( 您好!臺灣時間:2021/02/25 02:28
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  


研究生(外文):Putri Nurhanida Rizky
論文名稱:評估黄芩(Scutellaria baicalensis)熱水萃取物抗海鱺(Rachycentron canadum)發光菌(Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida)與寄生蟲(Piscicola geometra)之作用
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Scutellaria baicalensis root hot water extract effects on Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Piscicola geometra of cobia (Rachycentron canadum)
指導教授:鄭達智 博士
指導教授(外文):Dr. Ta Chih Cheng
口試委員:邱亞伯 博士 鄭達智 博士
口試委員(外文):Dr. Ir. Happy Nursyam, MSDr. Albert Linton CharlesDr. Ta Chih Cheng
外文關鍵詞:Scutellaria baicalensis rootcobiaoral feedinginnate immunebathing
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:72
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:16
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
The root of Scutellaria baicalensis has been used as a drug for anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, free-radical scavenging, antioxidant and immunostimulatory effects. The root of S.baicalensis has a high content of flavonoids (over 40%) including baicalin, wogonin, wogonoside, chrysin, oroxylin-A, and skullcap flavones. The aim of this study is to analyze the antibacterial and anti-parasitic activity of S.baicalensis root by water extraction, supplemented in cobia fed and as a bath treatment. S.baicalensis root water extract supplemented in fish feed failed to reduce the number of marine leeches. However, it showed high accuracy to enhance the growth performance, feed utilization, and disease resistance against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida after 30 days of feeding health cobia and 90 days with leech infestation. Cobia fed supplemented S.baicalensis root water extract also showed significant enhancement of myeloperoxidase content, peroxidase content, and lysozyme activity in cobia serum. Moreover, S.baicalensis root water extract up-regulated the expression of TLR-9, IL-1β, IgM, and TNF-α in the spleen. 1% concentration of S.baicalensis root water extract supplemented in feed showed the high accuracy to enhance growth performance, innate immune system and disease resistance of cobia against bacteria infection. Bathing treatment of cobia shows the 60% mortality and detachment of the leeches (Piscicola geometra) after 72 hours exposure with 500X and 1000X dilution of S.baicalensis root water extract. Therefore, there was no significant cell damage, or lesions of the cobia gills, spleen, kidney, and liver. This study proved the use of S.baicalensis root water extract as an immunostimulant in cobia culture industry with significant efficacy, low cost, and ease of practice.
Keywords: Scutellaria baicalensis root, cobia, oral feeding, innate immune, bathing,
摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgments IV
List of tables X
List of figures XI
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objectives 3
2. Literature review 4
2.1 Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) 4
2.1.1 Taxonomy and morphology of cobia 4
2.1.2 Distribution of cobia 5
2.1.3 Disease of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) 7
2.2 Scutellaria baicalensis 10
2.3 Fish immune organ 12
2.4 Fish immune system 13
2.4.1 Cytokine 15
2.4.2 Humoral defense factor 15
3. Materials and methods 20
3.1 Flow chart for feeding trial of cobia and immune responses studies 20
3.2 Experimental design feeding trial 20
3.3 Feeding trial and fish experimental design 21
3.4 Extract preparation and stock solution 22
3.4.1 Bacterial challenge 22
3.4.2 Growth rate 23
3.4.3 Fish blood and tissue collection 23
3.5 Humoral immunity 24
3.5.1 Myeloperoxidase content 24
3.5.2 Peroxidase activity 24
3.5.3 Serum lysozyme activity 24
3.5.4 Total RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis 25
3.5.5 qRT-PCR 26
3.6 Statistical analysis 27
3.7 Flow chart examination of toxicity of Scutellaria baicalensis root aqueous extract 28
3.8 Leeches experimental design 29
3.9 Fish experimental design of bathing treatment 29
3.10 Histology 30
3.11 Statistical analysis 30
4. Result and discussion 31
4.1 Effect of S.baicalensis root water extract on the growth performance, feeding rate, and survival rate of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) 31
4.1.1 Fish growth performance (1st experiment of feeding trial) 31
4.1.2 Fish growth performance (2nd experiment of feeding trial) 38
4.2 Effect of Scutellaria radix water extract on the non-specific immune responses of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) 45
4.2.1 Serum myeloperoxidase content 45
4.2.2 Serum peroxidase content 46
4.2.3 Serum lysozyme activity 47
4.3 Effect of S.baicalensis root water extract on the cytokine gene related of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) 50
4.4 Behavior of Piscicola geometra 56
4.5 Toxicity of S.baicalensis root water extract on Piscicola gemoetra in cobia culture 57
4.6 Toxicity of S.baicalensis root water extract on cobia (Rachycentron canadum) 59
4.6.1 Behavior of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) 60
4.6.2 Histology 61
4.6.3 Effect of leech in cobia culture 66
4.6.4 Effect of Toxicity of S.baicalensis root water extract on Piscicola geometra attack to the cobia body 67
5. Conclusion 70
References 72
Bio sketch of Author 88
Akyol, Okan, and Vahdet Ünal. 2013. Second record of the cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Actinopterygii: Perciformes; Rachycentridae), from the Mediterania sea. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 43.(4) : 315-317.
