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研究生:陳玉珠
研究生(外文):Chin, Yoke Choo
論文名稱:自然環境教學增進自閉症類群障礙幼兒共享注意力之成效
論文名稱(外文):The Effeteness of Milieu Teaching in Enhancing Joint Attention of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
指導教授:田凱倩
口試委員:何美慧楊梅芝田凱倩
口試日期:2017-1-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:特殊教育系所
學門:教育學門
學類:特殊教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:自然環境教學自閉症幼兒共享注意力
外文關鍵詞:Milieu Teachingautism spectrum disordersjoint attention
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本研究旨在探討使用自然環境教學增進兩位自閉症類群障礙幼兒共享注意力的成效。研究採用單一受試實驗設計中的跨行為多試探設計。自變項為自然環境教學策略裡的示範、提示—示範和時間延宕策略。依變項為自閉症類群障礙幼兒的反應共享注意力與主動共享注意力的表現率。本研究的結果如下:
一、 自然環境教學能增進自閉症類障礙幼兒用食指指示的表現率。
二、自然環境教學能增進自閉症類障礙幼兒展示的表現率。
三、 自然環境教學能增進自閉症類障礙幼兒跟隨指示的表現率。
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of utilizing Milieu Teaching strategies in improving joint attention of two young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A single subject design of multiple probes across behaviors was utilized. The independent variable was milieu teaching, including model, mand-model, and time delay strategies. The dependent variables were participants’ response joint attention and initiate joint attention. The study found that Milieu Teaching enhanced ASD children’s performance rates of (a) pointing, (b)showing, and (c) following proximal point.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景及動機 1
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 3
第三節 名詞解釋 4
第二章 文獻探討 7
第一節 共享注意力發展對自閉症類群障礙兒童的影響 7
第二節 自然環境教學的策略 15
第三節 自然環境教學的應用與研究 24
第三章 研究方法 33
第一節 研究架構與設計 33
第二節 研究對象 40
第三節 介入方案 43
第四節 研究工具 49
第五節 研究步驟 50
第六節 資料處理 51
第四章 結果與討論 53
第一節 研究對象甲之共享注意力學習成效 53
第二節 研究對象乙之共享注意力學習成效 60
第三節 討論 67
第五章 結論與建議 68
第一節 結論 68
第二節 建議 69
參考文獻 72
附錄 80
附錄一 80
附錄二 81
附錄三 82
附錄四 83
附錄五 84
附錄六 85
一、中文部分
江淑蓉、彭雅淩、姜忠信、林家慶(2012)共用式注意力多元介入方案療效研究。三名學前中高功能自閉症男童的探討。特殊教育研究學刊,37(2),59-84。
林宏熾(1998)多重障礙學生情境語言教學策略。特教園丁,14(2),12-21。
姜忠信、宋維村(2001)自閉症精神疾病理學:回顧與前瞻。台灣精神醫學,15,3,169-183。
陳昱如、孫淑柔(2006)自然環境教學法對增進國小中度智慧障礙學生功能性語言之研究。特殊教育與復健學報, 15期,85-103頁。
張英鵬、曾碧玉(2011)自然環境教學法在融合情景中對特殊需求幼兒溝通能力之學習成效。慈濟大學人文社會科學學刊,(12)1-34。
許天威 (2003)個案實驗研究法。臺北市:五南圖書出版公司。
鳳華、周婉琪 、孫文菊、蔡馨惠(2015)自閉症兒童社會——情緒教育事務工作手冊。新北市:心理。



二、英文部分
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Bono, M. A., Daley, T., & Sigman, M. (2004). Relations among joint attention, amount of intervention and language gain in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 495-505.
Bruinsma, Y., Koegel, R. L., & Koegel, L. K. (2004). Joint attention and children with autism: A review of the literature. Mental Retardation Division Disabilities. 10,169- 175.
Brunner, J. (1975). From communication to language: A psychological perspective. Cognition, 3, 249-252.
Butterworth, G. E., & Jarrett, N. L. M. (1991). What minds have in common is space: spatial mechanisms serving joint visual attention in infancy. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 55-72.
Carbone, V. J., O’Brien, L., Sweeney-Kerwin, E. J., & Albert, K. M. (2013). Teaching eye contact to children with autism: A conceptual analysis and single case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 36(2), 139-159.


