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研究生:慶道冲
研究生(外文):Ching, Tao-Chung
論文名稱:磁力與動力在恆星形成區中的交互作用:從10光年尺度分子雲到0.1光年尺度原恆星核
論文名稱(外文):Interaction of Magnetic Fields and Kinematics in Star-forming Regions from Parsec-scale Filaments to Thousand-AU-scale Cores
指導教授:賴詩萍
指導教授(外文):Lai, Shih-Ping
口試委員:李景輝張其洲
口試委員(外文):Lee, Chin-FeiZhang, Qizhou
口試日期:2017-01-17
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:天文研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:天文及太空科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:97
中文關鍵詞:恆星形成磁場分子雲次毫米波
外文關鍵詞:Star formationMagnetic fieldMolecular cloudsSubmillimeter
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恆星形成發生於分子雲內高密度的區域,而磁場與擾流是分子雲內抵抗重力塌縮 最主要的兩種機制。 近年的觀測結果顯示恆星形成的過程分成兩個階段:分子雲 首先由擾流擠壓成10光年尺度的絲狀結構,被重力束縛的絲狀結構再進一步塌縮 而分裂成0.1光年尺度的原恆星核。恆星形成的理論和模擬顯示磁場與擾流在絲狀 結構與原恆星核的形成過程中都扮演重要的角色。此篇論文的目標即是經由三個 次毫米波陣列望遠鏡的觀測來驗證磁場與擾流在絲狀結構與原恆星核內的交互作 用: (1)恆星形成區NGC1333 IRAS 4A內一氧化碳譜線的偏極化觀測與星際塵埃的 偏極化觀測找尋原恆星噴流內的螺旋狀磁場結構,(2)DR21絲狀分子雲內原恆星核 的偏極化觀測以測量絲狀結構與原恆星核內的磁場結構,(3)DR21絲狀分子雲的分 子譜線觀測以測量絲狀結構與原恆星核內的動力學結構。 觀測結果顯示絲狀結構 與原恆星核的長軸不是平行就是垂直於絲狀結構內磁場的方向,代表了10光年尺 度的磁場方向對絲狀結構與原恆星核的行程都有決定性的影響。然而由於重力位 能在原恆星核內轉換成塌縮,旋轉,噴流等動能,這種不是平行就是垂直的相關 性消失於0.1光年的尺度。此論文顯示磁場對10光年尺度的絲狀結構的形成有決定 性的影響,而由重力轉換而來的動能則決定了原恆星核的形成。因此,磁力與動 力的交互作用在從絲狀結構到原恆星核的演化過程中扮演了重要的角色。
Star formation takes place in the high-density regions of molecular clouds where magnetic fields and turbulence are the two main mechanism support- ing molecular clouds against self-gravity. Recent observations of molecular clouds reveal a two-step scenario of star formation that supersonic flows first compress clouds into parsec-scale filaments, and then gravitational bound filaments collapse and fragment into 0.1 pc star-forming cores. Star formation theory and simulation suggest that magnetic fields and turbulence are both important to form the filaments and cores in molecular clouds. The aim of this thesis is to provide an evidence of the interaction between magnetic fields and turbulence in molecular clouds with SMA observations of (1) the CO J = 3–2 polarization and dust polarization observations in NGC 1333 IRAS 4A to reveal a helical structure of magnetic fields in the protostellar outflows at few thousand AU scales, (2) dust polarization observations in six star-forming cores of DR21 filament to investigate the role of magnetic fields during the evolution from filament to cores, and (3) molecular line observations in the six cores to study the interaction between magnetic fields and gas dynamics in the DR21 filament. The observations show that the cores appear to be either-parallel-or-perpendicular to the magnetic fields of filaments, indicating that the parsec-scale magnetic fields play an important role in the formation of cores. However, the alignment break at scales below thousand AU scales, which would be caused by the transformation of gravitational energy to kinematic energy through the process of infall, rotation, or outflow of the cores. Overall, this thesis suggests that magnetic fields are important in regulating the structures of collapsing filaments, and the kinematics arising from gravitational collapse are important in star-forming cores. Therefore, the interaction between magnetic fields and kinematics during the evolution from filament to cores is important in regulating the filaments at few parsec scales and regulating the cores at thousand AU scales.
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Magnetic Fields and Turbulence in Star formation: Scientific Back- ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Magnetic Fields and Turbulence in Star formation: Observations . . . 3
2 Helical Magnetic Fields in the NGC1333 IRAS 4A Protostellar Out- flows 6
2.1 Introduction................................ 6
2.2 ObservationsandDataReduction.................... 8
2.3 Results................................... 11
2.3.1 COStokesIEmission ...................... 11 2.3.2 COandDustPolarization .................... 14 2.3.3 C17Oemission........................... 16
2.4 Discussion................................. 18
2.4.1 Driving Mechanism of the IRAS 4A CO Outflows . . . . . . . 18
2.4.2 IRAS4AMolecularOutflows .................. 19
2.4.3 COPolarization.......................... 20
2.4.4 MagneticFieldsinIRAS4AOutflows. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.4.5 BendoftheRed-shiftedOutflow................. 26
2.4.6 IRAS 4A Binary System and Two Bipolar Outflows . . . . . . 27
2.5 Conclusions ................................ 29
3 Magnetic fields in the massive dense cores of DR21 filament: weakly magnetized cores in a strongly magnetized filament 31
3.1 Introduction................................ 32
3.2 ObservationsandDataReduction.................... 33

3.3 Results................................... 36
3.3.1 JCMTandSMApolarizationmaps............... 36
3.3.2 Combined JCMT and SMA 880 μm continuum maps . . . . . 38
3.3.3 Masses,Densities,andSizesoftheCores . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.3.4 Large-scale and Small-scale Magnetic Fields . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4 AnalysisandDiscussion ......................... 44
3.4.1 OrientationsofCoresandMagneticFields . . . .44
3.4.2 DerivationoftheMagneticFieldStrength . . . .45
3.4.3 Turbulent, Magnetic, and Gravitational Energies. . . . . . . 51
3.5 Conclusions ................................ 57
4 Interactions of gas dynamics and magnetic fields in the massive dense cores of DR21 filament 59
4.1 Introduction................................ 60
4.2 ObservationsandDataReduction.................... 63
4.3 Results................................... 66
4.3.1 Dense Core Tracers: CH3 OH, SO, H13 CN, and H13 CO+ . . . . 68
4.3.2 Outflow Tracers: CO and SiO .................. 72
4.4 Analysis.................................. 74
4.4.1 Alignment between Magnetic Fields and Velocity Fields . . . . 74
4.4.2 DerivationoftheMagneticFieldstrength . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.5 Discussion................................. 81
4.5.1 Velocity Dispersion and Quasi-static Cores . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.5.2 Angular Momentum and Rotation of the Massive Dense Cores 82
4.5.3 CommentsonIndividualSources ................ 83
4.6 Conclusions ................................ 84
5 Summary...............86
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