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研究生:趙翊雯
研究生(外文):Yi-Wen Tzau
論文名稱:廣告「色」計—產品色彩多樣性訴求之影響機制與效果
論文名稱(外文):Color tricks in advertising—The influence mechanism and adverting effect of color-diversity appeal of products
指導教授:周軒逸周軒逸引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsuan-Yi Chou
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:行銷傳播管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:FCB模型推敲可能性模型色彩心理學情緒色彩多樣性
外文關鍵詞:Elaboration likelihood modelColor diversityColor psychologyEmotionFCB Model
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近年來,許多知名品牌像是Lativ、Uniqlo、 IKEA、ASUS、Apple等,皆有同款產品但追求色彩多樣性的行為出現,產品色彩多樣性逐漸成為市場趨勢,然而在產品廣告當中,有時僅呈現單一色款產品的圖片,有時則一次呈現所有色款的產品圖片,這兩種廣告設計方式會如何影響消費者的情緒反應、廣告訊息涉入和廣告效果仍屬未知,且色彩為廣告中的溝通元素之一,但是相較於其他廣告元素,其相關研究較為缺乏,可能干擾色彩作用的變數探討也相當不足。鑑此,本研究針對色彩多樣性對於消費者情緒反應、廣告訊息涉入和廣告效果的影響進行探究,考量消費者的產品思考模式(理性 vs. 感性)與其對產品既有的涉入程度,可能會影響色彩多樣性的效果,故本研究也加入產品類型作為干擾,檢視不同類型產品使用單色和多色產品廣告的效果。
本研究採實驗法來檢驗假說,實驗一先測試色彩多樣性對於消費者的情緒反應和廣告涉入之影響,並將單色產品廣告分為紅色、藍色、灰色,多色產品廣告分為五色和七色,形成五組不同的實驗情境。實驗二則加入其他潛在作用機制,並修改題項再次測試廣告中產品色彩多樣性對於消費者廣告涉入程度的影響,以期更全面了解色彩多樣性所發揮之效果,而單色產品廣告分為藍色、黑色、白色與粉紅色,多色產品廣告分為七色和九色,共形成六組不同的實驗情境。實驗三則加入產品類型的干擾進行探究,為2(色彩多樣性:單色 vs. 多色)x2(產品思考模式:理性 vs. 感性)x2(產品涉入:高涉入 vs. 低涉入)之三因子受測者間實驗設計。
研究結果發現:(1)廣告中的產品色彩多樣性會正向影響消費者的愉悅和喚起;(2)色彩多樣性所引發的情緒反應會直接影響廣告效果,而不須透過影響消費者的廣告涉入而發揮間接作用;(3)色彩多樣性對情緒喚起和購買意願的正向影響,僅存在於感性(而非理性)思考模式的產品;(4)高涉入(vs. 低涉入)產品情境下,會強化色彩多樣性對情緒和廣告效果的正向影響。本研究結果有助於釐清產品色彩多樣性對消費者情緒反應和廣告效果所發揮的作用,並進一步了解情緒作用對廣告效果的影響途徑,以及情緒作用在不同思考模式、涉入程度情境下所發揮的效果,為色彩心理、色彩行銷、情緒作用機制、消費者思考模式、推敲路徑等提供理論意涵,並提供廠商、代理商規劃產品廣告之重要參考。
Many famous brands such as Lativ, Uniqlo, IKEA, ASUS, Apple and so on, all pursue the color diversity of their products in recent years. Thus, the color diversity of products may become market trends. However, the advertisements of products sometimes present just one color type, and sometimes present all color types. It’s still unknown how the two ways will influence consumers’ emotions, advertising message involvement, and advertising effects. Besides, color is one of the executive elements in advertising. Compared to other advertising elements, studies related to color are scarce. There is also lack of studies to explore the factors which moderate the color effect. Based on elaboration likelihood model, this research aims to explore the effect of color-diversity appeal of products on consumers’ emotion, advertising message involvement, and advertising effects. As consumer thinking style (rational/emotional) and product involvement might moderate the color-diversity effect, we also apply FCB model to examine the effect of color diversity in different products.
