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研究生:劉烜廷
研究生(外文):Hsuan-Ting Liu
論文名稱:螺栓鎖緊力對於質子交換膜燃料電池效率及擴散層特性之影響
論文名稱(外文):The Effect of Bolts Pre-loading on the Efficiency of PEMFC and Performance of GDL
指導教授:錢志回
指導教授(外文):Chi-Hui Chien
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:鎖緊壓力多孔性功率密度質子交換膜燃料電池接觸電阻
外文關鍵詞:Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellContact ResistanceBolt Pre-loadingPower DensityPorosity
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本研究建立了完整的質子交換膜燃料電池之單電池與雙電池三維模型,並透過以有限元素法為基礎的套裝軟體ANSYS15.0進行結構分析,進一步觀察螺栓鎖緊力變化對於擴散層的接觸電阻以及多孔性的影響;然後將氣體擴散層之特性變化代入電化學分析軟體Fluent15.0,進一步探討螺栓鎖緊力變化對於質子交換膜燃料電池整體發電效率的影響。
在結構分析中,本研究透過SolidWorks 建立出完整的質子交換模燃料電池三維模型,其反應區域為25cm2,此模型是由交換膜、催化層、擴散層、流道板、油封、電流收集板及端板所組成,並透過12組螺栓及螺帽鎖緊固定。在負載設定方面將螺帽固定,並透過ANSYS15.0內建的 Bolt Pretension 的功能將鎖緊壓力施加在螺栓上,以計算螺栓內部的力量及傳遞到此模型各個部位的力量。分析結果顯示,擴散層受到鎖緊壓力作用後,表面之接觸電阻及內部多孔性都呈現遞減的趨勢。接觸電阻的降低有助於減少歐姆損失,進而提升燃料電池的效率,相反的,擴散層多孔性的下降將導致氣體穿透阻力增加,進而使燃料電池效率下降。電化學分析結果顯示,在單電池結構中16MPa鎖緊壓力所計算出的最大功率密度與5MPa鎖緊壓力所模擬出的最大功率密度相比,約提升75.7%。在雙電池結構中,由於流道板總厚度的增加使得氣體擴散層所受到的平均等效應力上升,因此使得接觸電阻大幅下降。從分析結果可發現,在雙電池模組中,因接觸電阻降低的貢獻,可導致其最大功率密度平均提升了37.8%。
關鍵字: 質子交換膜燃料電池、接觸電阻、多孔性、鎖緊壓力、功率密度
In this study, 3D FEM (finite element method) models of both single cell and dual-cell of PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) had been established, separately. The commercial software ANSYS15.0 was adopted in order to observe the effect of bolt pre-loading variation on the contact resistance and porosity of GDL (gas diffusion layer) in PEMFC. Then, the obtained values of contact resistance and porosity of GDL were substituted into the electro-chemistry simulation software Fluent 15.0 and the effect of bolt pre-loading variation on the efficiency of PEMFC was discussed.
In stress-strain analysis, a 3D PEMFC model with the reactive area of 25cm2 had been established through 3D drawing software SolidWroks 2013. The model includes membrane, catalyst layer, gas diffusion layer, flow channel plate, current collector and body plate which all elements were fixed by 12 pairs of bolt and nut. In order to apply bolt pre-loading on each pair of bolt and nut, the nuts were assumed to be fixed and the ANSYS built-in function, bolt pretension, was adopted. According to the simulative results, both contact resistance and porosity of GDL are decreasing while the bolt pre-loading increasing. The decreasing of contact resistance can reduce the ohmic loss effectively, and increase the efficiency of PEMFC. However, the decreasing of porosity of GDL will cause the increasing of resistance of permeability and resulted in the decreasing of the efficiency of PEMFC. The results of electro-chemistry simulation show that by increasing bolt pre-loading from 5MPa to 16MPa will result in 75.7% improvement of maxima power density of PEMFC. In a dual-cell PEMFC, the average equivalent stress of the GDL is increased due to the increase in the total thickness of the flow channel plates, thus greatly reduce the contact resistance of GDL. The simulative results indicate that due to the contribution of the reduction of contact resistance of GDL, the maximum power density of the dual-cell module is increased by 37.8%.
Keywords: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, Contact Resistance, Porosity, Bolt Pre-loading, Power Density
目 錄
論文審定書 i
誌 謝 ii
摘 要 iii
Abstract iv
目 錄 v
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2燃料電池簡介 2
1.3文獻回顧 5
1.4研究動機與目的 9
1.5全文架構 11
第二章 基礎理論簡介 23
2.1 FEM有限元素法簡介 23
2.1.1應力與平衡方程式 23
2.1.2應變與位移關係 24
2.1.3應力與應變之關係 25
2.1.4能量法 26
2.1.5形狀函數與剛性矩陣 26
2.2 FDM有限體積法簡介 30
2.2.1流體控制方程式 30
2.2.2 FDM計算方式 32
2.3套裝軟體ANSYS 15.0/Workbench簡介 33
2.4 Fluent 15.0簡介 35
第三章 研究方法 44
3.1 研究流程 44
3.2 基本假設 45
3.3模型收斂性分析 45
3.4 FEM結構分析模型 46
3.5 FVM電化學分析模型 47
3.6 GDL接觸電阻分析 49
3.7 GDL多孔性分析 50
第四章 結果與討論 60
4.1模擬驗證 60
4.2螺栓鎖緊壓力變化於溫度分佈之影響 61
4.3 GDL應力及應變分佈 62
4.4 GDL之接觸電阻與多孔性變化 62
4.5螺栓鎖緊力對於質子交換膜燃料電池單電池效率之提升 63
4.6螺栓鎖緊壓力變化於電流密度分佈之影響 63
4.7螺栓鎖緊壓力變化對於反應氣體分布之影響 64
4.8雙電池結構對於GDL特性之影響 65
4.9雙電池結構對於質子交換膜料電池整體發電效率之影響 65
第五章 結論與未來展望 92
5.1 結論 92
5.2 未來展望 94
參考文獻 95
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