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研究生:方曼菲
研究生(外文):Phumaphi Prudence Dlamini
論文名稱:以蔗渣栽培鮑魚菇及杏鮑菇之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Using Sugarcane Bagasse for Cultivating Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)
指導教授:陳麗鈴陳麗鈴引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lih-Ling Chern
口試委員:石信德王均琍陳麗鈴
口試委員(外文):Hsin-Der ShihChun-Li WangLih-Ling Chern
口試日期:2017-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:熱帶農業暨國際合作系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:史瓦濟蘭甘蔗渣Pleurotus介質
外文關鍵詞:Swazilandsugarcane bagassePleurotussubstrate
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摘 要
學號: M10422019
論文題目: 以蔗渣栽培鮑魚菇及杏鮑菇之研究
總頁數:56頁
學校名稱: 國立屏東科技大學 系別: 熱帶農業暨國際合作系
畢業時間及摘要別:105學年度第2學期碩士學位論文摘要
研究生:方曼菲
指導教授:陳麗鈴 博士
論文摘要內容:
鮑魚菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)為史瓦濟蘭的主要菇蕈栽培種類,為側耳科(Pleurotacea)下的一種食用菇蕈,其使用的栽培基質通常是禾桿及玉米秸稈及玉米芯,這些基質在夏天及冬天也用於飼養牲畜。本研究利用甘蔗渣(bagasse)去栽培鮑魚菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)和杏鮑菇(P. eryngii)並比較蔗渣中添加各種營養物之效果,從而找出利用甘蔗渣作為介質栽培這兩種菇類的最佳營養水平,可望取代史瓦濟蘭日常用於餵飼牲畜的物料。研究中亦測試其他生長條件,包括P. ostreatus和P. eryngii的菌絲最適生長溫度、pH。結果顯示,P. ostreatus菌絲的最佳生長溫度為26、28及30˚C,而P. eryngii菌絲的最佳生長溫度為26˚C 和28 ˚C。兩種菇類之菌絲在未調pH的PDA上均有較佳的生長。而在調過pH的PDA上,兩種菇類之菌絲均偏好在pH7中生長,其次為pH5、6及8,生長在pH4中最差。菌絲在木屑或蔗渣基質添加不同養料之試驗結果顯示,P. ostreatus及P. eryngii於木屑基質中的菌絲生長均較蔗渣基質的快。出菇實驗中,第一次試驗(生長溫度維持於17-19℃)結果顯示,P. eryngii在木屑或蔗渣基質添加不同養料之配方在出菇產量方面無顯著差異。而P. ostreatus產菇試驗結果顯示以木屑基質栽培的產量較蔗渣添加不同養料的低。第二次產菇試驗(溫度維持於21.5-22℃)中使用蔗渣基質添加不同養料,結果P. eryngii並未出菇,而P. ostreatus於第三種處理的產量最好。史瓦濟蘭的冬天
II
均溫為12℃,可能較適合栽培P. eryngii。綜合上述結果顯示蔗渣添加玉米粉及米糠,搭配適當的溫度及酸鹼值可用於栽培鮑魚菇及杏鮑菇。
關鍵字: 史瓦濟蘭,甘蔗渣,Pleurotus,介質
Abstract
Student ID: M10422019
Title of Thesis: Study on Using Sugarcane Bagasse for Cultivating Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)
Total Pages: 56 Pages
Name of Institute: Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Graduate Date: July 27, 2017 Degree Conferred: Master Degree
Name of Student: Phumaphi Dlamini Advisor: Lih-Ling Chern, Ph.D.
