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研究生:吳玲昀
研究生(外文):Ling-yun Wu
論文名稱:論謝伯德的《奧斯特利茲》中的照片、記憶與身份認同
論文名稱(外文):Photographs, Memory, and Identity in W. G. Sebald’s Austerlitz
指導教授:張錦忠張錦忠引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tee Kim Tong
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:後記憶創傷記憶攝影哲學羅蘭.巴特《奧斯特利茲》謝柏德大屠殺
外文關鍵詞:The HolocaustPostmemoryPhotographic PhenomenologyAusterlitzWinfried Georg SebaldTraumatic MemoryRoland Barthes
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本論文以胡塞爾的現象學、羅蘭•巴特的攝影現象學及阿斯曼、桑塔格等學者的記憶理論來探討溫菲爾德•喬治• 謝柏德的《奧斯特利茲》中主人翁奧斯特利茲的身份認同問題以及如何尋找自我的身份。謝柏德對主角與敘述者的設定隱喻著猶太與德國之間的對話。《奧斯特利茲》一書呈現了一個經歷第二次世界大戰與猶太大屠殺的猶太孩子,在長大後如何面對與追尋自己的猶太身份。因此,我先以現象學與攝影現象學,來闡述照片對於奧斯特利茲追尋身份認同的過程所代表的重要性與必要性。最後解釋照片的權威性如何幫助奧斯勒利茲重新找回自己的猶太身份,並使用照片來呈現奧斯特利茲從對猶太身份認同感到疑惑到強烈認同的過程。接著,利用現象學中有關記憶的論述,再次證明上述這個尋找身份的過程。
本文分成五個章節:緒論介紹作者與文本背景及文獻回顧。第一章先說明現象學及攝影現象學如何被使用來分析文本並結合文本分析。第二章以照片的角度切入,呈現奧斯特利茲如何利用照片的特性當作一種可靠的證明來重新找回自己的記憶。第三章用現象學中有關記憶的論述來更進一步來說明整個身份認同的過程,並解釋不同類型的記憶如何幫助主角面對自己身份認同的危機。結論重述前三章概要並說明主角受困於自身建構的身份認同的情形。
This thesis attempts to deal with the identity issue in Winfried Georg Sebald’s novel, Austerlitz, which shows how a Jewish child faced his identity problem after became an adult. To elaborate my standpoint, I apply phenomenology, Roland Barthes’ photographic theory and postmemory discourse to explicate this issue. The characteristic of a photo, according to Barthes, is “what-has-been,” which gives a picture its authenticity. Photos become a kind of support for Austerlitz to find his identity. Some photos in Austerlitz will be used to present the process of how Austerlitz starts to question his British identity and then retraces his Jewish identity.
To clarify my viewpoint, I will divide this thesis into five parts. The first part will be the introduction, which includes the background of Sebald and Austerlitz and also some literature reviews. In chapter one, I will explicate phenomenology and Barthes’ discourse, explaining how Austerlitz uses photos as sources of authenticity to recollect his memory. In chapter two, some selected photos will be used to discuss how Austerlitz builds up his identity and to illustrate how it works in the process of tracing his identity. In chapter three, memory theories will be applied to explain how different kinds of memories help while he is facing identity issues. The fifth part will be the conclusion, which I shall restate my argument and describe the situation that Austerlitz is trapped by his identity.
Table of Contents
論文審定書 i
Acknowledgements ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
Introduction 1
Chapter One: Photographical Phenomenology and Photos in Austerlitz 15
Chapter Two: The Awareness of Austerlitz 33
Chapter Three: Memory and Identity in Austerlitz 61
Conclusion 81
Works Cited 87

Figure 1 Rugger team………..…………………………………………………….... 28
Figure 2 Camps in the mountains………………………………………………...…. 29
Figure 3 Austerlitz is four years old………………………………………………... .31
Figure 4 Star-shaped dodecagon fortress……………………….…………………... 33
Figure 5 Palace of Justice in Brussels..……………………………………………... 35
Figure 6 Room in Auschwitz……………………………………………………..…. 37
Figure 7 Stamp with the scene of Theresienstadt.………………………………....... 40
Figure 8 The platform in Pilsen Train Station …………………..……...……...…… 41
Figure 9 Photo of a Reading Room…….……………………………….………..…. 43
Figure 10 Gare d’Austerlitz…...…………………………………………….….…… 48
Figure 11 Gare d’Austerlitz……………………………………………………….… 49
Figure 12 The last known place Maximilian Austerlitz stayed………..……………. 51
Figure 13 Woman with a three-stringed necklace………..…………………………. 53
Figure 14 Photo of Agáta…………………………………...………………………..55
Figure 15 The Diagram of Time……………….……………………………………. 62
Figure 16 Letter A……..……………………………………………………………. 86
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