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研究生:陳維祥
研究生(外文):Wei-Shiang Chen
論文名稱:無線感測網路中具省電功能之區域化鏈結形成機制
論文名稱(外文):An Energy-Efficient Localized Chain Formation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:黃宗傳
指導教授(外文):Tsung-Chuan Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:無線感測網路階層式路由鏈結式架構多重鏈結區域化鏈結
外文關鍵詞:WSNshierarchical routinglocalized chainmultiple chainchain-based
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無線感測網路是由許多具有感測、運算以及無線通訊功能的感測節點所構成的網路系統,由於感測節點具備體積小且成本低的特性,所以無線感測網路通常被應用在環境惡劣或人類不易到達的地方,也因此幾乎無法充電,故如何延長整個感測網路的存活時間是一個很重要的議題。
在無線感測網路的路由機制中,階層式路由能有效的達到省電的效果,其中以鏈結式架構為主的路由方法在平衡每個感測節點的消耗電量上有較好的表現[12]。 Lindsey等人提出的PEGASIS[10]是以貪婪式演算法建立單一鏈結的方式來傳輸資料,但是使用貪婪式演算法容易在感測節點間形成長距離鏈結,造成較高的電量消耗,而且因為長鏈結也會導致較高的資料傳輸延遲。因此,有學者[4,5,14]提出將網路拓樸分成幾個較小的區域以形成多重鏈結的方式來改善上述問題,但這些方法並未考慮到各個區域中的感測節點數量,導致每個鏈結中的節點數量不均。
本篇論文主要針對這個缺點,提出一個建立多重鏈結的方法,來平衡各個鏈結的成員數量,避免各個鏈結頭間電量消耗不均的問題,並且也能減少長距離鏈結的數量,以延長整個無線感測網路的存活時間。模擬結果顯示我們的區域化鏈結演算法在感測網路存活時間及平均消耗電量都優於CHIRON[4] 和EBCRP[14]。
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds to thousands of small nodes with sensing, simple computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Because of the characteristic of small size and low cost, sensor nodes are usually operated in harsh places where human presence is risky or even impossible. Since their lifetime is dependent on their batteries and replacing or recharging their batteries is impossible in rough places, it is essential that the network be energy efficient in order to extend the network lifetime.
Hierarchical routing is an efficient way to lower energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. Among all the existing routing protocols, chain based routing is a better routing method to balance energy dissipation in the network[12]. Lindsey et al. proposed a chain-based routing protocol named PEGASIS[10] which establishes a single chain by using greedy algorithm to transfer data, but it is likely to have a long distance link among sensor nodes that causes high energy consumption. Furthermore, long chain will also lead to higher data transmission delay. Some researchers[4,5,14] devise routing protocols which divide the sensing area into small areas to form multiple chain to solve above problems, but they do not consider the number of sensor nodes in per chain.
This thesis presents a chain-based routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. The aim of this work is to form a balanced multiple chain to avoid unbalanced energy dissipation among chain leaders and lower the number of long distance link to extend the network lifetime. Simulation results show that our proposed localized chain formation scheme is better than CHIRON[4] and EBCRP[14] in network lifetime and average energy dissipation.
論文審定書 i
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 v
圖次 viii
表次 xi
第一章 導論 1
1.1 無線感測網路簡介 1
1.2 無線感測網路的路由協定簡介 7
1.3 研究動機 10
1.4 論文架構 11
第二章 相關研究 12
2.1 LEACH 13
2.2 PEGASIS 17
2.3 CHIRON 19
2.4 EBCRP 22
第三章 系統架構與運作 25
3.1 環境假設與無線電模組 25
3.1.1 環境假設 25
3.1.2 無線電模組 26
3.2 區域化鏈結形成機制(Localized Chain Formation Scheme) 27
3.2.1 建立單一鏈結(Single chain construction) 27
3.2.2 插入孤立節點(Isolated node insertion) 37
3.2.3 分割鏈結(Chain split) 39
3.2.4 選擇鏈結頭(Leader selection) 40
3.2.5 資料傳送(Data transmission) 40
3.3 演算法複雜度分析 41
第四章 模擬結果與討論 44
4.1 模擬環境假設 44
4.2 模擬環境參數設定 45
4.3 模擬數據分析與討論 45
4.3.1 節點存活數量與回合數的比較 45
4.3.2 每回合平均消耗電量 47
4.3.3 鏈結長度平方和比較 48
第五章 結論 51
參考文獻 52
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[20] Smart Dust, http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/
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