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研究生:黃惠汶
研究生(外文):Huang, Hui-wen
論文名稱:臺灣閩南語動相和體貌標記: 「了」的個案研究
論文名稱(外文):Phase and Aspect Markers in Taiwanese Southern Min: A Case Study of 了liau2
指導教授:連金發連金發引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lien, Chinfa
口試委員:張羣謝易達
口試委員(外文):Chang, ChunHsieh, I-Ta
口試日期:2017-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:閩南語動相標記體貌標記語苑閩南語故事集
外文關鍵詞:Taiwanese Southern MinPhase markerAspect markerGoenstories for Taiwanese Southern Min
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本論文旨在藉由比較早期閩南語與現代閩南語中‘了liau2’這個動相標記及體貌標記在中語法功能與構句之異同初探。早期閩南語之語料來自【語苑】,而現代閩南語之語料則來自【閩南語故事集】。本論文之探討分別就詞彙、語意、語法及音韻等觀點著手。其一,主要的討論關注於是否動相標記‘了liau2’與謂語間在形成句子時有所限制;其二,本論文試探是否動相標記與體貌標記呈現互補分佈。於本論文中,不僅探究‘了liau2’這個動相標記,同時也初探及比較‘好ho2, 完uan5, 去khi3, 煞suah’等動相標記與‘了liau2’這個動相標記功能與構句異同。本文以Lien (1995,2005)的文章為繼承而開啟,進一步深入探討臺灣閩南語中的動相標記與體貌標記在線性及層級結構上的位置。
The purpose of this paper aims at the comparison and contrast of phase marker 了liau2 , as well as 好ho2, 完uan5, 去khi3, and煞suah between Goen and stories for Taiwanese Southern Min. This study aims to provide a preliminary analysis on the phase marker and aspect marker in TSM. The research will be undergone on the basis of lexical, semantic, syntactic, and phonological aspect respectively.
The study attempts to undergo the research and offer answers to following issues. First issue is concerned whether the construction of phase markers and predicates is with limits. Second issue is dealt with whether the collocation of different phase markers is complementarily distributed. Third issue is coped with both linear and hierarchical order of phase and aspect markers with predicates.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background and Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………….1
1.2 Researched Issues………………………………………………………………………….2
1.3 The Sources of Data Collection……………………………………………………………3
1.4 The Organization of Thesis………………………………………………………………..5
2 Literature Review……………………………………………………………………………….6
2.1 Aspect……………………………………………………………………………………...6
2.1.1 Comrie (1976:4)………………………………………………………………...6
2.1.2 Smith (1991)…………………………………………………………………….6
2.1.3 Chappell (1992)…………………………………………………………………6
2.1.4 Crystal (2003: 36)……………………………………………………………….8
2.2 了le in Mandarin…………………………………………………………………………..8
2.2.1 Liu (1985)……………………………………………………………………….8
2.2.2 Li (2002)………………………………………………………………………...9
2.2.3 Wei (2002)……………………………………………………………………..10
2.2.4 Kao (2006)……………………………………………………………………..10
2.2.5 Chen & Chang (2007)…………………………………………………………10
3 The Collocation of Phase Marker 了liau2 and Predicate……………………………………..13
3.1 The collocation of 了liau2 and predicate in Goen……………………………………….13
3.1.1 了liau2 as a verb……………………………………………………………….13
3.1.2 了liau2 as a perfective marker…………………………………………………14
3.1.3 了liau2 as a inchoative marker………………………………………………...14
3.2 The collocation of了liau2 and predicate in stories for Taiwanese Southern Min…….....15
3.2.1 了liau2 as a verb……………………………………………………………….15
3.2.2 了liau2 as a perfective marker…………………………………………………16
3.2.3 了liau2 as a inchoative marker………………………………………………...16
3.3 Summary………………………………………………………………………………….17
4 The Construction of Predicate and Phase Marker了liau2……………………………………18
4.1 The construction of predicate and了liau2 in Goen………………………………………18
4.1.1 V+了liau2………………………………………………...................................18
4.1.2 V+O+了liau2…………………………………………………………………..19
4.1.3 V+了liau2+O…………………………………………………………………..19
4.1.4 V+了liau2+C…………………………………………………………………..20
4.1.5 V+C+了liau2…………………………………………………………………..20
4.1.6 V+了liau2+O+能e7+C………………………………………………………..21
4.2 The construction of predicate and了liau2 in stories for Taiwanese Southern Min………21
4.2.1 V+了liau2……………………………………………………………………...21
4.2.2 V+O+了liau2…………………………………………………………………..22
4.2.3 V+了liau2+O…………………………………………………………………..22
4.2.3.1 真tsin1/成tshiann5 +adjective……………………………………………22
4.2.3.2 Numeral+classifier+O……………………………………………………23
4.2.3.3 Determiner………………………………………………………………..23
4.2.3.4 Time………………………………………………………………………23
4.2.3.5 Others…………………………………………………………………….23
4.2.4 V+了liau2+C………………………………………………………………….24
4.2.4.1 真tsin1/成tshiann5 +adjective……………………………..…………….24
4.2.4.2 Negation+adjective/v…………………………………………..………....24
