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研究生:林書慶
研究生(外文):LIN, SHU-CHING
論文名稱:機器人碰撞之線上軌跡規劃
論文名稱(外文):On-line Trajectory Planning of Robot Collision
指導教授:吳宗亮
指導教授(外文):Wu, Tsung-Liang
口試委員:吳宗亮余志成孫榮宏
口試委員(外文):Wu, Tsung-LiangYU, Jyh-ChengSUN, Jung-Hung
口試日期:2017-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄第一科技大學
系所名稱:機械與自動化工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:虛擬環境碰撞偵測軌跡規劃層次包圍盒
外文關鍵詞:virtual environmentcollision detectiontrajectory planningbounding volume hierarchy
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目前機器人的碰撞偵測大多通過外部感測器,如利用視覺或者反饋力矩來檢測可能發生的碰撞,這類的方法對於未知的工作環境,機器人難以利用感測器分辨出未知的障礙物,也可能將另外一台協同的機器人誤判為障礙物。除此之外,為了防止馬達損壞或者人力傷亡等因素,機器人常設計成當發生異常時,藉由碰撞偵測的功能停止馬達運轉,待問題解決再重新啟動,然而在這一連串的自動化生產過程中,若發生停機,將會導致生產流程的總時間增加。
基於上述原因,本文提出了一種無感測器的碰撞偵測技術,並開發了碰撞後的軌跡規劃,將線上機器人的關節角度輸出至PC端,讓機器人彼此之間可以進行干涉測試,從而避免了感測器將協作機器人誤判為障礙物的問題,然而若以基本幾何元素進行干涉測試,其計算的代價非常高。為了能夠實現實時碰撞偵測,本研究利用幾何構造較為簡單的包圍盒取代複雜的機器人結構以簡化運算,並建構了層次包圍盒樹,若包圍盒樹的根結點發生碰撞,再遞迴對子節點進行碰撞偵測,可以快速排除不可能發生的物體對象,減少了不必要的數學開銷,最後當發生碰撞時則觸發其它事件,使機器人在不停機的狀態下,藉由飛機對飛閃避的概念更改路徑,完成任務的要求。
為了使機器人發生碰撞時所更改的路徑不發生異常震動,對於修正後的運動軌跡,本文提出了許多規劃運動方程式的方法以及概念,藉由定義其軌跡的邊界條件,將機器人各位置的離散點的運動參數加以計算,使每一點的位置、速度、加速度曲線平滑,由於MATLAB的機器人工具箱其中的teach函數,增加了機器人的可視性,因此,本文以MATLAB的機器人工具箱建立雙機器人模型進行碰撞測試,並驗證理論假設之可行性。

At present, most of the robot collision detection use the visual or feedback torque through the external sensor. The robot is difficult to distinguish unknown obstacles for the unknown working environment with this method. It may be another robot misjudged as obstacles. In addition, in order to prevent motor damage or human injury and other factors, the robot are often designed to stop motor by collision detection function when an abnormality occurs until the problem is solved and then restarted. However, in this series of automated production process, if the shutdown occurs, it will lead to the production process increased time.
For the above reasons, this paper presents a sensorless collision detection technology, and developed the trajectory planning after the collision, Output the robot of joint to the PC, so that robots can be carried out between each other interference testing, so as to avoid the sensor will with the robot as an obstacle problem. However, if use the basic geometric elements for interference testing, the calculation of the cost is very high. Therefore, in order to achieve real-time collision detection, this study uses a simple geometric structure of the bounding box to replace the complex robot structure to simplify the operation and construct a bounding volume hierarchy. If the root node of the box tree collides with it, it returns the attack to the child node, and the method can quickly exclude objects that can’t collision occur, and reduce the unnecessary mathematical overhead. Finally, when the collision occurs, the other events are triggered. Because of the concept that two aircrafts change the trajectory when they fly, we could know when the robot in the non-stop state, it would complete the requirements of the task.
In order to make the collision does not occur abnormal vibration when the trajectory of the robot change, this paper presents a number of methods and concepts of planning equations of motion. Defining the boundary conditions of its trajectory, the discrete position of the robot Point of the motion parameters to be calculated, so that the location of each point, speed, acceleration curve smooth, because of MATLAB robot toolbox which teach function, increase the visibility of the robot .So the robot toolbox of MATLAB establish two robots mathematical model to collision test and verify the feasibility of the theoretical assumptions for this paper.

目錄
                      
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 1
1.3 論文架構 2
第二章 機器人碰撞偵測文獻回顧 4
2.1 碰撞偵測技術 4
2.2 機器人軌跡規劃 5
2.3 研究方法 5
第三章 機器人運動學 8
3.1 座標系介紹 8
3.1.1 平移變換 8
3.1.2 旋轉變換 10
3.1.3 平移且旋轉變換 11
3.2 正向運動學介紹 12
3.3 逆向運動學介紹 16
第四章 碰撞偵測技術 21
4.1 主成份分析 21
4.2 層次包圍盒技術 26
4.3 分離軸定理 27
第五章 機器人碰撞後之軌跡再規劃 36
5.1 機器人碰撞對策 36
5.2 機器人軌跡產生與規劃 37
5.2.1 時間分配 37
5.2.2 速度、加速度分配 38
5.2.3 姿態規劃 39
5.2.4 關節空間運動軌跡規劃 40
5.2.5 笛卡爾空間運動軌跡規劃 42
5.2.6 笛卡爾空間直線運動軌跡精度計算 43
5.3 LOTES R605B1圖形化使用者介面 44
第六章 研究結果與討論 49
第七章 結論與未來展望 55
7.1 結論 55
7.2 未來展望 55
參考文獻 56
附錄A 57


參考文獻
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