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研究生:賴致瑋
研究生(外文):Lai, Chih-Wei
論文名稱:蒸汽朗肯與有機朗肯複循環之性能分析與研究
論文名稱(外文):Combined Cycle Study using Steam Rankine Cycle and Organic Rankine Cycle
指導教授:蔣小偉蔣小偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiang, Hsiao-Wei
口試委員:郭啟榮徐菘蔚
口試委員(外文):Kuo, Chi-RonHsu, Sung Wei
口試日期:2017-07-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:動力機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:蒸汽朗肯循環有機朗肯循環複循環
外文關鍵詞:Steam Rankine CycleOrganic Rankine CycleCombined cycle
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現今許多工廠包括煉鋼廠、煉油廠、化工廠等,因加工製程需要排放出中低壓的飽和蒸汽與中低溫廢熱。這些蒸汽與廢熱因壓力與溫度相對較低而難以回收利用,但平均仍有5~20atm以及大於200℃的能量,若將此飽和蒸汽與廢熱加以回收利用,可省下許多能源浪費。
蒸汽朗肯循環(Steam Rankine Cycle)的蒸汽渦輪雖然可以回收中低壓蒸汽,但仍排放相當高溫的蒸汽。為了有效的利用這些蒸汽,將蒸汽朗肯循環與有機朗肯循環(Organic Rankine Cycle)結合成一複循環(Combined Cycle)系統來提升熱回收效率。但並不是每個工廠所排出的廢熱都是純淨的高溫高壓蒸汽,因此本研究依照廢熱源的不同假設了兩種循環模型Model Ⅰ與Model Ⅱ。Model Ⅰ是以純淨的蒸汽為熱源,可直接進入蒸汽渦輪機;Model Ⅱ為非蒸汽廢熱熱源,需先與蒸汽朗肯循環作熱交換。
本研究首先將Model Ⅰ與Model Ⅱ與文獻[10]、[11]驗證,驗證成功後,藉由調整廢熱源、泵浦壓力、有機流體種類等參數,模擬分析複循環在不同的環境下運作情形。最後將複循環與蒸汽、有機朗肯循環做比較,結果顯示Model Ⅰ的輸出功可以提升70%,Model Ⅱ的效率與輸出功可以提升65%。
In present, many industries including steel mills, refineries, chemical plants, emit low-pressure saturated steam and low temperature waste heat due to processes in need. These vapors and waste heat are difficult to recover because of their relatively low pressure and temperature. But the average pressure and temperature of the waste heat are still 5 ~ 20 atm and greater than 200 ℃. If the energy of the waste heat can be recovered, the energy consumption can be reduced.
Steam turbines can utilize low and medium pressure steam in the steam Rankine cycle, but they still discharge high temperature steam. This study combines the steam Rankine cycle and the organic Rankine cycle into a combined cycle in order to utilize waste heat and improve the efficiency. Because not all the waste heat discharged from the factory is clean high temperature and high pressure steam, this study distinguishes between two heat sources: Model Ⅰ includes pure steam as the heat source that can be directly transported to the steam turbine; Model Ⅱ includes the heat source of impurities and the need to exchange heat with the steam Rankine cycle.
Model Ⅰ and Model Ⅱ have been verified with literature [10-11] and varied the parameters of waste heat source, compressor inlet pressure and different organic working fluids to simulate the combined cycle in different conditions. The combined cycle has been compared with the steam Rankine cycle and the organic Rankine cycle. The results show that by using a combined cycle, the output power can be increased by 70% in Model Ⅰ, and both the efficiency and output power can be increased by 65% in Model Ⅱ.
目錄
摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
符號說明 X
第一章、 緒論 1
1-1前言 1
1-2研究動機 2
1-3研究目的 3
1-4文獻回顧 4
1-4-1蒸汽朗肯循環(Steam Rankine Cycle) 4
1-4-2有機朗肯循環(Organic Rankine Cycle) 6
1-4-3複循環(Combined Cycle) 9
第二章、 研究原理 13
2-1朗肯循環(Rankine Cycle) 13
2-1-1蒸汽朗肯循環(Steam Rankine Cycle ) 14
2-1-2有機朗肯循環(Organic Rankine Cycle) 15
2-1-3複循環(Combined Rankine Cycle) 17
2-2熱交換器(Heat Exchanger) 17
2-2-1圓管式逆向流型熱交換器 19
2-2-2板式熱交換器 21
2-3泵浦(Pump) 24
2-3-1離心泵 24
2-4作功元件-膨脹機(Expander) 26
2-4-1螺桿膨脹機 26
2-4-2渦輪膨脹機 28
第三章、 研究方法 33
3-1系統架構 34
3-1-1蒸汽朗肯循環(Steam Rankine Cycle) 34
3-1-2有機朗肯循環(Organic Rankine Cycle) 34
3-1-3複循環(Combined Cycle) 35
3-2理論分析 36
3-2-1熱力分析 36
3-3實驗平台建立 37
3-3-1鍋爐 37
3-3-2熱水循環 38
3-3-3冷水循環 39
3-3-4電控系統 40
3-3-5資料擷取與分析 40
3-4有機流體的選擇 41
3-4-1工作溫度 41
3-4-2可用性 42
3-4-3工作壓力 43
3-4-4熱力性質與傳輸性質 43
3-4-5乾、濕、等熵流體 44
3-5膨脹機設計考量 45
3-6朗肯循環模型建立 46
3-6-1系統模擬流程 47
3-6-2數值模型建立 51
3-7模擬程式 57
3-7-1 Aspen Plus (Advanced System for Process Engineering Plus) 57
3-7-2 Matlab(Matrix Laboratory) 58
3-7-3 REFPROP 59
第四章、 研究結果與討論 61
4-1蒸汽朗肯循環(Steam Rankine Cycle) 61
4-1-1模型架設 61
4-1-2模型驗證 62
4-2有機朗肯循環(Organic Rankine Cycle) 64
4-2-1模型架設 64
4-2-2模型驗證 65
4-3複循環(Combined Rankine Cycle) 67
4-3-1熱源假設 67
4-3-2模型架設 69
4-3-3模型驗證 73
4-3-4性能模擬分析 75
4-4複循環與單循環之比較 93
第五章、 結論與未來建議 99
5-1結論 99
5-2未來建議 104
參考文獻 105
參考文獻
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