The Contents of Abstract in This Thesis:
The only mushroom produced in Swaziland is Pleurotus ostreatus and the substrates commonly used are grass straw and maize stalk and cobs which are grazed by livestock interchangeably during summer and winter respectively. The study aims at evaluating yield response of P. ostreatus and P. eryngii when cultivated using sugarcane bagasse as substrate at various nutrition levels of corn powder and rice bran in the same cultivation conditions. Mycelial growth of the two mushrooms was tested at different temperatures, pH levels and nutrition supplement levels of substrates. Effect of different temperatures (p=0.05) on mycelial growth cultivated on PDA agar plates was significantly different for both mushrooms on the sixth day. For P. ostreatus the range was 37.9-88.9 mm with best growth diameter observed at 26, 28 and 30˚C while for P. eryngii mycelial growth diameter range was 22.8-67.6 mm where it was best at 26 and 28˚C and both had the lowest growth at 32˚C. Effects of pH were also significantly different on the sixth day where
IV
unadjusted PDA was better for both mushroom mycelial growths. The range was 58.3-88.7 mm and 34.1-69.1 mm for P. ostreatus and P. eryngii respectively. In adjusted condition, P. ostreatus favored pH 7 for growth, followed by 5, 6 and 8, and P. eryngii mycelial growth favored pH 7, followed by pH 6, then pH 5 and 8 with pH 4 being the least performing for both mushrooms. There was also significant difference between mycelial growths in the substrate tubes with various levels of nutritional supplements on the twenty first day. The range was 66.8-91.6mm in length and 40.5-64.2 mm for P. ostreatus and P. eryngii respectively. The sawdust substrate was best for both mushrooms mycelial growth at the various levels of nutrient treatments. In experiment 1 when temperature was maintained between 17-19oC there was no significant difference between substrates with various nutritional supplements in the average yield per bag of P. eryngii where the range was 38.30-62.86 g/bag and 33.01-55.51 g/bag for flush 1 and 2 respectively. For P. ostreatus there was significant difference in the first 2 flushes and no significant difference in the third flash. The range was 62.76-125.47 g/bag, 31.58-51.66 g/bag and 11.0-27.12 g/bag for flushes 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Sawdust substrate exhibited lower yield in the first and third flush. The flushing interval was 6 days and 14 days interval for P. ostreatus and P. eryngii respectively. In experiment 2 when temperature was maintained between 21.5 and 22oC the P. eryngii did not produce fruiting bodies. P. ostreatus yield of 3 flushes ranged from 43.9-177.7 g/ 4bags, 76.33-203.3 g/ 4 bags and 80.33-187.5 g/4 bags for the flushes 1, 2 and 3 respectively cultivated on sugarcane bagasse. Treatment 3 had the highest average yield for all flushes. P. eryngii can be cultivated in winter in Swaziland where average temperatures are usually 12oC. Both mushrooms can be cultivated using sugarcane bagasse as a substrate supplemented correctly with corn powder and rice bran at optimum temperature and pH levels.
Keywords: Swaziland, sugarcane bagasse, Pleurotus, substrate
Table of contents
Chinese Abstract ............................................................................................ I
English Abstract ............................................................................................. III
Acknowledgement ....................................................................................... ....V
Table of contents ............................................................................................ VII
List of tables …………………………………………………………….….IX
List of figures ............................................................................................. ..XI
1. Introduction ................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Problem Statement ................................................................................... 3
1.2 Objectives ................................................................................................. 3
1.3 Specific experimental objectives ............................................................. 3
1.4 Assumption of the study .......................................................................... 4
2. Literature Review .......................................................................................... 5
2.1 Mushroom ................................................................................................ 5
2.2 Oyster and king oyster mushroom ........................................................... 5
2.3 Mushroom cultivation .............................................................................. 7
2.3.1. Physical requirements ....................................................................... 8
2.3.2 Substrate and nutrition ....................................................................... 9
2.3.4 Economic and social benefits .......................................................... 11
2.3.5 Current and prospect of cultivation of Pleurotus mushroom in Swaziland .................................................................................................. 11
3. Materials and Methods ................................................................................ 14
3.1 Experimental site .................................................................................... 15
3.2 Preparation of Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium ........................... 15
3.3 Isolation and preserving of mushroom slants ........................................ 15
3.4 Test for mycelial run at different temperatures ..................................... 16
3.5 Test for mycelial run at different pH levels ........................................... 16
3.6 Wheat grain medium preparation ........................................................... 17
3.7 Spawn making ........................................................................................ 17
3.8 Substrate preparation .............................................................................. 17
3.8.1 The Experiment ................................................................................ 18
3.9 Test for mycelial run in substrate tubes ................................................. 19
3.10 Culturing of bags .................................................................................. 19
VIII
3.11 Design of experiment and data collection ............................................ 19
3.12 Total mushroom yield .......................................................................... 20
3.13 Total marketable mushroom yield ....................................................... 20
3.14 Mushroom pileus (cap) diameter ......................................................... 20
3.15 Mushroom stipe (stalk) length ............................................................. 20
3.16 Cropping house practice....................................................................... 21
3.17 Data analysis ........................................................................................ 21
4. Results ......................................................................................................... 22
4.1 Effect of different temperatures on the mycelia growth of P. ostreatus and P. eryngii ............................................................................................... 22
4.2 Effect of mycelial growth at different pH levels ................................... 26
