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研究生:林慈慧
研究生(外文):Ci-hui Lin
論文名稱:文字產生的視界:沛居詩性語言中的視覺意象與感覺
論文名稱(外文):The Visions in the Words: Visual Images and Sensations in P. K. Page''s Poetic Language
指導教授:洪敏秀洪敏秀引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-hsiou Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:文字相鄰的關係視界觀看詩性語言感覺視覺意象加拿大現代主義詩作
外文關鍵詞:visual imagesvicinity of wordspoetic languageCanadian modernist poetryvisionseeingsensations
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語言的意義在加拿大現代主義作家沛居的眼中有異於多數人感官的經驗。由於語言的意義主要由個人從社會、歷史背景與文化脈絡建構而成,多數人對於人事物的見解傾向以眼見為憑的根據來認定。藉由探索加拿大現代主義作家沛居的詩性語言,本論文試圖從語言既有的意義出發,依序於各章探討文字如何透過詩人的觀看,產生指涉系統下無法由語言精確表達的視覺意象與感覺,讓詩中的文字活化。

由於「觀看」貫穿本論文,我欲定義詩人的觀看是具有產生新意的方向路徑。此路徑不是單純地直接指向語言由個人經驗、歷史背景與文化脈絡下可清楚得知的意義,而是先透過語言既有的意義,通向語言無法捕捉甚至精確表達的意象與感覺。第一章以語言的符號概念,探討詩中由視覺器官形象化的人形如何藉詩人的觀看再次創造。本章強調人的視覺器官具有主觀性的視野,導致詩裡的人形可任意被符號的指涉意義決定,呈現單一方向的路徑;然而,詩人客觀地從人形做反方向的觀看,交互過程中,人形碎裂、變形、瓦解,抹去其被指涉的意義,卻巧妙於文字間流露移動、震動、波動等意象。隨著多數人主觀地決定語言的涵意,第二章以語言中隱喻的修辭功能,凸顯詩人的觀看如何由文字相鄰的關係產生意象。本章著重詩人的觀看能展現多種曲折的方向路徑,使隱喻不再強調文字必須直接抵達被賦予的意義,而是以蜿蜒的方向行進,開展意象產生的過程。延續前一章對隱喻的探討,第三章聚焦隱喻的指涉功能如何藉詩人的觀看被扭轉為感覺,同時藉著前兩章的討論,提出意象的產生來自通往感覺的路徑。本章透過喬‧克雷(Jon Clay)《感覺、當代詩與德勒茲:轉變的強度力》Sensation, Contemporary Poetry and Deleuze: Transformative Intensities延伸德勒茲的概念來閱讀當代詩,以剖析詩人的觀看如何作用在文字,萃取隱藏其中的速度與溫度變化。論文最後點出追尋中心意義已成多數人評斷事物的習慣,總結沛居的詩作可對語言開鑿意義的新通道。

本論文以加拿大現代主義詩作的精神為軸心,文本分析為軸面,連結沛居作品的相關文獻與德勒茲的思想線路,探討沛居詩性語言的文字如何透過詩人之眼,重啟相鄰的關係,驅動文字引發意象與感覺,生成詩人眼中的世/視界。
The sense of language varies in Canadian modernist P. K. Page’s eye. Most of the people may tend to believe that the views they hold derive from what they see in that the sense of language is fundamentally constructed by the society, historical background and cultural contexts. By exploring Canadian modernist Page’s poetic language, this thesis attempts to regenerate the words in Page’s poems by setting out language that is conventionalized through the seeing from the poet and thereby probe into the images and sensations that cannot be precisely conveyed by the language under the norm of signifying system.