This research used experiment method to test hypotheses. Experiment 1 tested the color-diversity effect on emotion and advertising message involvement. We separated single color advertisements into red, blue and gray. We also separated color-diversity advertisements into five colors and seven colors. There were totally five experimental situations. In order to know the effect of color-diversity comprehensively, Experiment 2 tried to exclude other possible mechanisms and revised some items to test the effect of color diversity of products again. There were six experimental situations in Experiment 2. The single color advertisements were separated into blue, black, white, and pink, and the color-diversity advertisements were separated into seven colors and nine colors. Experiment 3 combined the FCB model and examined the moderating effect of thinking style and produce involvement. A 2 (color diversity:single vs. multiple ) x2 ( thinking style:rational vs. emotional) x2 (product involvement:high vs. low) between-subjects design was conducted.
The analytical results indicate that:(1) The color-diversity appeal of products in advertising increases consumers’ pleasure and arousal. (2) The emotions induced by color diversity of products influence advertising effects directly, without being mediated by advertising message involvement. (3) The positive effects of color diversity of products on consumers’ arousal and purchase intention only exist in emotional products but not in rational products. (4) Compared to low-involvement products, high-involvement products enhance the positive impact of color diversity on consumers’ emotions and advertising effects. This research results help to clarify the influence mechanism and adverting effects of color-diversity appeal for products in different thinking styles and different levels of product involvement. The results make theoretical contributions to color psychology, color marketing, emotional effect, consumers’ thinking style, and elaboration likelihood model, as well as provide practical suggestion for practitioners on planning advertisements of products.
論文審定書 i
誌謝 ii
中文摘要 iv
英文摘要 vi
第一章 緒論 1
一、 研究背景 1
二、 研究動機 3
三、 研究問題 7
四、 研究目的 7
第二章 理論與文獻回顧 8
第一節 色彩與消費者行為 8
一、 色彩心理學 8
二、 色彩行銷 10
三、 廣告中的色彩作用 12
四、 小結 15
第二節 推敲可能性模型 15
一、 推敲可能性模型概述 16
二、 推敲可能性模型相關研究 19
三、 小結 21
第三節 有限容量模型 22
一、 有限容量模型概述 22
二、 有限容量模型相關研究 23
三、 小結 26
第四節 產品類型與涉入程度 27
一、 涉入類型與定義 27
二、 持續性涉入與情境性涉入的相關研究 28
三、 FCB模式與相關研究 31
四、 小結 36
第三章 研究架構與假說推論 38
第一節 研究架構 38
第二節 研究假說 38
第四章 實驗一 43
第一節 研究方法 43
一、 樣本與實驗設計 43
二、 實驗刺激挑選 44
三、 實驗程序 44
四、 變數衡量 45
第二節 分析結果 46
第三節 討論 49
第五章 實驗二 51
第一節 研究方法 52
一、 樣本與實驗設計 52
二、 實驗刺激挑選 52
三、 實驗程序 53
四、 變數衡量 (應變數) 53
第二節 分析結果 54
第三節 討論 59
第六章 實驗三 61
第一節 假說推論 61
第二節 研究方法 67
一、 樣本與實驗設計 67
二、 實驗刺激和前測 68
三、 實驗程序 75
四、 變數衡量 75
第三節 分析結果 78
第四節 討論 95
第七章 結論與建議 99
第一節 研究發現與討論 99
第二節 理論意涵 104
第三節 實務意涵 109
第四節 研究限制與未來研究方向 112
參考文獻 117
附錄一、實驗一問卷 131
附錄二、實驗二問卷 135
附錄三、前測一問卷 139
附錄四、前測二問卷 143
附錄五、實驗三問卷 151
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