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研究生:林季霆
研究生(外文):CHI-TING Lin
論文名稱:性別角色與領導角色: 兩項理論觀點的比較
論文名稱(外文):Gender and Leadership roles: Comparison between two Theoretical Perspectives
指導教授:王安智王安智引用關係
指導教授(外文):An-Chih Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:人力資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:刻板印象領導性別角色一致性理論正向違反理論
外文關鍵詞:genderleadershipstereotyperole congruity theoryviolation of gender role
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不同的性別領導者會因為大眾既定的男女刻板印象而造成不同的領導預期效果,有不少研究也聚焦在性別刻板印象跟領導者之間以及其所造成的影響。過去有研究提出雙性別特質領導者(Androgynous Leaders),當一位領導者同時展現出男性與女性的性別特質,其領導效果與被部屬所喜愛的程度會是最好的。而像角色一致性理論(Role Congruity Theory)就是聚焦在女性領導者,並說明領導者展現出相同性別特質時其領導效果較佳。但正向違反理論卻是呈現相反的結論,也就是領導者展現出相反性別特質時其領導效果會得到較高的評價。為了證實過去的理論與釐清主管性別與其所展現出不同男女特質的差異,本研究採取了發放情境問卷的實驗法,並根據領導者所展現出不同男女性別特質程度高低,分成了以下四個分類: (1)雙性別特質領導者 (Androgynous leaders)、(2)同性別特質領導者 (Ordinary leaders)、(3)異性別特質領導 (Anomalous leaders),(4)無性別特質領導 (Falling-short leaders)。再分別針對男女性別的領導者做成了共8份情境問卷。共計269人參與了本研究。而研究結果顯示也證實了不管是男性或女性主管,雙性別特質領導的效能為最好,無性別特質領導效能為最差。男性領導者中,異性別特質領導效能優於同性別特質領導,而女性領導者則是同性別特質領導優於異性別特質領導,也指出女性的領導者適用角色一致性理論,而男性領導者適用於正向違反理論。最後,針對所做的研究結果進行討論以及說明研究限制,並提供未來的研究方向與實務上的應用。
Leadership effectiveness of male or female leaders varies because of gender stereotype. Some research argue that leadership of an androgynous leader, who is together with masculinity and femininity, is considerably accepted by subordinates. Role congruence theory, which aims at female leaders, considers a feminine leader acquires better leadership while violation of gender role theory claims a leader with opposite-gender features gets greater effectiveness. To verify prior theories and clarify differences in gender role of supervisors and his/her gender traits, this study employed a scenario experiment with eight questionnaires, which categorized male and female leaders, based on level of gender traits demonstrated, into four groups accordingly: (1) Androgynous leaders, (2) Original leaders, (3) Anomalous leaders, and (4) Falling-short leaders. A total of 269 subjects participated in the study. The results show and verify that, within either male or female leaders, highest effectiveness is found with androgyny while poor effectiveness is seen with Falling-short leaders. Within male leaders, anomalous leader performances better than the one with masculinity, whereas original leader is superior than anomalous leader within female leaders. The results also indicate that role congruity theory applies to female leaders and violation of gender role theory applies to male leaders. Contributions, limitations, suggestions for future studies, and managerial implications of this study were then discussed.
論文審定書... i
致謝... ii
摘要... iii
Abstract... iv
目錄... v
附圖、附表目錄... vi
緒論... 1
第一章 文獻探討... 4
第一節 刻板印象與性別刻板印象... 4
第二節 性別角色與領導... 5
第三節 性別與領導者性別特質組合... 9
第四節 理論推論與實驗假設... 11
第二章 研究方法... 15
第一節 研究樣本... 15
第二節 研究工具... 16
第三節 研究程序... 19
第四節 資料分析... 19
第三章 研究結果... 20
第一節 情境操弄檢核... 20
第二節 領導者性別、四種類型領導人與其領導效能... 22
第三節 研究結果與其所對應的假設... 28
第四章 討論與建議... 30
第一節 結果討論... 31
第二節 研究限制與未來展望... 33
參考文獻... 35
附錄一、情境素材... 40
附錄二、問卷... 46
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