On account of the seeing concerning the whole of the thesis, I would like to define that seeing from the poet is a direction that produces the newness in Page’s poetic language. Such the direction concerning the seeing, however, does not simply lead the route to the senses by referring the meanings signified under the signifying norm, but it produces the senses out of words, causing images and sensations to become through the poet’s eye based on what language has been conventionally signified rather than the only one route that leads a word to refer its central meaning. In Chapter One, the human figures can be renewed as they become impersonal in terms of the sign. In this chapter, I stress how one’s visual organ projecting the sight via subjective seeing may be codified by the sign, which leads the sight of human figures in the poems to be the only route that is arbitrarily directed. The poet, nevertheless, objectively sees more than the sight from the visual organ through erasing the sights of human figures from one’s subjective seeing, by which the images of the motion and vibrations subtly pop up in the words when the human figures in the poems become fragmented, deformed, and disembodied. As the sense is mostly determined by one’s subjective seeing, Chapter Two engages how the images become in the vicinity of words through the poet’s seeing regarding the figure of speech, metaphor. This chapter emphasizes multiple routes with zigzag directions through the seeing from the poet, by which the metaphor functions by many winding directions that break away from the metaphor that may ultimately transfer into a signified concept for the coming of an image. These winding routes unmask how the images are vividly produced in the process of words. On the basis of metaphor, Chapter Three proceeds and focuses on how the metaphorical meaning can be transformed into the sensations by way of the seeing from the poet, and also concludes that the images in the Page’s poems are resulted from the passage to sensations. This chapter explores the way from which Jon Clay reads the contemporary poems by extending Gilles Deleuze’s concept in his Sensation, Contemporary Poetry and Deleuze: Transformative Intensities. I take Clay’s way to analyze how the words are acted upon when the poet’s eye intervenes. The velocity and thermal change, though hidden behind, can be extracted within the words. The final part of the thesis points out one’s usual habit of pursuing the central meanings on many things including poetry and thus concludes that Page’s poetry may render a new passage for the sense in terms of the language.

Based on the kernel of Canadian modernist poetry, this thesis unfolds in the way of textual analysis by connecting literary reviews of Page’s works with Deleuze’s thoughts. By restarting the word in the vicinity of other words in Page’s poetic language, this thesis purports that words can potentially be triggered as filtered through the poet’s eye and can further lead the images and sensations to the poet’s visions it become.
Table of Contetns
論文審定書 i
Acknowledgements ii
摘要 iii
Abstract v
Introduction 1
Chapter One: Impersonal Self 25
Self-effacement 27
Reflection, Seeing, and a Fragmented Self-image 31
Name, Seeing, and a Deformed Woman-portrait 35
Self, Seeing, and a Dismembered Peacock-image 42
Chapter Two: Vicinity of Words 51
Seeing from the Poet on Metaphors 53
Play, Seeing, and Metaphors 56
Language, Dreamers, and Vision of Snow 61
Word Form, Sounds, and Snowman-image 68
Chapter Three: Sensations in the Words 74
Velocity as Sensations 76
Thermal Change as Sensations 87
Conclusion 93
Works Cited 100
Appendix 1: P. K. Page’s “No Exit” 106
Appendix 2: P. K. Page’s “Reflections in a Train Window” 108
Appendix 3: P. K. Page’s “Portrait of Marina” 109
Appendix 4: P. K. Page’s “Arras” 111
Appendix 5: P. K. Page’s “The Gold Sun" 113
Appendix 6: P. K. Page’s “Kaleidoscope” 115
Appendix 7: P. K. Page’s “Stories of Snow” 118
Appendix 8: P. K. Page’s “The Snowman" 120
Appendix 9: P. K. Page’s “The Hidden Components” 122
Appendix 10: P. K. Page’s “Another Space” 124
Appendix 11: P. K. Page’s “Presences” 126
Appendix 12: An Illustration of Seeing 128
I.Primary Works:
Page, P. K. “Another Space.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 2. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 170-71. Print.
---. “Arras.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 1. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 46-47. Print.
---. Brazilian Journal. Ed. Suzanne Bailey. 2nd ed. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 2011. Print.
---. Coal and Roses: Twenty-One Glosas. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 2009. Print.