Carpenter, K., Nagell, K., & Tomasello, M. (1998). Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63, 1-143.
Charlop, M. H., & Walsh, M. E. (1986). Increasing autistic children’s spontaneous verbalizations of affection: An assessment of time delay and peer modeling procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 307-314.
Christensen-Sandfort, R. J., & Whinnery, S. B. (2013). Impact of milieu teaching on communication skills of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. 32, 211-222.
Dawson, G., Toth, K., & Abbott, R. (2004). Early social attention impairments in autism: Social orienting, joint attention and attention to distress. Development Psychology, 40, 271-283
Fey, M. E., Yoder, P. J., Warren, S. F., & Berdin-Oja, S. L. (2013). Is more better? Milieu communication teaching in toddlers with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 56, 679-693.
Fey. M. E., Warren. S.T., Brady. N., Frestack. L. H., Bredin-Oja. S. L., Fairchild. M., Sokol. S., & Koder. P.J. (2006). Early effects of responsively education/prelinguistic milieu teaching for children with developmental delays and their parents. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. 49, 526-547.
Hardcock, T. B., & Kaiser, A. P. (1996). Siblings’ use of milieu teaching at home. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 16, 168-190.
Hardcock, T. B., & Kaiser, A. P. (2002). The Effects of Trainer-Implemented enhance milieu teaching on the social communication of children with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22, 39-54.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 411-420.
Hart, B., & Rogers-Warren, A. (1978). A milieu approach to teaching language. In R. L. Schiefelbusch (Ed.), Language Intervention Strategies (pp.193-235). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.
Jones, E.A., & Carr, E.G. (2004). Joint attention in children with autism: Theory and Intervention. Focus in Autism and Other Develop-mental Disabilities. 19(1), 13-26.
Kaiser, A. P. (1993). Functioning language. In M. E. Snell (Ed.), Instruction of student with severe disabilities. New York, NY: Macmillan.
Kaiser, A. P., Ostrosky, M. M., & Alpert C. L. (1993). Training teachers to use environmental arrangement and milieu teaching with non-vocal preschool children. The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps 18(3). 188-199.
Kaiser, A. P., & Roberts, M. Y. (2013). Parent-implemented enhanced milieu teaching with preschool children with Intellectual disabilities. NIH Public Access 56(1). 295-309.
MacDuff, G. S., Krantz, P. J., MacDuff, M. A., & McClannahan, L. E. (1998). Providing incidental teaching for autistic children: A rapid training procedure for therapists. Education and Treatment of Children, 11, 205-217.


Mancil, G. R. (2009). Milieu therapy as a communication intervention: A review of the literature related to children with autism spectrum disorder. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 2009, 44(1), 105-117.
Meindl, J. (2014). Joint attention training in children with autism. In V. B. Patel, V. R. Preedy, and C. R. Martin (Eds), The comprehensive guild to autism. New York: Springer.
Mundy, P. (1995). Joint attention and social emotional approach behavior in children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 63-82
Mundy, P., Delgado, C., Block, J., Venezia, M., Hogan, A., & Seibert, J. (2003). Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS). University of Miami Psychology Department; Coral Gables, Florida.
Mundy, P., Sigman, M., & Kasari, C. (1990). A longitudinal study of joint attention and language development in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder, 20, 115-128.
Mundy, P., Sigamn, M., Ungerer, J., & Sherman, T. (1986). Defining the social deficits of autism: The contribution of non-verbal communication measures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 27, 657-669.
Mundy, P., & Thorp, D. (2007). Joint attention and autism: Theory, assessment and neurodevelopment. In Martos Perez, J., Gonzalez, P. M., Llorente Comi, M., & Nieto, C., (Eds.), New Developments in Autism: The Future is Today (pp. 104-138). New York, NY. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.


Mundy, P., Block, J., Delgado, C., Pomares, Y., Van Hacke, A. V., & Parlade, M. V. (2007). Individual differences and the development of joint attention in infancy. Child Development, 78(3), 938-954.
Naber, F. B. A., Swinkles, S. H. N., & Buitelaar, J.K. (2007). Joint attention and attachment in toddlers with autism. Journal Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 899-911.
Naber, F. B. A., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Ijzendoorn, M. H. (2008). Joint attention development in toddlers with autism. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 143-152.
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Paparella, T., Stickles Goods, K., Freeman, S., & Kasari, C. (2011). The emergence of nonverbal joint attention and requesting skills in young children with autism. Journal of Communication Disorders, 569-583.
Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Taylor, B. A., & Harris, S.L. (2008). Teaching children with autism to respond to and initiate bids for joint attention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 3-14.
Van Houten, R., & Hall, R. V. (2001). The measurement of behavior: Behavior modification-3th edition. Autism, TX: PRO-ED, Inc.
Warren, S. F., & Kaiser, A. P. (1988). Research in early language intervention. In S. L. Odom & M. B. Karner (Eds.), early intervention for infants and children with handicaps: An empirical base (pp.89 – 108). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.


Whalen, C., & Schreibman, L. (2003). Joint attention training for children with autism using behavior modification procedures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 456-468.
Woods, J. J., & Wetherby, A. M. (2003). Early identification of and intervention for infants and toddlers who are at risk for autism spectrum disorder. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 180-193.
Yeh, C. H. (1994). Using milieu language teaching to facilitate the communication skills of children with severe disabilities in home environments. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Co.
Yoder, P., & Stone, W. L. (2006). Randomized comparison of two communication intervention for preschooler with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psych ology, 74(3), 426-435.
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