was performed to examine whether any significant differences can be found.
The findings of the current study are as follows. First, at the process level, both the groups employs Research Act verbs the most frequently, followed by Discourse Act verbs, and Cognition Act verbs the least. As for evaluation, both groups show a similar pattern in the use of reporting verbs, except for that the International scholars were found to employ more NonFactive Finding Research and NonFactive Discourse verb while Taiwanese scholars tend to use more Tentative Cognition and Tentative Discourse verbs. Second, in the tense choice and the use of reporting verbs within groups, both groups also show a similar pattern, in which Simple Past tense is the most prevailing, followed by Simple Present tense, and Present Perfect the least. When the subtypes are concerned, Factive Research verbs with Present Perfect tense are used to claim generality, and NonFactive Research and Procedure verbs with Simple Past tense are used to refer to specific findings or procedures of prior research. As for Cognition and Discourse Acts, both group tend to use Simple Present tense more. Speaking of the differences between the two groups, Taiwanese scholars tend to use more Simple Past tense while International scholars seem to use more Simple Present tense. In general, the relationships between tense choice and the use of reporting verbs concerning their evaluative potential are found and seem to be associated with the writer’s own stance and commitment.
To sum up, the findings of the current study indicate that the denotation, evaluation, and tense choice of reporting verbs, to some extent, are inter-correlated. Thus, it is important for researchers to familiarize themselves with such ability and pay greater attention to it.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………….. i
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………….. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………. vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………………... viii
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………. x
LIST OF FIGURES…………………………………………………………... xi

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………. 1
Background of the study……………………………………………. 1
Purposes of the study……………………………………………….. 5
Research questions………………………………………………….. 6
Significance of the study……………………………………………. 7
Definition of terms………………………………………………….. 8

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………. 10
English for Academic Purposes and Genre Analysis……………….. 10
Citations in research articles………………………………………... 14
Definition and the importance of citation…………………. 14
Typology of citation……………………………………….. 16
Categorization of reporting verbs…………..……………... 18
Thompson and Ye’s (1991) classification……….. 18
Thomas and Hawes’ (1994) classification………. 23
Hyland’s (2002) classification…………………… 26
Use of reporting verbs in academic writing……………….……….. 32
Tenses in academic genres……………….………………………… 36
Predominant use of present tense in academic writing…… 36
Reporting verbs and the tense functions in academic writing……… 37
Simple Present Tense……………………..………………. 37
Simple Past Tense………………………………………... 38
Present Perfect Tense………………………..…………… 39
The current study…………………………………………………… 40

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY……………………………………... 42
Corpora……………………………………………………………... 42
Data collection procedures…………………………………………. 44
The identification of reporting verbs…………………. 44
The coding of the reporting verbs………………………… 45
Data analysis………………………………………………………... 48

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………..…………... 50
The list of reporting verbs……...…………………………………. 50
Use of reporting verbs………...…………………………………… 51
Reporting verb use at the process level…………………… 51
Reporting verb use at the evaluative level………………… 52
Discussion of the use of reporting verbs…………..….…… 55
The tense use and the use of reporting verbs by the scholars…… 63
Discussion of the tense use and use of reporting verbs by the scholars……………………………..………………….67
The tense use and the use of reporting verbs between groups….. 71
Discussion of the differences between the two groups……. 74

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION…………………………………………… 76
Summary of the findings……………………………………………. 76
Pedagogical implications………………..………………………….. 80
Limitations of the study and suggestions for future study………….. 81

REFERENCES……………………………………………………………….. 83
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………... 88
Appendix A – Corpora sources……………………………………... 88
Appendix B – Reporting verb list………………………………….. 108
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