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研究生:陳子豪
研究生(外文):Chen, Tzu-Hao
論文名稱:機車防鎖死剎車系統之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of a Anti-Lock Braking System for Scooters
指導教授:曾全佑曾全佑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tseng, Chyuan-Yow
口試委員:董必正許哲嘉
口試委員(外文):Tung, Pi-ChengSheu, Jer-Jia
口試日期:2017-07-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:車輛工程系所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:防鎖死剎車系統車輛剎車動態路面摩擦係數估測滑動率估測滑動模式控制
外文關鍵詞:Anti-Lock Braking SystemVehicle DynamicsRoad Friction EstimationSlip Ratio EstimationSliding Mode Control
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我國法規規定,2019起新出廠機車必須安裝防鎖死剎車系統(Anti-lock Braking System, ABS)或者是連動剎車系統(CBS),此一法規由歐盟開始,各國陸續跟進,目前為全球機車安全法規的發展趨勢。市面上的防鎖死剎車系統裝置主要針對碟盤卡鉗式油壓剎車為主,少有針對鼓式剎車系統之ABS產品。然而,全球每年約7000萬的機車銷售量中,約有70%為配備雙鼓式或前碟後鼓式剎車的中低價車種,因此本研究主要探討機車鼓式防鎖死剎車系統的關鍵技術。
一般機車行駛時,除了良好路面的緊急剎車之外,一般行駛的剎車把手入力範圍集中於中小入力範圍,亦即手把入力15kgf,在安全與舒適性的考量之下,該操作條件均以後輪剎車為主。後輪若鎖死將導致甩尾而失去車身的方向穩定性,因此本研究針對後輪鼓式剎車ABS。主要構想為設計一種ABS電控模組,於使用剎車時,若偵測出後輪的滑動率(Slip Ratio)超過設定值,驅動該模組,以微調後輪剎車鋼繩的張力,而進行ABS控制。研究工作包括ABS電控模組機構設計,防鎖死剎車系統設計與製作,包括滑動率估測、路面摩擦係數估測、ABS控制邏輯設計與分析,模組實驗平台測試,以及實車測試驗證等,其中,ABS控制以滑動控制(Sliding Mode Control, SMC)法為主。
本研究已經完成一套機車鼓式防鎖死剎車系統之硬體與控制軟體,以及性能評估。實車測試結果顯示,於60km/hr緊急剎車時,實驗車若未啟動ABS控制,後輪滑動率將達1.0而完全鎖死。啟動ABS時,可將後輪滑動率控制在0.1~0.4之間,車輪未完全鎖死,而且減速度保持0.43G,與原車未打滑時之最大減速度0.45G相較,只損失了0.02G,顯示ABS在使車輪不鎖死的條件下,仍能保有剎車效能。在失效影響方面,若防鎖死剎車系統失效,按壓剎車把手仍能正常啟動剎車,剎車鋼繩力量傳導效率與原車相同,亦即,ABS系統失效不會影響原剎車性能。
關鍵字 : 防鎖死剎車系統、車輛剎車動態、路面摩擦係數估測、滑動率估測、滑動模式控制。
According to a new regulation of Taiwan, all new factory scooters must be equipped with Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS) or combined brake system (CBS). This regulation was initiated by European Union and is the main trend of the global safety standards for scooters. Currently, most of the ABS products are for hydraulic disc brake system, it is seldom designed for drum brake systems. However, among about 70 million scooter sales around the world every year, about 70% are of middle-low price scooters and are equipped with drum brake either on rear wheel or on both the front and rear wheels. Therefore, this thesis is focused on developing an ABS system for scooter drum brake system.
For scooters, besides emergency brake condition, most of brake operations are using rear wheel brake with a force range of no more than 15 kilogram applied to the brake hand lever. Because rear wheel locked up may cause vehicle sideslip and thus loss vehicle directional stability. this thesis is aimed at rear drum brake ABS, hereafter DABS.
The DABS is of closed-loop electronic control system. The control module estimates rear wheel slip ratio during braking on-line, when the rear wheel slip ratio is over a specific value, the control module preciously adjusts wire tension of the rear brake to make the ABS control. With this aim, the works in this thesis include mechanism design for ABS actuator, system design, wheel slip ratio estimation, road friction estimation, control algorithm design, numerical simulations, and finally the performance verification experiments.
The proposed DABS has been implemented on a 125cc light weight scooter. The test results on emergency brake from 60 Km/hr to stop showed that for the case of braking without ABS control, rear wheel will be locked-up with the slip ratio of 100%, while the case for the DABS applied, the slip ratio was well controlled within 10%~40%, and the resulting deceleration can reach 0.43G, only degrade 0.02G compared with the case for without ABS applied. Furthermore, the effect of the DABS failure has been performed. It was shown that the failure of the DABS has no effect on the efficiency of the original braking systems.