Alexander, J. B. and G. A. Ingram. 1992. Noncellular nonspecific defence mechanisms of fish. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 2: 249-279.
Allison, E. 2011. Aquaculture, fisheries, poverty and food security.
Ardo,L., Guojun.Y., Pao.X., Laszlo.V., Gabor.S., Zsigmond.J., and Galina.J. 2008. Chinese herbs (Astragalus membranaceous and Lonicera japonica) and Boron Enhance the Nonspecific Immune Response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Resistance Against Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquaculture 257 : 26-33.
Arslan, N. and Ö. Emiroğlu. 2011. First record of parasitic annelida-hirudinea (Piscicola geometra Linnaeus, 1761) on Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782) in Lake Uluabat (Turkey). America 12: 25.
Awad, E., Austin, D., and Lyndon, A. R. 2013. Effect of black cumin seed oil (Nigella sativa) and nettle extract (Quercetin) on enhancement of immunity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquaculture, 388–391 : 193-197.
Ayotunde, E., Fagbenro, O., and Adebayo, O. 2011. Histological changes in Oreochromis niloticus (linnaeus i779) exposed to aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds powder. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11(1) : 37-43.
Baba, E., Uluköy, G., and Öntaş, C. 2015. Effects of feed supplemented with Lentinula edodes mushroom extract on the immune response of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and disease resistance against Lactococcus garvieae. Aquaculture, 448 : 476-482.
Bae, J. Y., Park, G. H., Lee, J. Y., Okorie, O. E., and Bai, S. C. 2012. Effects of dietary propolis supplementation on growth performance, immune responses, disease resistance and body composition of juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica. Aquaculture International 20(3): 513-523.
Belardelli, F. and M. Ferrantini. 2002. Cytokines as a link between innate and adaptive antitumor immunity. Trends Immunol 23(4): 201-208.
Benetti, D. D., Orhum,M,R., Sardanberg,B., O’Halon, B., Welch,A., Hoenig,R., and Palmer, K. 2008. Advances in hatchery and grow‐out technology of cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus). Aquaculture Research 39(7): 701-711.
Benetti, D. D., O'Hanlon, B., Rivera, J. A., Welch, A. W., Maxey, C., and Orhun, M. R. 2010. Growth rates of cobia (Rachycentron canadum) cultured in open ocean submerged cages in the Caribbean. Aquaculture 302(3): 195-201.
Beutler, B. 2004. Innate immunity: an overview. Molecular Immunology, 40(12): 845-859.
Blach-Olszewska, Z., and Lamer-Zarawska, E. 2008. Come back to root-Therapeutic activities of Scutellaria baicalensis root in aspect of innate immunity regulation-Part I. Advances in clinical and experimental medicine, 17(3): 337-345.
Bochořáková, H., Paulová, H., Slanina, J., Musil, P., and Táborská, E. 2003. Main flavonoids in the root of Scutellaria baicalensis cultivated in Europe and their comparative antiradical properties. Phytotherapy Research, 17(6): 640-644.
Bourgaud, F., Gravot,A., Milesi, S., and Gontier, E. 2001. Production of plant secondary metabolites: a historical perspective. Plant Science 161(5): 839-851.
Byadgi, O., Puteri, D., Lee, J.-W., Chang, T.-C., Lee, Y.-H., Chu, C.-Y., and Cheng, T.-C. 2014. The effect of TLR9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotides on the intestinal immune response of cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Journal of immunology research, 2014.