---. Kaleidoscope: Selected Poems. Ed. Zailig Pollock. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 2010. Print.
---. “Kaleidoscope.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 2. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 160-62. Print.
---. “No Exit.” Coal and Roses: Twenty-One Glosas. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 2009. 68-69. Print.
---. “Portrait of Marina.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 1. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 72-73. Print.
---. “Presences.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 2. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 201-02. Print.
---. “Questions and Images.” Canadian Literature 41 (1969): 17-22. Print.
---. “Reflections in a Train Window.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 2. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 52. Print.
---. “Stories of Snow.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 1. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 53-54. Print.
---. “The Gold Sun.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 2. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 191-92. Print.
---. “The Hidden Components.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 2. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 65-66. Print.
---. “The Snowman.” The Hidden Room: Collected Poems. Vol. 1. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 1997. 50-51. Print.
---. “Traveller, Conjuror, Journeyman.” Canadian Literature 46 (1970): 35-40. Print.

II.Secondary Works:
Bailey, Suzanne. Introduction. Brazilian Journal. By P. K. Page. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 2011. 7-20. Print.
Bartlett, Brian. “For Sure the Kittiwake: Naming, Nature, and P. K. Page.” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 60-93. Print.
Bashford, Lucy, and Jay Ruzesky. “Entranced: A Conversation with P. K. Page.” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 110-28. Print.
Bogue, Ronald. Deleuze on Literature. New York: Routledge, 2003. Print.
---. Deleuze''s Wake: Tributes and Tributaries. Albany: State U of New York P, 2004. Print.
Clay, Jon. Sensations, Contemporary Poetry and Deleuze: Transformative Intensities. London: Continuum, 2010. Print.
Colebrook, Claire. Gilles Deleuze. New York: Routledge, 2002. 139-45. Print.
---. Deleuze: A Guide for the Perplexed. New York: Continuum, 2006. 56-58. Print.
Cook, Eleanor. Poetry, Word-Play, and Word-War in Wallace Stevens. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1988. Print.
Cull, Laura. “Affect in Deleuze, Hijikata and Coates: The Politics of Becoming- Animal in Performance.” Journal of Dramatic Theory and Criticism 26.2 (2012): 189-203. Project Muse. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.
Deleuze, Gilles. “Literature and Life.” Essays Critical and Clinical. Trans. Daniel W. Smith and Michael A. Greco. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1997. 1-6. Print.
---. Spinoza: Practical Philosophy. Trans. Robert Hurley. San Francisco: City Lights, 1988. Print.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Claire Parnet. Dialogues. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. New York: Columbia UP, 1987. Print.
Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari. A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Trans. Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1987. Print.
---. “Percept, Affect, and Concept.” What Is Philosophy? Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Graham Burchell. New York: Columbia UP, 1994. 163-99. Print.
Derrida, Jacques. Jacques Derrida: Basic Writing. Ed. Barry Stocker. New York: Routledge, 2007. Print.
---. A Derrida Reader: Between the Blinds. Ed. Peggy Kamuf. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991. Print.
---. “Before the Law.” Acts of Literature. Ed. Derek Attridge. New York: Routledge, 1992. 181-220. Print.
---. Psyche: Inventions of the Other. Ed. Peggy Kamuf and Elizabeth Rottenberg. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford UP, 2007. Print.
Djwa, Sandra. Journey with No Maps: A Life of P. K. Page. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s UP, 2012. Print.
Dragland, Stan. “Hidden Out in the Open: Editing and Reading P. K. Page’s The Hidden Room.” Journal of Canadian Studies 38.1 (2004): 166-87. Print.
Freake, Douglas. “The Multiple Self in the Poetry of P. K. Page.” Studies in Canadian Literature 19.1 (1994): 94-114. Print.
Godard, Barbara. “Kinds of Osmosis.” Journal of Canadian Studies 38.1 (2004): 65-75. Print.