Keywords:Anti-Lock Braking System, Vehicle Dynamics, Road Friction Estimation, Slip Ratio Estimation, Sliding Mode Control.
摘要 I
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
圖目錄 IX
第1章緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2文獻回顧 2
1.3 論文架構 5
第2章機車防鎖死剎車系統建立 6
2.1系統設計流程 6
2.2 ABS控制模組設計:TYPE_A 7
2.3 ABS控制模組設計:TYPE_B 12
2.4 ABS機構可行性評估 18
第3章測試平台與量測系統建置 21
3.1 ABS裝置實驗平台設計 21
3.2 實驗平台設備 23
3.2.1力量感測器 23
3.2.2 線性制動器 23
3.2.3電流感知器 24
3.2.4控制晶片 24
3.3 實驗車輛 25
3.3.1輪速感知器 26
3.3.2加速度規 27
3.3.3 VBOX儀器 28
3.4 訊號濾波與車速驗證 28
3.4.1卡爾曼濾波器 28
3.4.2卡爾曼濾波器驗證 30
3.4.3前輪車速驗證 31
第4章 數值模擬 33
4.1兩輪機車整車剎車模型建立 33
4.2 ABS控制方法 36
4.3整車剎車動態模擬分析 41
第5章 防鎖死剎車系統驗證 48
5.1 ABS機構平台測試 48
5.2 ABS機構實車測試 51
第6章 結論與建議 61
參考文獻 63
作者簡介 65
[1] Kenneth R. Buckholtz, 2002, “Reference Input Wheel Slip Tracking Using Sliding Mode Control,” Delphi Automotive Systems, pp.3-5.
[2] Ahmet Okyay, 2011, “Sliding Mode Control Algorithm Development for Anti-Lock Brake System”, Middle East Technical University, pp.36-50.
[3] Diego Pedroso dos Santos, Eduardo Lobo Lustosa Cabral, 2008, “A novel method for controlling an ABS(Anti-Lock Braking System),” Polytechnic School of the University, pp.2.
[4] William B. Ribbens, Jack A. Ribbens, Ron Fredricks, 2007, “Sliding Mode Observer – Based ABS Offers Advantages for HD Truck Applications,” University of Michigan. pp.5-7.
[5] Robert Bosch GmbH, 2011, Chassis Systems Control Effective braking for a good ride with motorcycle ABS with form BOSCH , BOSCH.
[6] Chen-Ching Ting, 2011, “Frictional Force,” Mechanical Engineering , National Taipei University of Technology.
[7] Brain Fildes, Stuart Newstead, Matteo Rizzi, 2015, “Adoption of Anti-lock Braking Systems(ABS) for motorcycle in Australia,” Discussion paper, pp.4-14.
[8] Kimihisa Furukawa, Toshiyuki Uchida, Yoichi Hori, “Proposal of Maximum Road Friction Coefficient Estimation without Chassis Velocity Measurement for Electric Vehiclel,” The University of Tokyo, pp.1-6.
[9] 蔡政龍,2014,應用滑動模式控制於混合制動系統,遠東學報第三十一卷第一期,第2-6頁。
[10] 汪柏年,2009,以模糊積分式滑動控制器運用於永磁同步馬達之電流迴路控制,碩士論文,國立成功大學,電機工程學系。
[11] 朱奕蒼,2012,應用路面狀況估測於防鎖死剎車系統之研發,碩士論文,國立台北科技大學,車輛工程系。
[12] 行政院環保署,http://www.epa.gov.tw/
[13] 剎車系統,https://classroom.u-car.com.tw/classroom-detail.asp?cid=21
[14] 車輛研究測試中心試車場部,ABS實車測試項目,https://www.artc.org.tw/chinese/03_service/03_02detail.aspx?pid=1942
[15] 李苗鋒,淺談簡單卡爾曼濾波器,http://www.csbcnet.com.tw/monthly_pub/data/475/02%E5%B0%88%E9%A1%8C%E5%A0%B1%E5%B0%8E/01%E6%B7%BA%E8%AB%87%E7%B0%A1%E5%96%AE%E5%8D%A1%E7%88%BE%E6%9B%BC%E6%BF%BE%E6%B3%A2%E5%99%A8.pdf
[16] 痞客邦,車用感知器介紹,http://eatontseng.pixnet.net/blog/post/102731098-%E7%AC%AC%E5%8D%81%E4%B8%89%E7%AB%A0%EF%BC%9A%E8%BB%8A%E7%94%A8%E6%84%9F%E6%B8%AC%E5%99%A8%E4%BB%8B%E7%B4%B9
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