Cantanhede, S. M., da Silva Castro, G., Pereira, N. J., de Pinho Campos, J. S., da Silva, J., Tchaicka, L., and Santos, D. M. 2016. Evaluation of environmental quality of two estuaries in Ilha do Maranhao, Brazil, using histological and genotoxic biomarkers in Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces, Centropomidae). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 23(20): 21058-21069.
Castro, R.., Piazzon, M. C., Noya, M., Leiro, J.M., and Lamas, J. 2008. Isolation and molecular cloning of a fish myeloperoxidase. Molecular Immunology 45(2): 428-437.
Chi, Y. S., Lim, H., Park, H., & Kim, H. P. 2003. Effects of wogonin, a plant flavone from Scutellaria radix, on skin inflammation: in vivo regulation of inflammation-associated gene expression. Biochemical Pharmacology, 66(7): 1271-1278.
Chmelova, L., Sehonova, P., Doubkova, V., Plhalova, L., Blahova, J., Tichy, F., and Svobodova, Z. 2016. Effects of therapeutic formalin bath on selected indices in fish. Neuro endocrinology letters, 37(Suppl1).
Cho, S. H., Jeon, G. H., Kim, H. S., Kim, D. S., and Kim, C. 2013. Effects of Dietary Scutellaria baicalensis Extract on Growth, Feed Utilization and Challenge Test of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 26(1): 90-96.
Chou, R.-L., Su, M. S., and Chen, H. Y. 2001. Optimal dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture 193(1–2): 81-89.
Chu, K. B., Abdulah, A., Abdullah, S. Z., and Bakar, R. A. 2013. A Case Study on the Mortality of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) Cultured in Traditional Cages. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 24(2): 77-84.
Chung, H.-L., Yue,G.G.L., To. K.F., Su, Y. L., Huang, Y., and Ko, W. H. 2007. Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. World journal of gastroenterology 13(42): 5605.
Craig, S. R., Schwarz, M. H., and McLean, E. 2006. Juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum) can utilize a wide range of protein and lipid levels without impacts on production characteristics. Aquaculture, 261(1): 384-391.
Dada, A., and Olugbemi, B. 2013. Dietary effects of two commercial feed additives on growth performance and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. African Journal of Food Science, 7(9): 325-328.
Dane, H., and Sisman, T. 2017. A histopathological study on the freshwater fish species chub (Squalius cephalus) in the Karasu River, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 41(1): 1-11.
Dhaneesh, K. V., Noushad, K. M., and Kumar, T. T. A. 2012. Nutritional evaluation of commercially important fish species of Lakshadweep archipelago, India. PloS one 7(9): e45439.
Dügenci, S. K., Arda, N., and Candan, A. 2003. Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 88(1): 99-106.
Ellis, A. 1999. Immunity to bacteria in fish. Fish & shellfish immunology 9(4): 291-308.
Estrada, U. R., Yasumaru, F. A., Tacon, A. G., and Lemos, D. 2015. Cobia (Rachycentron canadum): A Selected Annotated Bibliography on Aquaculture, General Biology and Fisheries 1967–2015. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture.
Fafioye, O. and A. Adebisi. 2001. Toxic effect of Raphia vinifera on fish leech (Piscicola geometra). In : 14th Anual Conference of the Fisheries Society of Nigeri (FISON), Ibadan, Nigeria, pp.176-182.
Franck, T., Konhen, S., Boudjeltia, K.Z., Van Antwepwen, P., Bosseloir, A., Niesten, A., and Serteyn, D. 2009. A new easy method for specific measurement of active myeloperoxidase in human biological fluids and tissue extracts. Talanta 80(2): 723-729.
Galina, J., Yin, G., Ardo, L., and Jeney, Z. 2009. The use of immunostimulating herbs in fish. An overview of research. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 35(4): 669-676
Geng, X., Dong, X, H., Tan, B. P., Yang, Q.H., Chi, S. Y., and Liu, X.Q. 2011. Effects of dietary chitosan and Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease resistance of cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Fish & shellfish immunology 31(3): 400-406.