Hulan, Shelly. “Canadian Modernism, P. K. Page’s ‘Arras,’ and the Idea of the Emotions.” The Canadian Modernists Meet. Ed. Dean Irvine. Ottawa: U of Ottawa P, 2005. 331-53. Print.
Lane, Travis. “Hologram Dimensions: The Poetry of P. K. Page.” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 99-109. Print.
Lawlor, Leonard. “Following the Rats: Becoming-Animal in Deleuze and Guattari.” SubStance 37.3 (2008): 169-87. Project Muse. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.
Lecercle, Jean-Jacques. Deleuze and Language. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. Print.
Libertson, Joseph. Proximity, Levinas, Blanchot, Bataille, and Communication. Boston: Nijhoff, 1982. Print.
Matthews, Carol. “P. K. Page: An Offering.” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 153-59. Print.
Moraru, Christian. “Touching: Proximity, Remove, and the Measure of Things.” Symplokē 14.1-2 (2006): 306-10. Project Muse. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.
Musgrave, Susan. “The Hidden Room: Collected Poems by P. K. Page.” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 94-98. Print.
Namjoshi, S. “Double Landscape.” Canadian Literature 67 (1976): 21-30. Print.
Ndallanis, Angela. Rev. of Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect and Sensation. Brian Massumi. Aug. 2003: 328-29. Project Muse. Web. 3 Dec. 2016.
New, William Herbert. A History of Canadian Literature. 2nd. Ithaca: McGill-Queen''s UP, 2003. Print.
---. “A Wellspring of Magma: Modern Canadian Writing.” Twentieth Century Literature 14.3 (1968): 123-32. JSTOR. Web. 1 Dec. 2016.
Peace, Barbara Colebrook, and Kelly Parsons. “Seeing with the Eyes of the Heart: Praise, Shadow and Dimensions of Eternity in the Poetry of P. K. Page.” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 37-55. Print.
Praamsma, Wanda. “A Review of ‘Journey with No Maps: A Life of P. K. Page’: ‘She Saw Beyond.’” PRISM International. 17 Nov. 2014. Web. 2 Dec. 2016. <http://prismmagazine.ca/2014/11/17/a-review-of-journey-with-no-maps-a-life-of-p-k-page-she-saw-beyond/>.
Riddle, Joseph N. “The Climate of Our Poems.” Critical Essays on Wallace Stevens. Ed. Steven Gould Axelrod and Helen Deese. Boston: G. K. Hall, 1988. 145-62. Print.
Rogers, Linda. Introduction. P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Erin: Porcupine’s Quill, 2011. 7-11. Print.
Rooke, Constance. “Approaching P. K. Page’s ‘Arras.’” Fear of the Open Heart. Toronto: Coach House, 1989. 136-44. Print.
Rose, Marilyn Russell. “P. K. Page.” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 131-48. Print.
Stacy, Robert David. “Looking at ‘The Gold Sun’; or, The Glosa’s Glasses.” Journal of Canadian Studies 38.1 (2004): 108-17. Print.
Sullivan, Rosemary. “A Size Larger than Seeing: The Poetry of P. K. Page.” Canadian Literature 79 (1978): 32-42. Print.
Swann, Jane. “Mapping the Mind’s ‘I’: Vision, Perception, and Complicity in the Early Poems of P. K. Page.” Studies in Canadian Literature 30.1 (2005): 181-97. Print.
Vincent, Rebecca. “‘Modern Poetry’ by F. R. Scott.” Queen''s University. Web. 15 Jan. 2017. <http://post.queensu.ca/~mayr/montreal/modern.html>.
Williams, James. Gilles Deleuze’s Logic of Sense: A Critical Introduction and Guide. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2008. Print.
Young, Patricia. “A Reading of P. K. Page’s ‘Arras.’” P. K. Page: Essays on Her Works. Ed. Linda Rogers and Barbara Colebrook Peace. Toronto: Guernica, 2001. 32-36. Print.
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