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研究生:曾奕燕
研究生(外文):Tseng, Yi-Yen
論文名稱:探討飼料之中鏈脂肪酸對點帶石斑成長、營養素消化率及脂質代謝之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of dietary medium chain fatty acid on growth, nutrient digestibility and lipid metabolism in orange-spotted grouper,Epinephelus coioides
指導教授:林鈺鴻
指導教授(外文):Lin, Yu-Hung
口試委員:蕭錫延謝淑玲
口試委員(外文):Shiau, Shi-YenHsieh, Shu-Ling
口試日期:2016-07-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:水產養殖系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:108
中文關鍵詞:中鏈脂肪酸脂質代謝點帶石斑(Epinephelus coioides)
外文關鍵詞:medium chain fatty acidlipid metabolismEpinephelus coioides
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本研究探討飼料之中鏈脂肪酸(medium-chain fatty acid)對點帶石斑(Epinephelus coioides)成長表現、營養素消化率及脂質代謝之影響。實驗一,基礎飼料(SBM)以黃豆粉取代40%魚粉蛋白,椰子油組以基礎飼料並額外添加0.5 (SBC0.5)、1 (SBC1.0)、1.5 (SBC1.5)及2% (SBC2.0)的椰子油,另以全魚粉組(FM)作為對照,飼料油脂為10%,而基礎飼料油脂同對照組,椰子油組之油脂分別為10.5、11、11.5及12%,共六組飼料,每組三重複,每缸放養20尾石斑魚(平均初重為38.04 ± 0.24 g),以循環水系統進行養殖,實驗為期八週。各組之增重率、飼料效率、存活率、腹脂率、肝臟之蘋果酸酵素活性及營養素消化率結果顯示,均不受椰子油影響。脂肪酸分析顯示,肝臟及背肌的脂肪酸組成反應飼料組成,而各組肝臟中則均未檢測出月桂酸(lauric acid, C12:0),背肌之C12:0則隨椰子油添加上升,且椰子油各組之月桂酸消化率均高於90%以上。實驗一由肝臟及背肌C12:0分析顯示,C12:0可於肝臟中代謝,並可蓄積於背肌中,且C12:0消化率均高於90%以上,證實點帶石斑魚可有效利用中鏈脂肪酸。實驗二,以適量油脂組(10F)作為對照,高油脂組(15F)為控制組,椰子油組以高油脂組並以1 (15F1C)、3 (15F3C)、5% (15F5C)之椰子油取代等比例飼料魚油,飼料油脂均為15%,實驗飼料共五組,以循環水系統進行養殖,每組三重複, 每缸放養30尾石斑魚(平均初重為8.53 ± 0.13 g),實驗進行八週。增重率15F3C組顯著高於10F及15F5C兩組,但與其餘各組無顯著差異,肝臟之蘋果酸酶酵素活性顯示,相較其餘各組,以15F1C有較高趨勢,並顯著高於10F組,而脂質代謝相關基因表現亦顯示,肉鹼棕櫚醯基轉移酶(carnitine palmitoyltransferase, CPT1-α)、脂肪酸合成酶(fatty acid synthase, FAS)、脂肪酸去飽和酶(fatty acid desaturase, FAD)、過氧化體增生活化受體(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-γ)及脂肪酸延長酶(fatty acid elongase, FAE)均以15F1C顯著最高,而神經胜肽(neuropeptide Y, NPY)基因表現量以15F顯著最高,其餘各組無顯著差異。由實驗二結果顯示,於高油脂飼料(15F)添加1%椰子油可促進脂質代謝相關之基因表現量(CPT1-α, FAS, FAD, PPAR-γ, FAE),證實,高油飼料中添加1% 之椰子油可促進點帶石斑魚脂質代謝。
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary medium chain fatty acid on growth, digestibility and lipid metabolism of juvenile grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Experiment Ι, the basal diet with 40% soybean meal substituting to 40% fishmeal protein was supplemented with coconut oil (rich in lauric acid, C12:0) 0.5 (SBC0.5), 1 (SBC1.0), 1.5 (SBC1.5) and 2% (SBC2.0), resulting 10.5, 11, 11.5 and 12% of total lipid, respectively. All fish meal diet (FM) with 10% lipid was used for comparison. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of 20 fish (initial weight: 38.04 ± 0.24 g) in a closed recirculating rearing system for 8 weeks. Weight gain, feed efficiency, survival, visceral fat content, hepatic malic enzyme activity and nutrient digestibility were not affected by dietary treatments. Fatty acid profiles of liver and muscle generally reflected the composition of the diet. No lauric acid was determined in liver in all dietary treatments. Muscle lauric acid increased with increment of dietary coconut oil levels. The digestibility of C12:0 appears high (>90 %) in all coconut oil supplemented treatments. The results suggest that grouper can utilize medium-chain fatty acid well. Experiment Π, fish oil was replaced by coconut oil at 1 (15F1C), 3 (15F3C), and 5% (15F5C) in the basal diet (15F) containing 15% lipid. The diet with 10% lipid (10F) was also included for comparison. Five experimental diets were each fed to triplicate groups of 30 juvenile groupers (initial weight: 8.53 ± 0.13 g) in a recirculating rearing system for 8 weeks. Weight gain was higher in fish fed 15F3C than 15F5C and the 10F diet, but no significant differences with others diets. Fish fed the 15F1C diet had higher hepatic malic enzyme activity than fish fed the 10F diet. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid desaturase (FAD), fatty acid elongase (FAE) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) gene expressions were all the highest in fish fed the 15F1C diet. Fish fed the 15F diet was observed up-regulated neuropeptide (NPY) gene expression compared with other dietary treatments. The results suggest that 1% coconut oil supplemented in high lipid diet (15%) has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in grouper.
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 ......... III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 X

第一章、文獻回顧
1.1石斑魚的養殖背景 1
1.2解決飼料中魚粉的問題 2
1.3脂肪酸 3
1.4飼料中的油脂 8
1.5中鏈脂肪酸-月桂酸 10
1.6脂質代謝之相關基因 12

第二章、探討飼料中添加富含中鏈脂肪酸之椰子油餵飼點帶石斑對其成長、脂質吸收及代謝之影響(實驗一)
2.1摘要 16
2.2前言 17
2.3材料與方法 18
2.4結果 33
2.5討論 53

第三章、探討高油脂飼料中添加中鏈脂肪酸對點帶石斑魚脂質代謝與相關基因表現之影響(實驗二)
3.1摘要......................................................................................................60
3.2前言......................................................................................................61
3.3材料與方法 62
3.4結果......................................................................................................74
3.5討論......................................................................................................88
第四章、總結論 95
參考文獻 96
附錄一、脂肪酸標準品之圖譜 106
作者簡介 108
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