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研究生:康詩敏
研究生(外文):Kang, Shih-Min
論文名稱:機器人輔助語言學習對台灣國小學童語調習得成效之研究
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Using Robot Assisted Language Learning for Promoting Taiwanese Young EFL Learners' Intonation Acquisition
指導教授:郭鳳蘭郭鳳蘭引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kuo, Feng-Lan
口試委員:莊琍玲吳文琪郭鳳蘭
口試委員(外文):Chuang, Li-LingWu, Wen-ChiKuo, Feng-Lan
口試日期:2017-06-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立彰化師範大學
系所名稱:兒童英語研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:超音段特徵語調習得語調類型機器人輔助語言學習(RALL)機器人教學助理傳統語調教學
外文關鍵詞:suprasegmentalsintonation acquisitiontypes of intonation patternsrobot assisted language learning (RALL)teaching assistant robotconventional intonation instruction
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近來,使用機器人輔助語言學習以促進教與學已在全世界蓬勃發展。先前的實證研究已證實以機器人作為教學助理來學習英語音段和超音段的可能性。然而,研究顯示,在聽者和講者之間,超音段特徵較音段特徵在溝通上更顯重要(Anderson-Hsieh,1990; Anderson-Hsieh,Johnson&Koehler,1992)。研究指出,台灣學生在說重音語言時傾向犯語調錯誤。然而,語調習得的教學並未充分體現在語文課程中。因此,本研究旨在比較機器人輔助語言學習 (RALL) 與傳統式教學對於台灣國小三年級學童語調習得之成效。
實驗組包含21名接受RALL語調教學的學生,而對照組則由21名接受傳統語調教學的學生所組成。教學實驗共持續九週,包含一週語調前測,六週語調教學,以及一週語調後測。此外,在第九週分別進行問卷調查與訪談。研究者開發之語調前測及後測涵蓋12題問句。實驗使用之教材改編自學童學校所使用之康軒:Follow Me, C版教科書,其對話聚焦於wh-, yes/no及tag問句。另外,研究者改編Gray Oral Reading Tests 4以呈現三種問句之教材。根據Keller (1987,2008) 的ARCS模型,研究者開發兩份24項5分量表版本之對應問卷,以了解學生對各自接受的語調教學之看法。
研究結果顯示,實驗組與對照組在語調口說表現均有顯著成長;兩組後測與進步分數之統計分析顯示,實驗組顯著優於對照組。此外,研究結果也顯示,兩組學童在三種句型的語調表現均有顯著進步。實驗組在yes/no問題和tag問題之語調表現顯著優於控制組。進一步總體問卷調查與其四個構面統計分析結果顯示,實驗組顯著優於控制組。此結果表明實驗組學童較對照組學童之語調學習更為專注、更有自信及擁有更積極的態度。

關鍵詞:超音段特徵、語調習得、語調類型、機器人輔助語言學習(RALL)、機器人教學助理、傳統語調教學
Using robot assisted language learning to facilitate teaching and learning is booming throughout the world recently. Previous studies have confirmed the potential of robots as teaching assistants for learning both English segmentals and suprasegmentals. However, researchers have shown the importance of suprasegmentals over segmentals in communication between the listeners and the speakers (Anderson-Hsieh, 1990; Anderson-Hsieh, Johnson & Koehler, 1992). Since research has indicated Taiwanese students’ tendency toward intonation errors in speaking a stress-timed language, instruction on intonation acquisition in Taiwan, nevertheless, has not been adequately reflected in language curricula. This study thus aimed to compare the effects of robot assisted language learning (RALL) and conventional instruction on Taiwanese EFL 3rd graders’ intonation production.
The experimental group included 21 students receiving the RALL intonation instruction, while the control group consisted of 21 students receiving the conventional intonation instruction. The experiment lasted for 9 weeks, including one-week intonation pretest, the six-week instruction, and a one-week intonation posttest. Moreover, a respective questionnaire and interviews were administered during the 9th week. The researcher-developed intonation production pretest and posttest included 12 questions. Teaching materials focusing on dialogues concerning wh-, yes/no, and tag questions were adapted from the participants’ textbook Kang-hsuan: Follow Me, the C edition. An additional teaching material, Gray Oral Reading Tests 4, was modified to address the three target intonation patterns. Based on Keller’s (1987, 2008) ARCS model, two versions of a 24-item 5-point Likert scale type of questionnaire were developed to examine the students’ attitudes toward the respective intonation instruction.
The results showed that both groups made significant growth in their intonation production performance, and the posttest scores and gain scores comparison between the two groups revealed significant differences. It is the RALL which contributed to greater learning gains than the conventional instruction. Moreover, the results showed the participants of both groups made significant improvement in the three types of intonation patterns. The participants of the RALL group performed significantly better than those of the control group. There were also significant differences between the respective group in terms of yes/no questions and tag questions. The RALL group significantly outperformed the control group. Further analysis revealed significant difference in terms of the overall ARCS questionnaire responses and the four individual scales responses between the two groups, and the interviews were elaborated, suggesting that the participants of the experimental group were more focused, had higher confidence and held very positive attitudes than those of the control group.