4.3 The pH of substrate ................................................................................ 30
4.4 Effect of mycelial growth in nutrient supplemented substrate tubes ..... 31
4.4.1 P. ostreatus ...................................................................................... 31
4.4.2 P. eryngii mushroom ........................................................................ 33
4.5 Days to full colonization of substrates ................................................... 35
4.6 Average yield ........................................................................................ 36
4.6.1 Yield experiment per bag ................................................................. 36
4.6.2 Yield per replication ........................................................................ 39
4.7 Average marketable yield ..................................................................... 41
4.8 Pileus diameter ....................................................................................... 42
4.9 Stipe length............................................................................................. 43
4.10 Biological efficiency of P. ostreatus and P. eryngii cultivated in bagasse substrate at different nutrition levels .............................................. 44
5. Discussions .................................................................................................. 46
6. Conclusions ................................................................................................. 49
7. References ................................................................................................... 50
8. Appendix of definition of Terms ................................................................ 55
9. Biosketch of Author .................................................................................... 56
IX
List of tables List of tablesList of tables List of tablesList of tables List of tables
Table 1 Effect of temperatures on the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus cultivated on PDA for 6 days. ......................................................................... 24
Table 2 Effect of temperatures on the mycelial growth of P. eryngii cultivated on PDA for 6 days. .......................................................................................... 25
Table 3 Effect of pH on the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus cultivated on PDA and incubated for 6 days ........................................................................ 28
Table 4 Effect of pH on the mycelial growth of P. eryngii cultivated on PDA ......................................................................................................................... 29
Table 5 pH levels of bagasse and sawdust substrate treatments measured after sterilization ...................................................................................................... 30
Table 6 Effect of nutrient formulations on the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus cultivated on bagasse and sawdust substrate tubes over 21 days ................... 32
Table 7 Effect of nutrient formulations on the mycelial growth of P. eryngii cultivated on bagasse and sawdust substrate tubes over 21 days ................... 34
Table 8 Number of days to full colonization of substrates ............................ 35
Table 9 Effect of nutrient formulations on the total yield of P. eryngii cultivated on bagasse and sawdust substrate bag ............................................ 38
Table 10 Effect of nutrient formulations on the total yield of P. ostreatus cultivated on bagasse and sawdust substrate bags .......................................... 39
Table 11 Average total yield of oyster mushroom under different treatments in bagasse substrate ......................................................................................... 40
Table 12 Marketable yield of oyster mushroom under different treatments in bagasse substrate observed from 3 replications consisting of 4 bags each. .... 41
X
Table 13 Pileus diameter of oyster mushroom under different treatments in bagasse substrate over 3 flushes ...................................................................... 43
Table 14 Average stipe length of oyster mushroom under different treatments in bagasse substrate over 3 flushes .................................................................. 44
Table 15 Biological efficiency of P. ostreatus grown on different nutrition supplements ..................................................................................................... 45
Table 16 Biological efficiency of P. eryngii grown on different nutrition supplements ..................................................................................................... 45
XI
List List List of Figuresof Figures of Figuresof Figuresof Figures of Figures
Figure 1: Some of equipment and materials used in the experiment ............. 14
Figure 2: Mycelial growth of oyster and king oyster mushrooms in PDA plates incubated at different temperatures (A.20, B.22, C.24, D.26, E.28, F.30 and G.32oC) for 6 days. .................................................................................. 23
Figure 3: Mycelial growth of oyster and king oyster mushrooms in PDA plates at different pH levels (A. unadjusted pH, B. 4. C. 5, D. 6; E. 7 and F. 8) and incubated for 6 days at 26oC. .................................................................... 27
Figure 4: Mycelial Growth of oyster mushrooms in bagasse and sawdust substrate with different nutrient formulations of corn: rice (A= Bagasse T1- 10% corn:10% rice bran, B= Bagasse T2- 10% corn :5% rice bran, C= Bagasse T3- 5% corn:10 % rice bran, D= Sawdust T1- 10% corn:10% rice bran, E= Sawdust T2- 10% corn :5% rice bran, F= Sawdust T3- 5% corn:10 % rice bran) incubated for 21 days. ................................................................ 31
Figure 5: Mycelial Growth of King Oyster Mushrooms in bagasse and sawdust substrate with different nutrient formulations of corn: rice (A= Bagasse T1- 10% corn:10% rice bran, B= Bagasse T2- 10% corn :5% rice bran, C= Bagasse T3- 5% corn:10 % rice bran, D= SawdustT1- 10% corn:10% rice bran, E= SawdustT2- 10% corn :5% rice bran, F= Sawdust T3- 5% corn:10 % rice bran).................................................................................. 33
Figure 6: Fruiting bodies of king oyster mushrooms at two substrates with different treatments of nutrient supplement cultivated between 17 and 19oC. (A=Sawdust T1- 10% corn: 10% rice bran, B= Bagasse T1- 10% corn: 10% rice bran, C= Bagasse T2- 10% corn: 5 % rice bran and D= Bagasse T3- 5% corn: 10% rice bran) ........................................................................................ 37
Figure 7: Fruiting bodies of oyster mushrooms in bagasse with different treatments of nutrient supplement. (Left= Bagasse T1- 10% corn :10% rice
XII
bran, Center= Bagasse T2- 10% corn:5 % rice bran, right= Bagasse T3- 5% corn:10% rice bran) ......................................................................................... 38
Figure 8: Oyster mushrooms fruiting bodies from the three bagasse treatments before harvesting of experiment 2 with set growing temperatures of 21 to 22oC. ................................................................................................... 40
Figure 9: Ten randomly selected mushrooms of oyster from the three bagasse treatments for cap and stalk measurement ...................................................... 42
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