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研究生:蔡岱玲
研究生(外文):Tai-Ling Tsai
論文名稱:產學合作下的企業自主創新
論文名稱(外文):Enterprise Independent Innovation Under The Industry-University Cooperation
指導教授:陳以亨陳以亨引用關係
指導教授(外文):I-Heng Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:99
中文關鍵詞:創新體系大學城產學合作自主創新創新創業
外文關鍵詞:Innovation SystemIndustry-University CooperationIndependent InnovationEntrepreneurshipUniversity Town
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企業自主創新能力包含原創能力,加強整合創新的能力及廣泛吸收外部知識的能力。台灣產業結構以中、小企業及代工製造為主,原創能力一直未被重視。透過產學合作是企業提升自主創新能力最好的方式。本研究以質性研究方式,參考主要機構創新評比指標了解創新環境的基本要素。同時整理比較美國及台灣產學合作環境,包含智慧財產保護政策、產學合作相關法案、區域經濟的支援、人才培育、產學生態系統。另以史丹福大學、華盛頓大學及台灣成功大學,三所學校產學合作狀況來了解台灣產學合作不足之處。除以資料分析方式探討如何營造良好的創新環境外,本研究以一項以設計創新為目標的產學合作案來檢視產,學合作時的互動關系。透過訪談合作案主要參與者了解到良好的產、學關係需要互動經驗,同時雙方都需要相當的合作能力。若一方缺乏合作能力則可能因缺乏專業知識而產生創新觀念上的落差。另外產、學在沒有共同發展利益的架構上互動也容易阻礙合作的進行。最後本研究針對協助企業提升自主創新能力提出幾項建議:(一)建立產學合作平台。(二)強化技轉中心人才。(三)加強企業永續經營觀念鼓勵企業內部創業。(四)營造社會創業精神與創新氛圍。(五)建構大學城區域經濟體系。建議從中央到地方及產業界皆需努力營造創新環境。在良好的創新氛圍及多元的產業創新體系下才能激勵企業提升並投資自主創新能力。期望企業真正成為台灣創新火車頭。唯本案僅以設計創新案例為基礎探討產、學互動,仍需要更多關於科技創新案例、服務創新案例等產學合作案例的比較,才能對不同層次、不同領域的企業給予建議。
The enterprises should have the abilities of independent innovation including original innovative ability, the ability to integrate innovation and the ability to absorb external knowledge. Taiwan''s industrial structure is dominated by medium- and small-sized enterprises with foundry manufacturing. Industry-University Cooperation is the best way to enhance the ability of independent innovation for the enterprises. This study takes a qualitative research method to analyze the basic elements of the innovation environment. The study compares the Industry-University Cooperation environment between USA and Taiwan with some essential issues. In addition, this study takes the Stanford University, the University of Washington and one university in Taiwan as examples to understand the inadequacies of Taiwan’s policies. Besides of using the method of literature analysis to explore how to create a good environment for innovation, a real case about design innovation is taken here to understand the interaction between the industry and the university. Through the interviews, we are able to learn that a good industry-university cooperation relation needs interactive experience, and both parties should have the same level of innovation ability . If a party lacks the ability to cooperate, it may cause a gap.
Finally, this study makes a few recommendations for enterprises to enhance their abilities of independent innovation: (1) to establish a platform. (2) to strengthen the ability of personnel in OTL. (3) to strengthen the concept of sustainable development of enterprises and to encourage the internal start ups. (4) to create a social entrepreneurial spirit and atmosphere. (5) to build regional economic of Universal Town. It is recommended that the governments and the enterprises should work together to create an innovation environment. An environment full with innovative atmosphere and a diversified industrial innovation system would motivate the enterprises’s willingness to invest innovation.
We are looking forward to see the enterprises becoming Taiwan''s innovative locomotive. This study only takes a design innovation case to understand the interaction between the industry and the university. For helping more enterprises in different areas and different levels, more science and technology innovation cases, service innovation cases, etc, are need in future research.
Table of Contents
Verification Letter from The Oral Examination Committee………… i
Abstract in Chinese…………………………………………….…….. ii
Abstract in English………………………………………….………... iii
I. Introduction…………………………………………………… 1
1.1 Background………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Research Questions………………………………………….. 9
II. Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Industry-University Cooperation…………..… 11
2.2 Enterprise Independent Innovation………………………..... 12
2.2.1 Technology Innovation & Design Innovation……..... 15
2.2.2 Closed Innovation & Opened Innovation………..….. 15
2.3 Innovation Systems…………………………………..……... 16
2.3.1 National Innovation System & Regional Innovation System…………………………………………..…… 17
2.3.2 Sectoral System Innovation & Production…..………. 19
2.4 Innovation Indexes………………………..………………… 21
2.5 Comparisons Between United States and Taiwan...………… 24
2.5.1 Policies Comparison…………………………………. 24
2.5.2 A Comparative Study on The Strategies of Industry-University Cooperation Between Universities..28
III. Research Methods………………………………………………..34
3.1 Research Approaches…………………………………………..34
3.2 Research Methods………………………………………………35
3.3 Background of The Case……………………………………….36
3.3.1 Description of The Case…………………..…………….38
3.3.2 Course Description……………………………………...40
IV. Research Result and Discussion………………………………….43
4.1 Innovative Environment Creation……………………………...43
4.1.1 Entrepreneurship Guidance…………..……………..…..43
4.1.2 Responsibility Division of Labor on Innovation Behavior……………………………………………...…45
4.2 Talent Cultivation………………………………………………45
4.3 Development of University Town……………………………...47
4.4 Case Discussions……………………………………………….49
4.4.1 Industry-University Parties’ Cognitive Difference and Interactive Obstacle…………………………………….49
4.4.2 The Enterprise Is Short of Innovation Capacity………..54
4.4.3 Cultivate Talents, Use and Keep Them…………………56
V. Conclusions and Suggestion……………………………………..61
5.1 Conclusion………………………………………………..……61
5.2 Suggestion……………………………………………………...62
5.3 Follow-up Research…………………………………………….72
Bibliographies
Chinese Bibliographies..…………………………….…………….74
English Bibliographies……………………………………….……75
Websites………….………..………………………………………77
Appendixes
Appendix I. Interview Transcript………………………………....78

