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研究生:楊仁凱
研究生(外文):Jen-kai Yang
論文名稱:晚第四紀以來濁水溪口的陸海相互作用及環境變遷
論文名稱(外文):Land-sea duel and environmental change in the late Quaternary at the Zhuoshui River mouth
指導教授:劉祖乾劉祖乾引用關係
指導教授(外文):James T. Liu
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋科學系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:海洋科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:146
中文關鍵詞:沉積環境海平面陸海相互作用沉積相山溪型河川
外文關鍵詞:Depositional environmentLand-sea boundaryFacies associationSea levelSmall mountainous river
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台灣因位於板塊交界帶而地質破碎,同時受到季風和颱風等因素的影響,每年輸出大量的沉積物進入海洋。隨晚第四紀以來相對海平面的上升,提供了沉積物在台灣海岸及河口堆積所需的空間。這些河口的沉積物,記錄了晚第四紀河口隨相對海平面上升的環境演變。本研究利用FATE-HYPERS團隊在現代濁水溪河口上鑽取兩孔各約100 公尺長的岩心 (JRD-S、JRD-N),進行沉積學分析,並從中挑取適合樣本進行AMS 14C分析,建立了岩心的年代模式。配合過去兩萬年來全球海水面變動的文獻,重建隨海平面上升時,陸海介面在岩心所在的位置發生的變動,從河川氾濫平原到河口灣,再過渡到三角洲沉積環境的演變。此外,透過正交經驗函數分析,求得岩心非破壞參數的共變特徵,用量化的方法客觀的解析晚第四紀濁水溪河口沉積環境的演進。
分析結果顯示,濁水溪河口在10,000年以前主要為陸相沉積環境,由不斷交替堆疊的河川河道沉積物與氾濫平原沉積組成,分析結果顯示古濁水溪的出海口位置應該比現今位置更為北邊。JRD-S岩心在10,000年左右出現一沉積的不整合面,此後轉為海相沉積環境。JRD-N岩心則為下切河谷形成的河口灣沉積環境,同樣在10,000年左右由單純河流營力所主導的河口環境轉為受潮汐作用影響的河口灣沉積環境。顯示現今濁水溪河口從一萬年以前接觸到海水面,開始海進過程而發展出河口灣沉積環境。從沉積相中最大海漫面出現的位置,可以推測整個海進的過程大約持續到6,000年前後。隨海水面穩定後,濁水溪口平原沿岸從海進沉積系統轉為加積沉積系統。岩心中記錄了潮控三角洲的發展過程,先從遠濱沉積環境轉為水下潮脊沉積,隨著沉積環境逐漸變淺逐漸變淺發展出上部河口三角洲。在JRD-N的位置逐漸轉變為河口三角洲時,在JRD-S則以潮間帶沉積為主。正交經驗函數分析結果的各模態也客觀解析出了沉積環境變異的主要模態,包含有粒徑主導的模態、似古土壤模態以及沉積物風化搬運差異模態。研究結果顯示晚第四紀以來海平面與河流角力的結果,同時也這角力的過程也決定了研究區域所在的陸-海介面位置和沿海沉積環境的變遷。
Taiwan is on the plate boundary thus having a fragile geological environment. After the late Quaternary, the rising sea level provides accommodating space for sediment accumulation along the coast and at river mouths. Those sediments recorded the environmental change accompanying the rising sea level. In this study, the FATES-HYPERS team took two cores around the Zhuoshui River mouth (JRD-N, JRD-S), each was about 100 m long. Sedimentological analyses were carried out on the cores. Samples containing organic carbon were picked out and sent for AMS 14C analysis to build an age model. The age model and sedimentary facies results combining with other previous sea level studies allowed reconstruction of the environment change with the sea level rise at the Zhuoshui River mouth. In addition, through the Empirical Orthogonal/Eigen Function (EOF) analysis on variables from non-destructive measurements provides objective determination of environment change in the late Quaternary at the Zhuoshui River mouth.
From the sedimentary facies analysis and foraminifera analysis by others that the study site was initially terrestrial under fluvial control before 10,000 yr BP (before present). The findings indicate that the main course of the paleo-Zhuoshui River was closer to the JRD-N site at the time. Beginning at about 10,000 yr BP the site became inundated by the rising sea and the environmental facies transitioned from a floodplain/incised river valley to a succession of marine environments, from shoreface to offshore. As the rising sea level came to a pause at 6000 yr BP, fluvial processes became dominant again and sediments began to aggrade at the river mouth. After the sea level become stable, the accumulated sediment began to prograde seaward, taking on the form of a river delta, and subtidal sand ridges appeared in the nearshore. This also ushered in the deltaic development, which was limited by the topography of the receiving basin.
