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研究生:初星宇
研究生(外文):Xingyu Chu
論文名稱:「距離產生美」嗎?探討廣告中模特兒與產品圖像之間的空間距離如何影響價格溢價
論文名稱(外文):Does Distance Enhance Beauty? How Spatial Distance Between Model and Product Influence Price Premium
指導教授:張純端張純端引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chang, Chun-Tuan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:292
中文關鍵詞:模特兒與產品圖像之間的空間距離概念隱喻理論權力感尊貴感權力距離信念品牌力
外文關鍵詞:Spatial distance between model and product (SDMP)perception of prestigeconceptual metaphor theorysense of power providedpower distance beliefbrand power
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越來越多的研究顯示,行銷人員可以透過廣告中的產品圖片位置的擺放來改變廣告閱讀人的訊息處理方式,並進一步影響消費者的感知。本研究將探討廣告中如何利用模特兒與產品圖像之間的空間距離來增強廣告中產品的價格溢價。透過概念隱喻理論作為基礎,本研究提出「距離=溢價」的隱喻,認為這種隱喻可能會影響消費者的產品評價:如果將模特兒與產品圖像之間的擺放空間距離較遠,將會使消費者更容易將廣告中的產品權力感及尊貴感產生聯想,並進一步產生較高的產品價格溢價(例如:更高的支付意願以及更多的實際支付金額)。本研究也將使用序列多中介分析來測證所提出的上述現象的背後機制:廣告中模特兒與產品圖像之間的空間距離產生的價格溢價是先經過產品產生的權力感,再經過尊貴感,進而影響消費者的產品價格溢價。本研究也將提出,品牌力量(高品牌力vs.低品牌力)和權力距離信念之消費者個人差異(高權力距離信念 vs.低權力距離信念)將影響模特兒與產品圖像之間的空間距離對價格溢價的影響。此研究的貢獻就是在於提出廣告中對視覺線索的促發效果(例如:模特兒與產品圖像之間的空間距離)來誘發產品權力感及尊貴感,本文的研究發現將給品牌經理和廣告業者帶來重要的實務意涵。
Increasing evidence indicates that the position of the product image can affect how consumers perceive and process an ad. This research examines how advertisers can use the spatial distance between a human model and a product to enhance the price premium. Based on the conceptual metaphor theory, I propose the “distance is worth” metaphor and suggest that this metaphorical link may influence consumers’ perceptions regarding the price of the product: a greater distance between the model and the product in an ad will make it easy for consumers to attribute a greater sense of the power and perceived prestige provided by the advertised product, which leads to a price premium (e.g., willingness to pay more or a greater actual amount spent). A serial multiple mediation analysis is used to test the proposed sequential mechanisms underlying the above phenomenon: the sense of power provided, followed by the perception of prestige. I further examine whether the product’s brand power (high vs. low) and consumers’ individual differences in power distance belief (high vs. low) serve as boundary conditions for the effects of the spatial distance between model and product. The results suggest that power can be primed through the distance between the model and the product in an ad. The findings have important implications for brand managers and advertisers.
Table of Contents
Thesis Validation Letter ………………………………………………………… i
Aknowledgements ……………………………………………………………….. ii
Abstract (Chinese) ………………………………………………………………. ⅳ
Abstract (English) ……………………………………………………………….. ⅴ
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………... ⅶ
Table of Figures ………………………………………………………………….. ⅹⅲ
Table of Tables …………………………………………………………………… ⅹⅴ

Chapter 1 Introduction …………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Preamble …………………………………………………………………….... 1
1.2 Research Origins ……………………………………………………………… 1
1.3 Research Background ………………………………………………………… 6
1.4 Research Questions and Objectives ……………………………………..…..... 8
1.5 Thesis Structure……………………………………………………………….. 11