Geng,X., X-H.Dong., B.P.Tan., Q.H.Yang., S.Y.Chi., H.Y, Liu., and X.Q.Liu. 2012. Effects of Dietary Probiotic on the Growth Performance, Non-specific Immunity and Disease resistance of Cobia Rachycentron canadum. Aquculture Nutrition 18(1): 46-55.
Genten, F., Terwinghe, E., and Danguy, A. 2009. Atlas of fish histology: Science Publishers.
Guardiola, F. A., Cuest, A., Arizcun, M., Meseguer, J., and Esteban, M.A. 2014. Comparative skin mucus and serum humoral defence mechanisms in the teleost gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Fish & shellfish immunology 36(2): 545-551.
Guo, J. J., Kuo, C. M., Hong, J. W., Chou, R. L., Lee, Y. H., and Chen, T. I. 2015. The effects of garlic-supplemented diets on antibacterial activities against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Streptococcus iniae and on growth in Cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture 435: 111-115.
Haqqani, A. S., Sndhu, J. K., and Birnboim, H.C. 1999. A myeloperoxidase-specific assay based upon bromide-dependent chemiluminescence of luminol. Analytical biochemistry 273(1): 126-132.
Harikrishnan, R., Balasundaram, C., and Heo, M.-S. 2011. Impact of plant products on innate and adaptive immune system of cultured finfish and shellfish. Aquaculture 317(1): 1-15.
Hitzfeld, B. 2005. Fish Immune System. In H.-W. Vohr (Ed.), Encyclopedic Reference of Immunotoxicology (pp. 242-245). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Kaiser, J. B., & Holt, G. J. 2005. Species profile. Cobia. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center and the United States Department of Agriculture(7202), 6.
Kaneko, T., Chiba, H., Horie, N., Kato, T., Kobayashi, M., Hashimoto, K., and Sakagami, H. 2009. Effect of Scutellariae radix ingredients on prostaglandin E2 production and COX-2 expression by LPS-activated macrophage. In Vivo, 23(4), 577-581.
Kearn, G. C. 2004. Leeches, lice and lampreys. A natural history of skin and gill parasites of fishes. Dordrecht: Springer.
Kim, D. H., Yun, C. H., Kim, M. H., Naveen Kumar, C., Yun, B. H., Shin, J.-S., Lee, Y. S. 2012. 4′-Bromo-5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone represses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and COX-2 expressions by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 22(1): 700-705.
Kim, H.-M., Moon, E. J., Li, E., Kim, K. M., Nam, S. Y., and Chung, C. K. 1999. The nitric oxide-producing activities of Scutellaria baicalensis. Toxicology 135(2): 109-115.
Knight and jones, E.W. 1962. The systemtics of marine leeches. 169-186 in Leeches, their structure, physiology, ecology and embriology
Kum, C., & Sekkin, S. 2011. The immune system drugs in fish: immune function, immunoassay, drugs: INTECH Open Access Publisher.
Kumar, V. and A. Sharma. 2010. Neutrophils: Cinderella of innate immune system. International immunopharmacology 10(11): 1325-1334.
Kumar, S., Raman, R. P., Pandey, P. K., Mohanty, S., Kumar, A., and Kumar, K. 2013. Effect of orally administered azadirachtin on non-specific immune parameters of goldfish Carassius auratus (Linn. 1758) and resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish & shellfish immunology, 34(2): 564-573
Landsberg, J. H. 1982. Infection strategies of fish ectoparasites.
LaRock, C. N., Todd, J., LaRock, D. L., Olson, J., O’Donoghue, A. J., Robertson, A. A., and Nizet, V. (2016). IL-1β is an innate immune sensor of microbial proteolysis. risk, 100(200): 300.
Lee, C.-S. 2015. Dietary Nutrients, Additives and Fish Health: John Wiley & Sons.
Lee, D.-H., Lim, S.-R., Han, J.-J., Lee, S.-W., Ra, C.-S., and Kim, J.-D. 2014. Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition Changes in Fingerling Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 27(9): 1303-1310.
Lee, F. F.-Y., Hui, C.-F., Chang, T.-H., and Chiou, P. P. 2016. Alternative Splicing of Toll-Like Receptor 9 Transcript in Teleost Fish Grouper Is Regulated by NF-κB Signaling via Phosphorylation of the C-Terminal Domain of the RPB1 Subunit of RNA Polymerase II. PLoS ONE, 11(9), e0163415.