Keywords: suprasegmentals, intonation acquisition, types of intonation patterns, robot assisted language learning (RALL), teaching assistant robot, conventional intonation instruction
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------- 1
Background of the Study ----------------------------------------------------- 1
Research Motivation and Rationale ----------------------------------------- 3
Purpose of the Study ---------------------------------------------------------- 6
Research Questions ----------------------------------------------------------- 7
Significance of the Study ----------------------------------------------------- 8
Definition of Terms ----------------------------------------------------------- 9
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW --------------------------------- 12
The Use of Educational Service Robots in Teaching and Learning ---------- 12
Types of Robots ---------------------------------------------------------------- 12
Characteristics of Educational Service Robots in Language Teaching and
Learning -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13
The Application of Educational Service Robots in Teaching and
Learning -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14
Robot Assisted Language Learning in Foreign Language Classrooms -------- 17
The Role of Robots in Foreign Language Classrooms --------------------- 17
Educational Input and Output Methods of Robots ------------------------- 19
Empirical Studies of Robot Assisted Language Learning of
Pronunciation -------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
English Intonation Patterns ---------------------------------------------------------- 23
Approaches to English Intonation Patterns ---------------------------------- 23
Question Types of English Intonation Patterns ----------------------------- 24
The Significance of English Intonation -------------------------------------- 25
The Measurement of English Intonation Patterns -------------------------- 26
Acquisition of English Intonation Patterns ---------------------------------------- 28
English Intonation Development in Young Learners ----------------------- 28
Raising Young EFL Learners’ Awareness of English Intonation --------- 29
Useful Teaching Methods for Improving Young EFL Learners’
English Intonation Acquisition ------------------------------------------------ 30
CHAPTER THREE METHOD -------------------------------------------------------- 34
The Pilot Study ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 34
The Main Study ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
Participants ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
Instruments ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 42
Cambridge English Young Learners ------------------------------------ 42
Researcher-developed Intonation Production Pretest/Posttest ------ 42
Questionnaire -------------------------------------------------------------- 43
Interview Protocols ------------------------------------------------------- 44
Teaching Materials -------------------------------------------------------------- 45
Three Instructional Materials -------------------------------------------- 47
Experimental Design and Procedures ---------------------------------------- 48
Introduction of the English Teaching Assistant Robot --------------- 50
Introduction of English Intonation Acquisition Training for the
Respective Group --------------------------------------------------------- 54
Data Collection and Analysis -------------------------------------------------- 59
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION -------------------------------- 61
Effects between RALL Intonation Instruction and Conventional Intonation Instruction on the Participants’ Intonation Acquisition -------------------- 61
Effects of RALL Intonation Instruction and Conventional Intonation
Instruction on the Participants’ Acquisition of the Three Types of
Intonation Patterns -------------------------------------------------------------- 63
The Participants’ Attitudes toward the Respective Intonation
Instruction ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 67
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION ----------------------------------------------------- 77
Summary of the Major Findings ---------------------------------------------- 77
Effects of RALL Intonation Instruction and Conventional Intonation
Instruction on the Participants’ Intonation Acquisition -------------------- 77
Effects of RALL Intonation Instruction and Conventional Intonation
Instruction on the Participants’ Acquisition of the Three Types of
Intonation Patterns -------------------------------------------------------------- 79
Participants of the RALL Group and the Conventional Group’
Attitudes toward the Respective Intonation Instruction ------------------- 80
Pedagogical Implications ------------------------------------------------------ 82
Limitations of the Study and Suggestions for Future Studies ------------- 84
REFERENCES ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 86
APPENDICES ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 96
Appendix A Researcher-developed Intonation Production Pretest/Posttest
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 96
Appendix B Questionnaire of Intonation Acquisition for the RALL
Group (Chinese Version) ------------------------------------------------------- 98
Appendix C Questionnaire of Intonation Acquisition for the RALL
Group (English Version) ------------------------------------------------------ 101
Appendix D Questionnaire of Intonation Acquisition for the Conventional
Group (Chinese Version) ----------------------------------------------------- 104
Appendix E Questionnaire of Intonation Acquisition for the Conventional
Group (English Version) ------------------------------------------------------ 107
Appendix F Interview Questions for the RALL Group (Chinese Version) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 110
Appendix G Interview Questions for the RALL Group (English Version)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 111
Appendix H Interview Questions for the Conventional Group (Chinese Version) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 112
Appendix I Interview Questions for the Conventional Group (English Version) ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 113
Appendix J Sample Wh-question Intonation Lesson Plan for the RALL
Group --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 114
Appendix K Sample Wh-question Intonation Lesson Plan for the
Conventional Group ----------------------------------------------------------- 116
Appendix L Sample Review Lesson Plan for the RALL Group -------- 118
Appendix M Sample Review Lesson Plan for the Conventional Group 120
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