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研究生:翁薛珉
研究生(外文):Weng, Xue-Min
論文名稱:臺灣國中二年級學生對第三人稱單數口語產出之研究
論文名稱(外文):An Investigation of the Speech Production of the Third Person Singular Allomorphs Among Taiwanese Eighth Graders
指導教授:郭鳳蘭郭鳳蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo, Feng-Lan
口試委員:吳文琪莊琍玲郭鳳蘭
口試委員(外文):Wu, Wen-ChiChuang, Li-LingKuo, Feng-Lan
口試日期:2017-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:95
中文關鍵詞:口語產出第三人稱單數的同位詞素詞素種類發音位置發音方式有聲與否
外文關鍵詞:speech productionthird person singular allomorphstypes of allomorphsplace of articulationmanner of articulationvoicing
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先前研究指出,以中文為母語的英語學習者,在書寫或是口說產出第三人稱單數都有困難(Bonner, 2013; Hsieh, 2009; R. S. Su, 2012; Y. H. Su, 2016)。此外,與時態有關的屈折詞素也被認為能夠協助聽者鎖定語句及事件的確切指涉語句事件及時間(Fabricius-Hansen, 2006; Smith, 2007)。再者,謝(2009)研究臺灣20位11歲至14歲學生的第三人稱單數跟過去式詞尾的口語產出,其研究結果指出學生的英文程度可能影響學生在第三人稱單數及過去式詞尾的口語產出。因此,本研究旨在了解臺灣國中二年級學生在口語產出第三人稱單數詞素時的表現,並將學生區分為高低程度學習者;並探討目標單詞字尾的發音位置、發音方式及有聲與否對第三人稱單數詞素的口語表現。
本研究的研究對象為102位國中二年級學生。受測者須完成兩項測驗:文法知能測驗及口說測驗。在文法知能測驗中,所以目標單字皆為真實單字,而目標題目共31題。而所有的真實單字皆取自大學入學考試中心所編纂的詞彙分級表的第一級及第二級單字表。而在口說測驗中,所有目標單字皆為非真實單字,且目標題目為12題。
研究結果顯示臺灣國中二年級學生在第三人稱單數的三個詞素間的口語表現排位為:[s]最好,[ɪz]次之,最後則為[z]詞素。就高低學生在第三人稱單數詞素的表現,只有在[ɪz]詞素的表現顯著優於低成就學生,在[s]詞素以及[z]詞素則沒有呈現顯著差異。
根據多變量變異數分析的結果,高程度學習者在下面幾個分類中的表現顯著優於低程度學習者:唇音、齒槽音、摩擦音、無聲及有聲結尾的單字。最後,逐步回歸分析的結果指出影響第三人稱單數詞素發音的主因為發音方式。該因素能解釋整體受試者在第三人稱單數詞素百分之四十七的的表現差異。
根據實驗結果,臺灣國中英文教師可進一步教導國中二年級學生:在口語產出時,何時該運用第三人稱單數詞尾的構詞音韻規則,尤其是針對[z]這項詞素。未來的研究則可同時研究第三人稱單數及過去式詞素的覺知及產出。
Previous studies (Bonner, 2013; Hsieh, 2009; R. S. Su, 2012; Y. H. Su, 2016) found that EFL learners whose mother language is Mandarin had difficulty in employing the third person singular marking either in written production or in oral production. However, tense-related inflectional suffixes have been stated to be an important factor in speech time location and later lexical representation (Fabricius-Hansen, 2006; Smith, 2007). Hsieh (2009) examined 20 Taiwanese 11- to 14-year-old learners’ oral production of the third person singular and the past tense suffixes and indicated that the proficiency factor is likely to influence the participants’ oral production of these two types of tense-related suffixes. Therefore, the present study focused on examining the oral production of the third person singular marking among Taiwanese 8th graders, with the recruited participants divided into a low proficiency group and a high proficiency group. Additionally, the factors of places of articulation, manners of articulation, and voicing of the ending sounds of stems were examined in this study.