Li, H.-B., Jiang, Y., and Chen, F. 2004. Separation methods used for Scutellaria baicalensis active components. Journal of Chromatography B 812(1–2): 277-290.
Li, C., Lin, G., and Zuo, Z. 2011. Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics properties of Radix Scutellariae and its bioactive flavones. Biopharmaceutics & drug disposition, 32(8) :427-445.
Liao, I. C., Huang, T. S., Tsai, W. S., Hsueh, C. M., Chang, S. L., and Leano, E. M. 2004. Cobia culture in Taiwan: current status and problems. Aquaculture 237(1–4): 155-165.
Lin, M.-C., Tsai, M.-J., and Wen, K.-C. 1999. Supercritical fluid extraction of flavonoids from Scutellariae Radix1. Journal of Chromatography A, 830(2): 387-395.
Liu, A., Huang, L., Fan, H., Fang, H., Yang, Y., Liu, S., and Dahmen, U. 2015. Baicalein pretreatment protects against liver ischemia/reperfusion injury via inhibition of NF-κB pathway in mice. International Immunopharmacology, 24(1): 72-79.
Liu, J., Wang, S., Sun, J., Shi, J., Li, Y., Gou, J., and. He, L. 2014. Screening of osteoanagenesis-active compounds from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi by hPDLC/CMC–online-HPLC/MS. Fitoterapia, 93: 105-114.
Liu, P. C., Lin, J. Y., and Lee, K. K. 2003. Virulence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in cultured cobia Rachycentron canadum. Journal of basic microbiology, 43(6): 499-507.
Logambal, S. M., Venkatalakshmi, S., and Michael, R. D. 2000. Immunostimulatory effect of leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters). Hydrobiologia. 430(1-3): 113-120.
Luo,J.L., Fen-Ling,L., Yi-Chu,L., and Chi-Fang,L. 2012. Identification of Scuttelari Baicalensis in Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation by LC/MS Fingerprint Method. Journal of food and Drug Analysis 20 (4):887-899.
Madhuri, S., Mandloi, A., Govind, P., and Sahni, Y. 2012. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against fish pathogens.
Magnadottir, B. 2010. Immunological control of fish diseases. Mar Biotechnol (NY), 12(4): 361-379.
Magnadóttir, B. 2006. Innate immunity of fish (overview). Fish & shellfish immunology, 20(2): 137-151.
Mahmoud, M., El-Lamie, M., Dessouki, A., and Yusuf, M. 2014. Effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, and resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Pseudomonas fluorescens challenge. Global Research Journal of Fishery Science and Aquaculture, 1(12): 26-33.
Mai, C. W., Yap, K. S. I., Kho, M. T., Ismail, N. H., Yusoff, K., Shaari, K.,and. Lim, E. S. H. 2016. Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau Extracts: Inhibition of Cytokine Production and Toll-Like Receptor-4 Activation. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7: 7.
Makkar, H. P., Siddahuraju, P., and Becker, K. 2007. Plant secondary metabolites. Humana.
Mann, K. H. 1962. Leeches (Hirudinea): their structure, physiology, ecology and embryology. Pergamon 11: 22-35
Mann, K. H. 1956. A study of the oxygen consumption of five species of leech. J. exp. Biol 33: 615-626.
McLean, E., Salze, G., and Craig, S. R. 2008. Parasites, diseases and deformities of cobia. Ribarstvo 66(1): 1-16.
Mehana, E. E., Rahmani, A. H., and Aly, S. M. 2015. Immunostimulants and fish culture: an overview. Annual Research & Review in Biology, 5(6): 477.
Meyer, M. C. 1940. A revision of the leeches (Piscicolidae) living on fresh-water fishes of North America. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 59(3): 354-376.
Moreira, C. B., Rombenso, A.N., Candiotto, F.B., and Tsuzuki, M.Y. 2015. Feeding frequency affects growth of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum cultured in near-shore cages. Bol. Inst. Pesca, São Paulo 41(2): 219-226.
Muluye, R. A., Bian, Y., and Alemu, P.N. 2014. Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Heat-Clearing Chinese Herbs: A Current Review. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 4(2): 93-98
Musthofa, S. Z., Zmroni, M., and Kadarini, T. 2016. Penggunaan probiotik komersial pada pemeliharaan ikan rainbow kurumoi (Melanotaeni parva). Prosiding forum inovasi teknologi akukulture 1 (1): 901-907.
