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研究生:蔡憲誌
研究生(外文):Tsai, Xian-Zhi
論文名稱:應用無人空拍影像於區域面積估算
論文名稱(外文):Applying Unmanned Aerial Image to Estimate the Region Area
指導教授:鍾翼能鍾翼能引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung, Yi-Nung
口試委員:葉明宗游志忠鍾翼能
口試委員(外文):Yeh, Ming-TsungYu, Chih-ChungChung, Yi-Nung
口試日期:2017-06-02
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:61
中文關鍵詞:影像處理無人空拍機二階最小平方迴歸線邊緣檢測面積估算
外文關鍵詞:Image processingUnmanned aerial vehicleSecond order least square regression line theoremEdge detectionArea estimation
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本論文提出應用二階最小平方法所求得的迴歸線估算由無人空拍機所拍攝的區域影像之土地面積,利用空拍機的優勢,可於較不易步行進入之危險區域進行拍攝,獲取其區域及空拍機的狀態資訊,並可根據使用者的操作達到各角度及高度的拍攝,以獲取多樣化的資訊。
本方法首先使用空拍機蒐集各高度區間之操場草地區塊影像,在70至120公尺間進行數組相同面積之操場草地區塊影像之拍攝;影像處理部分首先設置感興趣區域,接著使用邊緣檢測及形態學處理找出部分區域範圍,並計算此範圍內的連通區域像素數目,便可得出此區域在不同高度下,每一像素數代表實際面積之多寡,根據此數據可推導出二階最小平方迴歸線,如此在已知高度下的空拍影像便能根據此法推算出某區域土地之實際面積。其平均誤差率約為5%以下。
This thesis proposes a method to measure region area in the field by using aerial images. The second order least squares regression line is applied in this research. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and image processing technology is used to capture images of the land and estimate area. The main advantage of using UAV to capture images is the higher degree of freedom; it can accord user's operation to capture from various angles and heights to obtain more diversified information. Even taking pictures of a dangerous area, the user can remotely control UAV in a safer place, and get the information of the area or the UAV in real time.
In the experiment, an UAV is used to get images of the playground grassland which region area has been known, and capture a series of images in this place with different height from 70 to 120 every ten meters. In image processing process, edge detection and morphology are used to find the range of the interest region, and then count the number of pixels of it. We can get the relation between the different height and per pixels of the real area. With the second order least square regression line theorem, we can estimate the unknown region area of field by the horizon height of the aerial images. Experimental results show that the average deviations of estimating unknown area are less than 5%.
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
目錄 iii
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究方法 3
1.3論文架構 5
第二章 影像處理技術 6
2.1影像變形校正 6
2.2色彩空間轉換 7
2.2.1 RGB色彩空間 7
2.2.2 HSV色彩空間 8
2.3影像增強 9
2.3.1直方圖等化 10
2.3.2邊緣銳利化 11
2.4色彩成分轉換 12
2.4.1灰階影像 12
2.4.2影像二值化 13
2.5感興趣區域及邊緣檢測 14
2.5.1感興趣區域 14
2.5.2邊緣檢測 15
2.6形態學處理 16
2.6.1侵蝕處理 17
2.6.2膨脹處理 18
2.6.3斷開處理 19
2.6.4閉合處理 20
2.7連通區域標記法 22
第三章 空拍影像資料彙整 23
3.1空拍影像蒐集 23
3.2區域面積與像素數關係彙整 31
3.2.1像素數計算 31
3.2.2二階最小平方法 32
第四章 實驗結果 34
4.1實驗用空拍機及測距輪介紹 34
4.1.1無人空拍機 34
4.1.2測距輪 36
4.2實驗結果與分析 38
4.2.1實驗結果分析比較 38
4.2.2 Google Earth Pro衛星影像估算面積 40
4.2.3最小平方迴歸線比較 41
4.2.4土地面積估算 44
4.2.5高度45公尺 45
4.2.6高度90公尺 46
4.2.7高度100公尺 47
4.2.8高度110公尺 48
4.2.9高度120公尺 49
4.2.10湖泊面積估算 50
4.2.11高度40公尺 51
4.2.12高度50公尺 52
4.2.13高度60公尺 53
4.2.14高度70公尺 54
4.2.15高度80公尺 55
4.2.16高度120公尺 56
第五章 結論與未來展望 57
5.1結論 57
5.2未來展望 57
參考文獻 58
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