List of Tables
Table 2-1 Major Innovation Indexes…………………………… 22
Table 2-2 Comparisons of Industry-University Cooperation Policies between USA and Taiwan………………...……….... 24
Table 2-3 Comparisons of Strategies of Major Universities…….. 29
Table 2-4 The Distribution of Technology Transfer Royalty… 33
Table 3-1 The List of Interviewees……………………...……... 41
List of Figures
Figure 3-1 Research Framework…………………………………..36
Figure 4-1 Essential Pyramid on Enterprise Independent Innovation………………………………………………………….47
Figure 4-2 Industry-University Interactive Obstacle Graph……….52
Figure 5-1 Industry-University Interactive Progress Graph……….64
Chinese Bibliographies:
1.周育賢(民94)。日本的大學創新體制下的機能-以企業間關係分析。東亞論壇季刊,第449期,頁81-84。
2.葉佳琪、林天柱、孔憲法(民100)。從成功大學產學合作企業之區域分佈情形探討合作特性與創新。建築與規劃學報,第十二卷第二期,頁119-140。
3.古宜靈(民102)。文化產業的創新系統與產業網絡:陶瓷與音樂產業的比較。建築與規劃學報,第十四卷第一期,頁13-32。
4.李郁怡(2013)。重造創新生態系統。哈佛商業評論全球繁體中文版。
5.古瑞峰、黃禮翼(民95)產學合作的探討與研。行政院國家科學委員會95年度自行研究計劃。
6.溫肇東、樊學良(民102)。日本產學合作之理論研究及政策實踐歷程。管理與系統學報,第二十卷第二期,頁201-226。
7.江志民、謝邦昌、丁台怡(2013)。台灣產業創新系統機制之實證研究。數據分析學報,第8卷6期,頁23-40。
8.孔欣欣(2008)。部門創新體系:一個影響當今產業創新政策的重要概念。科學與科學技術管理學報,頁76-81。
9.洪世章、許瓊文、何泰宇(民102)。建構創新系統績效衡量指標。科學管理學刊,第十八卷第三期,頁57-92。
10.周鮮成(2014)。美國產學研合作模式及其成功經驗。湖南商學院學報,第二十一卷第六期,頁35-39頁。
11.楊雁(2008)。美國的區域經濟發展與產學研合作。宜賓學院學報,第九期第九卷,頁71-73。
12.趙京波,張讫山(2011)。美國產學研合作的經驗及啟示,萬方數據,頁118-121。
13.鄭昱芸,產學合作模式再進化-專訪成功大學校長黃煌輝,成大產學合作, No. 13-14, 頁10-12。
14.徐谷楨(2014)。科技部長張善政:產學衡量 補助法人到學界挖寶。2014產學合作專刊, 頁10-11。
15.高長瑞、徐聯恩(2011)。團隊創新階段關鍵因素之比較研究。Journal of Innovation and Management Vol.8 No.4 , pp.1-32。
16.曾大有、董正玫(2012)。國矽谷創新創業生態系統的觀察、省思與建議。成大產學合作電子報, No. 13。
17.康自立(1995)。大學與產業界的合作,「大學教育學術研討會- 大學自主與社會責任研討會論文集」。台灣師範大學,頁149-166。
18.黃英忠、蔡正飛、陳錦輝、黃毓華、葉叔禎。高等管理教育產學合作模式探討:資源依據觀點。長榮學報,第六卷第二期,頁15-31。
19.湯堯、成群豪(2004)。高等教育經營,高等教育出版社。
20.林清和(1994)。產學合作之特色。技職雙月刊,第二十三期,頁32-35。
21.蔡啟通、黃國隆、高泉豐(2001)。 組織因素、組織成員整體創造性、與組織創新之關係。管理學報,第十八卷,第四期, 頁527-566。
22.丹麥文化部、貿易產業部(2003)丹麥的創意潛力。典藏藝術家庭,初版。

