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研究生:黃柏霖
研究生(外文):HUANG, PO-LIN
論文名稱:全聚焦式陣列超音波對鋼材上沉積物與缺陷偵測之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study on the Detection of Sediment and Defects on Steels by Using Total Focusing Phased Array
指導教授:陳發忠陳發忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Fa-Chung
口試委員:方治國施能謙
口試委員(外文):Fang, Chih-KuoShie, Nang-chian
口試日期:2016-10-08
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:全聚焦陣列超音波合成孔徑技術沉積物檢測
外文關鍵詞:Total Focusing Phased ArraySynthetic Aperture Focusing TechniqueSediment detection
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本研究採用實驗與數值模擬方式,以超音波全聚焦斷層掃描及傳統超音波A-Scan(A掃描)單晶探頭檢測鋼材上的沉積物做檢測,並進一步對不同種類的沉積物和不同量的沉積物做檢測。藉由不同量的沉積物對超音波的衰減與阻尼效應,分析超音波全聚焦斷層掃描和傳統超音波單晶探頭做量化的可行性,並且將超音波全聚焦的A掃描數據執行合成孔徑技術(SAFT-Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique)模擬,以驗證合成孔徑技術在沉積物檢測上的增強效果。實驗結果顯示:固化後的沉積物能藉由超音波全聚焦斷層掃描直觀及振幅值做量化以達到沉積物檢測與量化分辨的要求。在傳統超音波單晶探頭感測器的實驗結果則顯示,固化後的沉積物能藉由反射波振幅值的量測,以達到沉積物檢測的要求。而傳統超音波單晶探頭及超音波全聚焦斷層掃描在沉積物固化前時則只能區分無沉積物及含有沉積物。研究中,執行合成孔徑技術運算與模擬,研究結果顯示,在沉積物衰減量化量測,以合成孔徑技術能獲得更靈敏與清楚的分辨能力。
在以超音波全聚焦斷層掃描檢測各種實際工業管路的缺陷及腐蝕時,針對碳鋼板及12英吋管路做鑽孔及以氬焊熔融表面模擬的腐蝕狀態來做檢測研究。在以超音波全聚焦斷層掃描檢測結果顯示:超音波全聚焦斷層掃描可以請楚分辨出缺陷、腐蝕、模擬腐蝕的存在,而在對實際工業管路的缺陷及腐蝕時實驗結果,超音波全聚焦能對各不同直徑的鋼管上內表面缺陷及腐蝕的存在,能夠以直觀的圖像清楚判別與偵測。

In this work, a new approach by using total focusing phased array and its simulation for the study on detection and location of different sediments on the inner surface of pipelines was carried out. The results were compared to the those obtained by using the conventional A-Scan ultrasonic measurement. Different kinds of sediments of various amounts were prepared for the experiments in this work.
Experimental results showed that the different kinds of sediments could be detected by the new trial of total focusing phased array technique, which indicated the testing results with a very straight forward and clear imaging to the inspector. The testing results were shown to be able to detect the sediments no matter it was in a dry (solid) status or it was in a paste status (liquid) before solidification. In addition, the quantitative results could be obtained to differentiate the different amount of solid sediments on the pipes. It showed the potential of quantitative evaluation of sediments. Similar results could be observed by using conventional ultrasonic A-Scan method as well, but the sensitivity was not as good as that of using total focusing phased array. In addition, the detection for wet sediments was shown with promised results for differentiation of existence of sediment but the testing results for quantitative evaluation was not positive in this study.
Simulation by using SAFT (Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) method was carried out in this work. SAFT technique was adopted by the total focusing phased array system used in this work as well. Simulated results clearly indicated the sensitivity of sediment detection can be enhanced by the SAFT technique. It was due to the essence of SAFT, which used multi-ultrasonic echoes to construct the SAFT results and could be more intense and clear compared to the one obtained by conventional A-Scan testing of single ultrasonic beam (echo).
In the study of using total focusing phased array on the corrosion status evaluation, an experiment was done on flat carbon steel plate and 12-inch carbon steel pipes with artificial corrosion defects. Some samples with natural corrosions obtained from the in-field petrochemical plants were tested as well. It’s shown the results of total focusing phased array detection could be used to detect the corrosion on the pipes evidently, qualitatively and quantitatively. However, the preliminary quantitative evaluation results were confirmed but more samples were expected to be done further for more evidence and verifications.

中文摘要I
英文摘要II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
第一章 諸論 1
第二章 文獻回顧 5
管路檢測的方法 5
1.γ射線檢測法 5
2.X射線管路爬行器檢測法 5
3.壓力差送球試驗法 6
4.管路量測應變法 6
5.管路多點壓力感測器法 6
6.磁漏檢驗法 7
7.超音波介面回波觀測法 7
8.水波頻率變化法 8
9.管路流體模型數值分析法 8
全聚焦式超音波技術的理論與基礎 12
超音波 12
超音波的衰減 13
波之傳遞性 13
發散角 14
相位陣列 15
工作原理 15
成像技術 16
超音波全聚焦成像 16
合成孔徑聚焦技術原理 17
研究採用之超音波檢測方法 18
脈波回波法(Pulse-Echo Method): 18
掃描與信號顯像方式分類 19
A掃描(A-scan) 19
斷層掃描(Tomography) 19
第三章研究設計與方法 21
實驗架構 22
(一)實驗設計 22
(二)儀器配備及裝置示意圖 22
2-1實驗材料 24
(三)超音波全聚焦斷層掃描儀 24
3-1 系統及參數設定 24
3-2數據分析 25
第四章 實驗數據與分析討論 26
鋼材上沉積物檢測與數值模擬 26
1.斷層掃描實驗結果與討論 26
2.數值模擬實驗結果與討論 35
3.單晶探頭的A掃描實驗結果與討論 48
缺陷之斷層掃描成像 58
對實際工業管路中的腐蝕及缺陷檢測 64
第五章結論與未來展望 70
結論 70
未來展望 71
參考文獻 72

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