Naeemi, A., Jamili, S., Shabanipour, N., Mashinchian, A., and Shariati Feizabadi, S. 2013. Histopathological changes of gill, liver and kidney in Caspian kutum exposed to Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonate. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12(4): 887-897.
Nguyen, M. V., Ronnestad, I., Buttle, L., Vn. L. H., and Espe, M. 2014. Evaluation of a high plant protein test diet for juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum in comparison to commercial diets. Journal of Agricultural and Crop Research 2(6): 117-125.
Nhu,V.C., Huy,G.N., Thanh,L.L., Mai,T.T., Patrick,S., Krsitof,D., Helge,R., Elin,K., and Niels,S. 2011. Cobia Rachycetron canadum aquaculture in Vietnam: Recent development and prospects. Aquaculture, 315: 20-25.
Nwabueze, A. A. 2013. A preliminary investigation on the toxicity of tetracera alnifolia on piscicola geometra in fish culture. Agricultural Science, 1(2): 1-9.
Pandey, G., Madhuri, S., and Mandloi, A.K. 2012. Medicinal plants useful in fish diseases. Pl. Arch 12(1): 1-4.
Parham, P. 2014. The immune system. Garland Science
Parkin, J. and B. Cohen. 2001. An overview of the immune system. The Lancet 357(9270): 1777-1789.
Parry, R. M., Chandn, R. C., and Shnani, K. M. 1965. A rapid and sensitive assay of muramidase. Experimental Biology and Medicine 119(2): 384-386.
Perera, H., and Pathiratne, A. 2010. Effects of short term exposure to therapeutic levels of formalin on health status of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 33(4).
Pomari, E., Stefanon, B., and Colitti, M. 2014. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages. Journal of inflammation research, 7:103.
Quade, M. J. and J. A. Roth. 1997. A rapid, direct assay to measure degranulation of bovine neutrophil primary granules. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 58(3): 239-248.
Rahmat, A., Alauddin, R. S., Sumaiyah, S., and Ramli, N. S. 2014. Comparison of protein, total fat, and omega-3 fatty acids content in yellowtail catfish (Pangasius pangasius) and long tail shad (Hilsa (clupea) macrura) in raw and pressurized fish. International Food Research Journal, 21(6): 2147-2153.
Rauta, P. R., Nayak, B., and Das, S. 2012. Immune system and immune responses in fish and their role in comparative immunity study: a model for higher organisms. Immunology Letters, 148(1): 23-33.
Reverter, M., Bontemps, N., Lecchini, D., Banaigs, B., and Sasal, P. 2014. Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: Current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture, 433: 50-61.
Rico, A., Phu, T. M., Satapornvanit, K., Min, J., Shahabuddin, A., Henriksson, P. J., and Van den Brink, P. J. 2013. Use of veterinary medicines, feed additives and probiotics in four major internationally traded aquaculture species farmed in Asia. Aquaculture, 412: 231-243.
Righton, D., Rikardsen, A., Hedger, R., Chittenden, C., Davidsen, J., Okland, F., and Aarestrup, K. 2015. Spatial segregation of ocean migrating Atlantic salmon. In ICES Annual Science Conference 2015.
Romalde, J. L. 2002. Photobacterium subsp. piscicida: an integrated view of a bacterial fish pathogen. International Microbiology 5(1): 3-9.
Sahoo, P., Kumari, J., and Mishra, B. 2005. Non‐specific immune responses in juveniles of Indian major carps. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 21(2): 151-155.
Santos, D. M. S., Melo, M. R. S., Mendes, D. C. S., Rocha, I. K. B. S., Silva, J. P. L., Cantanhêde, S. M., and Meletti, P. C. 2014. Histological Changes in Gills of Two Fish Species as Indicators of Water Quality in Jansen Lagoon (São Luís, Maranhão State, Brazil). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(12): 12927-12937.
Saurabh, S. and P. Sahoo. 2008. Lysozyme: an important defence molecule of fish innate immune system. Aquaculture Research 39(3): 223-239.
Serrano, A. 2013. Effects of Quillaja saponins on growth, feed efficiency, digestive enzyme activities and metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Aquaculture Nutrition, 19(4): 468-474.
