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研究生(外文):Wu, Yi-lin
論文名稱(外文):The study of heavy metal ion removal by citric acid modified cellulose filter paper
指導教授(外文):Wang, Chu-Fang
口試委員(外文):Tan, Chung-FangHuang, Chih-PinChiang, Pen-Chi
外文關鍵詞:Membrane filtrationCitric acidcellulose filter paperDonnan exclusion effect
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膜過濾技術是一個可以處理大量廢水的處理技術,但是其高能耗是一個待解決的重要瓶頸。在本研究中,我們嘗試以檸檬酸改質纖維素濾紙,透過Donnan效應製備一低能耗過濾系統。實驗結果顯示,檸檬酸改質濾紙在1 ppm鈷離子錯流條件下,在100 L/m2h通量下仍可以維持95%的去除率。這是因為改質過程中在膜表面引入高親和力的Lewis酸吸附位置,並透過在這些吸附位置所建立的Donnan效益達到去除鈷離子的結果。後續的實驗數據發現,儘管檸檬酸改質膜具有優越的鈷離子去除效果,但會因為不可避免的表面濃度極化現象降低其鈷離子去除效率,因此現階段僅適合處理低濃度的鈷離子廢水,其穩定性是值得後續努力的方向。
Membrane filtration is a promising water treatment technique, but its high energy consumption hinders its universal application. We herein introduce a low energy consumption filtration system, in which the cobalt rejection rate is greatly enhanced through Donnan exclusion from 10% to 95%. This is achieved by grafting citric acid onto the cellulose filter paper through esterification. The incorporated acid sites exhibits high cobalt affinity which enhances the Donnan exclusion effect. Most importantly, the filtration was conducted at atmospheric pressure yet still achieving permeate flux of 100 L/m2h. In conclusion, we demonstrate a new low energy consumption filtration system with high cobalt rejection through Donnan exclusion effect, which may have promising potential in various heavy metal contaminated waters.
中文摘要 3
Abstract 4
Table index 8
Figure index 9
Chapter 1 Introduction 13
1.1 General overview 13
1.2 Aims of this study 15
Chapter 2 Literature Review 17
2.1 Adsorption 17
2.1.2 Common adsorbates 18
2.2 Membrane Technology 18
2.2.1 Classification of membrane 19
2.2.2 Membrane material 21
2.2.3 Operational mode 24
2.3 Electrokinetic Effect: Gibbs-Donnan Effect 25
2.3 Concentration polarization 26
2.4 Depth profile analysis with LA-ICPMS 27
Chapter 3 Methods and Procedures 28
3.1 Chemical reagents and Materials 28
3.2 Instruments 29
3.2.1 Low pressure acrylic cross-flow filtration system 29
3.2.2 LA-ICPMS 30
3.2.3 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 34
3.2.4 Fourier transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) 36
3.3 Experimental Procedures 37
3.3.1 Preparation of citric acid modified filter paper 37
3.3.2 General adsorption experiment 37
3.3.3 General Desorption experiment 39
3.3.4 General filtration setup 39
3.3.5 Depth profile of filtered membrane 40
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 41
4.1Characterization of citric acid modified filter paper 41
4.1.1 Morphology of citric acid modified filter paper 41
4.1.2 Adsorption properties of citric acid modified filter paper 44
4.2 Removal of cobalt ions by filtration 51
4.2.1 Permeate flux and rejection rate 51
4.2.2 Enhanced rejection rate by Donnan exclusion effect 53
4.2.3 Rejection rate reduction by Concentration polarization 58
4.3 Heavy metal application 62
4.3.1 Filtration of various heavy metal 62
4.3.2 Sequential filtration 63
4.3.3 Mixture solution filtration 67
4.3.4 Possible application 70
Reference 72
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