B. English Bibliographies:
1.Bloedon,R. V., and Stokes. D. R.(2010). Making University/ Industry Collaborative Research Succeed. Research Technology Management, Vol.37, No.2, pp.44.
2.Cooke, P., Morgan, K.(1998). The associational economy: firms, regions, and innovation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
3.Chatterjee, S., Moody, G., Lowry, P. B., Chakraborty, S., & Hardin, A. (2015). Strategic Relevance of Organizational Virtues Enabled By Information Technology in Organizational Innovation, Journal of Management Information Systems, Forthcoming.
4.Daft, R. (1978). A Dual-Core Model of Organizational Innovation. The Academy of Management Journal, 21(2): 193-210.
5.Freeman, C(1987). Technology, Policy, and Economic Performance: Lessons from Japan. London, New York: Pinter Publishers.
6.Franco Malerba (2002). Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Producstion. Research Policy, pp.247-264.
7.Gumusluoglu T, Ilsev A(2009). Transformational leadership. Creativity and Organizational Innovation. J. Bus. Res. 62, pp.461-473.
8.Klein, K. J. and J. S. Sorra (1996). The Challenge of Innovation Implementation, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 21, No.4, pp.1055‒1080.
9.Permkumar G, Ramamurthy K. and Nilakanta S (1994). Implementation of Electronic Data Interchange: An Innovation Diffusion Perspective, Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol 11, No. 2, 157–187.
10.Peters, Lois S. and Herbert I. Fusfeld (1982). University-Industry Research Relationships, National Science Foundation.
11.Romer, P. M. Endogenous Technological-Change, Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 98, No. 5.
12.Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development, Harvard, MA. 

13.Sun, Y. and Negishi, M.(2010). Measuring the Relationships among University, Industry and Other Sectors in Japan''s National Innovation System: A Comparison of New Approaches with Mutual Information, Indicators.Scientometrics, Vol. 82, No. 3, pp. 677-685.

14.Saxenian, A.(1994). Regional advantage: Culture and competition in Silicon Valley, and Route 128, Massachusetts:, Harvard University Press.
15.Thompson, V. A.(1965). Bureaucracy and innovation, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.10, No. 1, pp. 1-20.
16.Van Looy, B., Callaert, J., and Debackere, K.(2006). Publication and Patent Behavior of Academic Researchers: Conflicting, Reinforcing or Merely Co-existing?, Research Policy, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 596-608.

17.Van Looy, B., Debackere, K., Callaert, J., Tijssen, R., and van Leeuwen, T.(2006). Scientific Capabilities and Technological Performance of National Innovation Systems: An Exploration of Emerging Industrial Relevant Research Domains. Scientometrics, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 295-310.

18.Vivien Walsh (2000). Design, Innovation, and the Boundaries of the Firm, Design Management, Vol.1, No.1, pp.74-92.
19.Walsh, J. P., Baba, Y., Goto, A., and Yasaki, Y. (2008). Promoting University-industry Linkages in Japan: Faculty Responses to a Changing Policy Environment. Prometheus, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 39-54.

C. Websites:
1.terp.com: http://terp.tk/map-mpls-st-paul/
2.數位時代:https://www.bnext.com.tw/article/37164/BN-2015-08-24-095418-156
3.OECD: https://www.oecd.org/
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