4.2.4.3 擱koh+adjective………………………………………..……..………….25
4.2.4.4 Degree verb+adjective………..…………………………..……..….…….25
4.2.4.5 慣習kuan3.si1………………………………………………………….…26
4.2.4.6 有u7+adjective……….………………………..……..…………...………26
4.2.5 V+C+了liau2………………………..……..………………………….…….…26
4.2.6 V+了liau2+煞suah+V…………..…………………………………….………27
4.2.7 O+了liau2…………..…………………………………….……………………27
4.2.8 V+C+O +了liau2…………..……………………………….………….………28
4.2.9 V+C+了liau2+O…………..……………………………….………….………28
4.2.10 V+了liau2+O +V…………..……………………………….………….………28
4.2.11 V+了liau2+V+O…………..……………………………….………….………29
4.2.12 V+了liau2+O +了liau2…………..……………………………….….……….29
4.2.13 V+了liau2+有u7+X…………..……………………………….………….……29
4.2.13.1 有u7+time…………..……………………………….………….………..30
4.2.13.2 有u7+adjective…………..……………………………….………….……30
4.2.13.3 有u7+O…………..……………………………….………….………...…30
4.2.14 V+了liau2+會e7+V..……………………………….………….…….……...…31
4.2.15 V+了liau2+是si7/麼mah+C..……………………………….………….…..…31
4.2.15.1 麼mah+真tsin1/成tshiann5 +adjective..…………………………………31
4.2.15.2 麼mah+有u7+noun..…………………………………….………………32
4.2.15.3 是si7+C.………………………………………………….………………32
4.2.16 V+了liau2+V.…………………………………….……………………………32
4.3 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………33
5 V了liau2了liau2 and V了liau2啊 ah………………………………………………………35
5.1 V了liau2了liau2…………………………………………..……………………………35
5.1.1 V了liau2了liau2 in Goen………………………………………………….…35
5.1.1.1 V+了liau2了liau2………………………………………………………35
5.1.1.2 V+O+了liau2了liau2……………………………………………………36
5.1.1.3 被hoo7+V+C+了liau2了liau2……………………………………………36
5.1.1.4 O+了liau2了liau2……………………………………………………….37
5.1.1.5 V+了liau2了liau2+O………………………………………..………….37
5.1.2 V了liau2了liau2 in stories for Taiwanese Southern Min…………..…………38
5.1.2.1 V+了liau2了liau2………………………………….………..………….38
5.1.2.2 V+O+了liau2了liau2…………………………….………..…..……….39
5.1.2.3 V+C+了liau2了liau2………………………….……………….……….39
5.1.2.4 O+了liau2了liau2………………………….….……………….……….40
5.2 V了liau2 啊ah……………………………………………..….……………….……….40
5.2.1 V+了liau2 啊ah………………………………..….……………….……...….40
5.2.2 V+C+了liau2 啊ah…………………………..….………………….……...….41
5.2.3 V+O+了liau2 啊ah…………………………..….………………….….....….41
5.2.4 V+了liau2 了liau2啊ah…………………..….………………….…........….42
5.2.5 O+V+了liau2 啊ah…………………..….…………………………….....…..42
5.2.6 V+O+V+了liau2 啊ah………………..….…………………………….....….42
5.2.7 V+O+了liau2 啊ah +呢neh………………..….…………………………..…43
5.2.8 V +了liau2 +O+ 啊ah………………..….………………………..…….....….43
5.3 Summary………………..….………………………..……...........................................….44
6 The Discussion of Phase Markers The Discussion of Phase Markers 好ho2, 完uan5, 去khi3, 煞suah…………..….………………………..…….....................................................................….45
6.1 好ho2….………………………..…….....................................................................……..45
6.2 完uan5….………………………..…….......................................................................….46
6.3 去khi3….………………………..……........................................................................….46
6.4 煞suah….………………………..…….......................................................................….48
6.5 Comparison of all phase markers….………………………..……....................................48
6.5.1 Reduplication of phase marker……………..…….............................................49
6.5.2 Reduplication of predicate……………..………………....................................49
6.5.3 予伊hoo7.i1……………..……………………...………....................................49
6.5.4 Co-occurrence among phase markers……………..………………...................50
6.5.5 袂be7……………..……………………...……….……....................................50
7 Syntactic Representation……..……………………...……….…….........................................51
8 Conclusion……..……………………...……….……...............................................................53
8.1 Summary……..……………………...……………….….…….........................................53
8.2 Further research…………………...……………….….…….............................................53
References…………………………………...……………….….…….............................................54
Appendix
1. 了liau2 in Goen
2. 了liau2 in Stories for Taiwanese Southern Min
3. V了liau2了liau2 in Goen
4. V了liau2了liau2 in Stories for Taiwanese Southern Min
5. 了liau2了liau2 in Stories for Taiwanese Southern Min
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