The total number of the participants in this study was 102 eighth graders. The participants were recruited to complete a written morphological awareness (MA) test and an oral speech production test. The target items, 31 items in total, used in the MA test were all real words chosen from the level 1 and the level 2 in Graded Vocabulary compiled by College Entrance Examination Center. However, the target items, 12 items in total, used in the speech production test were all pseudowords.
The results revealed ranking of the Taiwanese eighth graders’ oral production of the third person singular allomorphs was [s] > [ɪz] > [z]. In terms of the low achievers’ and the high achievers’ oral production of the third person singular allomorphs, the high achievers were found to outperform the low achievers at the [ɪz] allomorph. The two groups’ oral production at the [s] and [z] allomorphs showed no significant differences.
Based upon the results of MANOVA, the high achievers were found to significantly outperform the low achievers in the following categories: labial, alveolar, fricative, voiceless, and voiced endings. Finally, the results of a stepwise multiple regression showed that manner of articulation, accounting for 47.2% of the performance variance among the participants, is the major factor affecting Taiwanese eighth graders’ oral production of the third person singular allomorphs.
Based upon the results, Taiwanese junior high school English teachers are recommended to teach eighth graders when the morphophonological rules of the third person singular allomorphs should be applied in their oral production, in particular the [z] allomorph. Future studies are recommended to examine Taiwanese eighth graders’ perception and production of the third person singular allomorphs and the past tense allomorphs.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement i
Abstract iii
中文摘要 v
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables ix
List of Figures x
Chapter One Introduction 1
Background and Motivation of the Study 1
Purposes of the Study… 10
Research Questions 12
Significance of the Study 12
Definitions of Terms 13
Chapter Two Literature Review 15
Theoretical Constructs of the Production of the Third Person Singular Suffix 15
Two-step Interactive Action Model 15
WEAVER Model 16
L1 and L2 English Learners’ Acquisition Order of the Third Person Singular Suffix 19
L1 Learners’ Acquisition Order of Inflectional Morpheme 19
L2 Learners’ Acquisition Order of Inflectional Morpheme 22
L1 and L2 Learners' Difficulties in Oral Production of the Third Person Singular Suffix 27
L1 Learners’ Difficulties in Oral Production of the Third Person Singular Suffix 27
L2 Learners’ Difficulties in Oral Production of the Third Person Singular Suffix 28
Factors Affecting the Production of the Third Person Singular Suffix 31
L1 Transfer 32
Sentence Position 35
Processing Load 36
Markedness 36
Phonological Properties 38
Instruments Used to Measure the Production of the Third Person Singular Suffix 39
Summary of the Instruments Employed 42
Summary of Previous Findings 43

Chapter Three Methodology 46
Participants 46
Instruments 47
The Development of the Stimulus Items 47
The Morphological Awareness Test 47
The Speech Production Test 48
The Morphological Awareness Test 50
The Speech Production Test 52
Data Collection 53
Data Analysis 54
Chapter Four Results and Discussion 56
Taiwanese Eighth Graders’ Oral Production of the Third Person Singular Allomorphs 57
Low Achievers’ and High Achievers’ Oral Production of the Third Person Singular Allomorphs with the Places of Articulation, Manners of Articulation, Voicing Features of the Stems Taken into Account 62
Major Factors Influencing Learners’ Oral Production of the Third Person Singular Allomorphs 68
Chapter Five Conclusion 72
Summary of the Major Findings 72
Pedagogical Implications 74
Limitations of the Present Study 76
Suggestions for Future Studies 77
References 78
Appendix A: The Morphological Awareness Test (Test Sheet) 88
Appendix B: The Speech Production Test (Test Sheet) 90
Appendix C: The Morphological Awareness Test (Organized by Word Ending Phonological Properties) 92
Appendix D: The Speech Production Test (Organized by Word Ending Phonological Properties) 94
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