The results of EOF also objectively reveal major patterns of environment change in the first three dominant modes. The first eigenmode explains about 30 % of the correlations. This mode mainly describes the variability of the grain-size distribution, which suggests the dynamics in the deposition process. The second eigenmode explains about 18 % of the correlations. This mode indicates the position of paleosoil-like layers, indicating exposure to the air. The third eigenmode explains about 17 % of the correlations. This mode mainly explains the differences between sediment weathering and transport, which exposes the rapid transport pattern in a small mountainous river system. The chronology expresses the duel between sea and fluvial processes that determined the depositional environment change along the land-sea boundary at the study site.
論文審定書 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 xi
表目錄 xv
第一章 序論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2相對海平面變化的影響 4
1.3沉積環境的發展 6
1.4研究目的與科學意義 7
第二章 研究區域背景 9
2.1地質背景 9
2.2濁水溪的現況 13
第三章 研究材料與方法 20
3.1研究材料 20
3.1.1 JRD岩心材料 20
3.1.2現代樣本 21
3.2岩心處理流程 21
3.2.1岩心描述 22
3.2.2岩相及沉積相分析 24
3.3非破壞性分析資料 24
3.3.1 多重感應元岩心記錄器 24
3.3.2 反射色分光測色儀 25
3.4 14C定年資料處理 26
3.4.1 14C校正 27
3.4.2 定年點篩選 28
3.4.3年代模式建立 29
3.5樣本分析 30
3.5.1粒徑分析 31
3.5.2有孔蟲分析 32
3.5.3 總碳與總有機碳實驗 32
3.5.4黏土礦物分析 33
3.6 EOF分析 35
第四章 結果 46
4.1鑽井結果 46
4.2 岩相結果 46
4.2.1顆粒支持礫相 46
4.2.2礫質砂相 46
4.2.3塊狀砂相 49
4.2.4 水平層理砂相 49
4.2.5 交錯層理砂相 49
4.2.6 波浪層理砂相 49
4.2.7 生物擾動砂相 49
4.2.8 含化石砂相 50
4.2.9塊狀泥相 50
4.2.10 水平層理泥相 50
4.2.11 生物擾動泥相 50
4.2.12 含化石泥相 50
4.2.13 斑駁狀泥相 51
4.2.14 碳質泥相 51
4.2.15 韻律紋理砂泥互層 51
4.2.16 水平層理砂泥互層 51
4.3 沉積相結果 52
4.2.1河道沉積相 55
4.2.1.1 岩心中沉積相位置 55
4.2.1.2沉積相特徵 55
4.2.1.3沉積相解釋 55
4.2.2氾濫平原沉積相 56
4.2.2.1 岩心中沉積相位置 56
4.2.2.2沉積相特徵 57
4.2.2.3沉積相解釋 57
4.2.3河口灣沉積相 57
4.2.3.1 岩心中沉積相位置 57
4.2.3.2沉積相特徵 57
4.2.3.3沉積相解釋 58
4.2.4潮灘沉積相 59
4.2.4.1 岩心中沉積相位置 59
4.2.4.2沉積相特徵 59
4.2.4.3沉積相解釋 59
4.2.5潮汐水道沉積相 60
4.2.5.1 岩心中沉積相位置 60
4.2.5.2沉積相特徵 60
4.2.5.3沉積相解釋 61
4.2.6濱面沉積相 61
4.2.6.1 岩心中沉積相位置 61
4.2.6.2沉積相特徵 61
4.2.6.3沉積相解釋 61
4.2.7遠濱沉積相 62
4.2.7.1 岩心中沉積相位置 62
4.2.7.2沉積相特徵 62
4.2.7.3沉積相解釋 63
4.2.8水下潮脊沉積相 64
4.2.8.1 岩心中沉積相位置 64
4.2.8.2沉積相特徵 64
4.2.8.3沉積相解釋 65
4.2.9三角洲平原沉積相 66
4.2.9.1 岩心中沉積相位置 66
4.2.9.2沉積相特徵 66
4.2.9.3沉積相解釋 68
4.2.10人工土壤 68
4.2.10.1 岩心中沉積相位置 68
4.2.10.2沉積相特徵及解釋 68
4.3 14C年代模式結果 68
4.4 非破壞分析結果 71
4.4.1 MSCL資料分析結果 71
4.4.2 反射色資料分析結果 74
第五章 討論 80
5.1 陸地/河流沉積時期 80
5.2 海進河口灣沉積時期 83
5.3 遠濱沉積時期 86
5.4 三角洲沉積時期 87
5.4.1 濁水溪三角洲沉積模式 90
5.5 長期之平均沉陷速率與海平面記錄 94
5.6 沉積物累積速率與三角洲發展 97
5.7 正交經驗函數(EOF)分析 101
5.6.1 沉積動力特徵模態結果 105
5.6.2似古土壤特徵模態結果 107
5.6.3風化差異特徵模態結果 112
第六章 結論 116
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