Chapter 2 Literature Review ………………………………………………….... 12
2.1 Preamble …………………………………………………………………….... 12
2.2 Conceptual Metaphor Theory………………………………………………..... 12
2.2.1 Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Definitions ………………………... 12
2.2.2 Research on Conceptual Metaphor Theory …………………………… 14
2.2.2.1 Embodied Metaphor ………………….………………………... 14
2.2.2.2 Orientational Metaphor………………………………................. 30
2.3 Metaphors Related to Spatial Distance………………………………………... 50
2.3.1 Spatial Distance in Visual Cues and Their Influences on Consumer Perceptions…………………………………………………………......... 50
2.3.1.1 Metaphors: Distance and Effectiveness……................................ 56
2.3.1.2 Metaphors: Distance and Intimacy............................................... 57
2.3.1.3 Metaphors: Distance and Power……....…................................... 58
2.3.1.4 Metaphors: Distance and Number/Price Perception..................... 61
2.3.2 Perception of Spatial Distance Observed in Linguistics ……………..... 63
2.4 Power on Consumption…………………………………………….………….. 65
2.4.1 Power and Prestige…………………………………………………….. 65
2.4.2 Power and Monetary Value Perception………………………………… 67
2.5 Brand Power …………………………………………….……………………. 68
2.6 Power Distance Belief ………………………………………………..………. 70
2.6.1 Power Distance ………………………………………………………... 70
2.6.2 Power Distance Belief ……………………………………………….... 71
2.7 Price Related Associations…………………………………………………….. 74
2.7.1 Price Perception and Prestige…………………………………...……... 74
2.7.2 Price Premium……………………………………………..................... 75
2.8 Chapter Summary …………………………………………………………….. 76

Chapter 3 Methodology………………………………………………………….. 78
3.1 Preamble …………………………………………………………………….... 78
3.2 Research Hypotheses …………………………………………………………. 79
3.2.1 “Distance Is Worth” Metaphor and Underlying Mechanisms…………. 79
3.2.2 Moderating Effects of Brand Power and Power Distance Belief……… 84
3.2.2.1 Moderating Role of Brand Power ……………………………… 84
3.2.2.2 Moderating Role of Power Distance Belief ……………………. 86
3.2.2.3 Three-way Interaction Effect among Spatial Distance, Brand
Power and PDB………………………………………………………… 88
3.3 Research Framework …………………………………………………………. 90
3.4 Chapter Summary …………………………………………………………….. 91

Chapter 4 Studies and Results ………………………………………………….. 92
4.1 Overview of Studies ………………………………………………………….. 92
4.2 Study 1 Metaphor Testing with Empirical Evidence………………………….. 93
4.2.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 93
4.2.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 93
4.2.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 97
4.2.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 103
4.3 Study 2a Product Price Influencing SDMP…………………………………… 106
4.3.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 106
4.3.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 106
4.3.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 107
4.3.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 108
4.4 Study 2b Estimated Distance Between Model and Product (SDMP was Fixed) 110
4.4.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 110
4.4.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 110
4.4.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 112
4.4.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 113
4.5 Study 3a Ruling out the Influence of Model’s and Participants’ Gender……... 113
4.5.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 113
4.5.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 114
4.5.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 119
4.5.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 121
4.6 Study 3b Ruling out the Influence of Product Type…………………………... 121
4.6.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 121
4.6.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 121
4.6.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 127
4.6.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 129
4.7 Study 3c The Underlying Mechanisms ……….………………………………. 129
4.7.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 129
4.7.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 129
4.7.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 133
4.7.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 138
4.8 Study 4 Moderating Role of Brand Power……………..……………………... 138
4.8.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 138
4.8.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 139
4.8.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 142
4.8.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 145
4.9 Study 5 Moderating Role of Brand Power and Power Distance Belief……….. 145
4.9.1 Overview ………………………………………………………………. 145
4.9.2 Method ………………………………………………………………… 145
4.9.3 Results …………………………………………………………………. 153
4.9.4 Discussion ……………………………………………………………... 158
4.10 Chapter Summary …………………………………………………………… 159
4.10.1 Summary Based on Five Studies……………………………………... 159
4.10.2 Concluding Remarks…………………………………………………. 164

Chapter 5 Conclusion …………………………………………………………… 166
5.1 Preamble ……………………………………………………………………… 166
5.2 General Discussion …………………………………………………………… 166
5.3 Research Contributions ……………………………………………………….. 169
5.3.1 Theoretical Contributions ……………………………………………... 169
5.3.2 Methodological Contributions ………………………………………… 172
5.3.3 Managerial Contributions ……………………………………………... 173
5.4 Limitations in the Current Research ………………………………………….. 175
5.5 Directions for Future Research ……………………………………………….. 177
5.6 Final Reflections ……………………………………………………………… 178
References ………………………………………………………………............... 180
Appendices ……………………………………………………………….............. 211
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