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研究生:謝宗樺
研究生(外文):Hsieh, Tsung-Hua
論文名稱:電磁引發透明: 垂直相交之探測及耦合光束之研究
論文名稱(外文):Electromagnetically induced transparency with orthogonally propagating probe and coupling fields
指導教授:褚志崧
指導教授(外文):Chuu, Chih-Sung
口試委員:余怡德劉怡維
口試委員(外文):Yu, Ite A.Liu, Yi-Wei
口試日期:2017-07-31
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:物理學系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:物理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:62
中文關鍵詞:二維磁光陷阱電磁引發透明垂直相交架設
外文關鍵詞:2D MOTEITright-angle setup
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本實驗以二維磁光陷阱(2D Magneto-Optical Trap;2D MOT)作為核心,藉 以實現電磁引發透明(Electromagnetically Induced Transparency;EIT)以及未來偏 振糾纏光子對的產生。
由於 2D MOT 其中一軸的位能井近似於 0,因此原子團會沿此量子軸 (quantization axis)延伸而呈現橢球形。若將光子沿量子軸入射可增加光子與物質 交互作用的機率,並且由於此軸路徑上近乎無磁場梯度,在 EIT 與四波混頻 (Four Wave Mixing;FWM)時不需在意磁場所產生的量子退相干(quantum decoherence)。
我們的系統由兩台雷射及一台 tapered amplifier(TA)的架構組成,其中一台 雷射為外腔雷射,作為 master laser,另一台則是一般二極體雷射,作為 slave laser。
此次主要的目標在於穩定 MOT 以及 EIT 的量測,其中的原理參考了史丹 佛大學的 S. E. Harris 教授的文章 1,2,並選用 Rb87 直交架設 (right-angle setup, 即 coupling & probe 呈 90 度夾角) ,以便為後續 FWM 做準備。
In this thesis, we utilize 2D MOT (Magneto-Optical Trap) for realizing EIT (Electromagnetically Induced Transparency) and generating polarization-entangled photon pairs in the near future.
The cold atoms may expand as ellipsoidal cloud due to the zero-line field which we consider as quantum axis in 2D MOT. The photon-atom interaction could be enhanced if the photons propagate in this direction. Besides, there is almost no magnetic field gradient on the quantum axis. As a result, we can neglect quantum decoherence in EIT and FWM (Four Wave Mixing).
There are two lasers and a TA (tapered amplifier) in our system. One of them is ECDL (external cavity diode laser), as a master laser; another is a regular diode laser, as a slave.
Our goals are MOT stabilization and EIT measurements. We consult the articles1,2 from professor S. E. Harris at Stanford before building the system, and chose Rb 87 right-angle setup in order to get fully entangled biphotons by FWM in the future.
摘要 ...........................................................................................................................i
誌謝 ..........................................................................................................................iii
第一章 實驗相關理論 ...................................................................................................1
1.1 MOT 理論 .............................................................................................................1
1.2 EIT 理論 ...............................................................................................................5
1.2.1 EIT Hamiltonian...............................................................................................6
1.2.2 Von Neumann Equations...............................................................................11
1.2.3 Density matrix 之解 ......................................................................................13
1.2.4 電擊化率(Electric Susceptibility) χ ...............................................................15
1.2.5 都卜勒效應 20 1.2.6 超精細結構與偏振光下的 EIT..........................................21
第二章 實驗儀器與架設...............................................................................................26
2.1 Master Laser 光路...............................................................................................27
2.2 飽和吸收光譜(Saturation Spectroscopy)優化.....................................................28
2.3 Tapered Amplifier(TA)頻譜 ................................................................................31
2.4 TA controller—LDC2500B 操作......................................................................... 33
2.5 Probe beam 光路 ...............................................................................................34
2.6 Coupling beam 光路 ..........................................................................................38
2.7 光電倍增管(Photomultiplier tube;PMT) ..............................................................40
2.8 時序控制裝置:Timing box——SRS_DG535 .........................................................42
2.9 EOM 掃頻 ...........................................................................................................46
2.10 水冷機(Chiller)—NESLAB_HX150 .....................................................................48
第三章 實驗 結果與數據處理 ......................................................................................49
3.1 原子團 OD(Optical Density) ................................................................................49
3.2 Small-angle measurements(小角度量測) ...........................................................50
3.3 Right-angle measurements(直交量測) ...............................................................52
3.4 結論 ...................................................................................................................59
實驗注意事項 .............................................................................................................60
參考文獻 ....................................................................................................................61
[1] K. J. Boller, A. Imamoğlu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[2] Lene Vestergaard Hau, S. E. Harris, Zachary Dutton & Cyrus H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594-598(1999).
[3] 陳保鋼,碩士論文,銣 87 原子的二維磁光陷阱之設計及架設,國立清華大 學物理系(2015)。
[4] E. L. Raab, M. Prentiss, Alex Cable, Steven Chu, and D. E. Pritchard, “Trapping of Neutral Sodium Atoms with Radiation Pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631- 2634(1987).
[5] Jung-Jung Su and Ite A. Yu, “The Study of Coherence-Induced Phenomena Using Double-Sided Feynman Diagrams,” CHINESE J PHYS 41, No. 6, 627- 642(2003)
[6] Wesley W. Erickson, undergraduate thesis, Electromagnetically Induced Transparency, Reed College (2012).
[7] K. Hornberger: Introduction to Decoherence Theory, Arxiv preprint quant- ph/0612118(2006), (last revised, 5 November 2008).
[8] Mark Fox, Quantum Optics An Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2006).
[9] D. A. Steck, “Rubidium 87 D Line Data,” (2010), (revision 2.1.3, 23 December
2010)
[10] B. Gouraud, Ph. D thesis, Optical Nanofibers Interfacing Cold Atoms A Tool for Quantum Optics, Pierre and Marie Curie University (2016).
[11] B. Wang, Y. Han, J. Xiao, X. Yang, C. Xie, H. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Multi-dark- state resonances in cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms,” Opt. Lett. 31, No. 24, 3647-3649(2006).
[12] J. F. Chen, Ph. D thesis, Manipulating Classical and Neoclassicals Light with Cold Atoms, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, PhD thesis (2011).
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