Shaffer, R.V. and E.L. Nakamura, 1989. Synopsis of biological data on the cobia Rachycentron canadum (Pisces: Rachycentridae). NOAA Tech. Rep. NMFS 82, FAO Fisheries Synopsis 153.
Shang, X., He, X., He, X., Li, M., Zhang, R., Fan, P., and Jia, Z. 2010. The genus Scutellaria an ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 128(2): 279-313.
So, M.-H., and Choi, Y.-K. 2015. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Combination of Scutellariae Radix and Liriopis Tuber Water Extract. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM, 2015, 203965.
Subeenabegum, S., and Navaraj, P. 2016. Dietary supplement of mixture of medicinal plant leaf extracts on immune response of fresh water fish Mystus keletius. IJAR, 2(2): 361-364.
Syahidah, A., Saad, C., Daud, H., and Abdelhadi, Y. 2015. Status and potential of herbal applications in aquaculture: A. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 14(1): 27-44.
Takeuchi, O., and Akira, S. 2010. Pattern Recognition Receptors and Inflammation. Cell, 140(6): 805-820.
Tan, B. K. and J. Vanitha. 2004. Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial effects of some traditional Chinese medicinal herbs: a review. Current medicinal chemistry 11(11): 1423-1430.
Tort, L., Balasch, J. C., and Mackenzie, S. 2003. Fish immune system. A crossroads between innate and adaptive responses. Inmunología 22(3): 277-286.
Treml, J., and Šmejkal, K. 2016. Flavonoids as potent scavengers of hydroxyl radicals. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 15(4): 720-738.
Turvey, S. E., and Broide, D. H. 2010. Innate immunity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 125(2, Supplement 2), S24-S32.
Van der Vaart, M., Spaink, H. P., and Meijer, A. H. 2012. Pathogen recognition and activation of the innate immune response in zebrafish. Advances in hematology, 2012.
Vongsombath, C., De, Boer, H. J., and Palsson, K. 2011. Keeping leeches at bay: Field evaluation of plant-derived extracts against terrestrial blood-sucking leeches (Haemadipsidae) in Lao PDR. Acta tropica 119(2): 178-182.
Wang, J. L., Meng, X. L., Lu, R. H., Wu, C., Luo, Y. T., Yan, X., and Nie, g. X. 2015. Effects of Rehmannia glutinosa on growth performance, immunological parameters and disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Aquaculture 435: 293-300.
Weirich, C. R., Smith, T. I., Denson, M. R., Stokes, . D., and Jenkins, W. E. 2004. Pond Culture of Larval and Juvenile Cobia, Rachycentron canadum, in the Southeastern United States. Journal of Applied Aquaculture 16(1-2): 27-44.
Whyte, S. K. 2007. The innate immune response of finfish A review of current knowledge. Fish & shellfish immunology, 23(6): 1127-1151.
Wu, X., Zhang, H., Salmani, J. M. M., Fu, R., and Chen, B. 2016. Advances of wogonin, an extract from Scutellaria baicalensis, for the treatment of multiple tumors. OncoTargets and therapy, 9: 2935-2943.
Yin, G., Jeney, G., Racz, T., Xu, P., Jun, X., and Jeney, Z. 2006. Effect of two Chinese herbs (Astragalus radix and Scutellaria radix) on non-specific immune response of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, 253(1–4): 39-47.
Zhao, Q., Chen, X.-Y., and Martin, C. 2016. Scutellaria baicalensis, the golden herb from the garden of Chinese medicinal plants. Science Bulletin, 61(18): 1391-1398.
Zhong, J. J. 2011. 3.27 - Plant Secondary Metabolites A2 - Moo-Young, Murray. Comprehensive Biotechnology (Second Edition). Burlington, Academic Press: 299-308.
Zhou, Q., Wang, L., Wng, H., Xie, F., and Wang, T. 2012. Effect of dietary vitamin C on the growth performance and innate immunity of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Fish & shellfish immunology 32(6): 969-975.
Zhu, D., Wang, S., Lawless, J., He, J., and Zheng, Z. 2016. Dose Dependent Dual Effect of Baicalin and Herb Huang Qin Extract on Angiogenesis. PLoS ONE, 11(11), e0167125.
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