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研究生:吳兆田
研究生(外文):Wu, Jau-Tian
論文名稱:冒險教育效益機轉應用於大學生之自我認同發展之研究-以東海大學Senior Alpha Leaders為例
論文名稱(外文):The Mechanism of Adventure Education Effects to College Students Identity Formation:A Case Study from Senior Alpha Leaders of Tunghai University
指導教授:蔡居澤蔡居澤引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Ju-Tse
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:公民教育與活動領導學系
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:338
中文關鍵詞:冒險教育效益機轉大學生自我認同發展Senior Alpha Leaders質性研究
外文關鍵詞:Mechanism for Adventure Education EffectsIdentity FormationSenior Alpha LeadersQualitative Research
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冒險教育可以帶來的正面效益普遍受到肯定。然而,冒險教育效益機轉理論卻面臨理論多、實證少的挑戰。我國冒險教育推廣二十餘年,冒險教育效益機轉研究相當有限,冒險教育應用於大學高等教育的案例,更是鳳毛麟角。大學對青年而言,是一個學習成為成年人的重要階段,應該更積極地主動投入學習,與他人合作學習,學習獨立思考、思辨,學習解決問題的能力等複雜的能力。根據國外的研究,大學生的自我認同狀態與幸福感有關,甚至影響其學業表現。然而,國內針對大學生自我認同發展相關的討論研究,大多將學生的自我認同設定為自變項,進而了解對幸福感、自信心、生涯探索等依變項之間的相關性。至於,冒險教育應用於大學生自我認同發展的相關實證研究更是少見。本研究以質性研究,藉由東海大學Senior Alpha Leaders大學生視域與自我陳述,探究冒險教育應用於大學生自我認同發展之效益機轉建構歷程,及其效益機轉影響因素。
  研究成果發現,東海大學Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程效益機轉歷程,包含:
一、 學員課前狀態,影響學員參與課程的動機。
二、 引導員的作為營造了放心的環境,促進學員自我反思與學習。包含:引導反思、營造放心的環境、與學員的關係、成為學員的典範、給予刺激、認真的態度、反饋以及適當的自我揭露等。
三、 失衡適應的活動體驗,促進學習引發學員自我反思。
四、 互信與支持的共同學習,促進學習引發學員自我反思。
五、 課程教材的教與學,促進學員自我反思與學習。
六、 自我反思,引發學生應用所學,促進發展自我認同。
  就自我認同發展而論,本研究發現,冒險教育幫助大學生驗證、發現,並進一步探詢其自我認同。學員課前狀態影響大學生投入課程的動機與學習,而冒險教育中的活動體驗、共同學習,加上課程材料的學習,以及學生的自我反思,幫助大學生發展其自我認同。冒險教育課程提供了大學生自我認同發展所需要的情境與條件,冒險教育效益機轉因素中,直接性效益機轉因素包含:活動體驗、課程教材的學習、共同學習、自我反思、課程內容在生活中的應用;間接性效益機轉因素,包含:選擇自主、活動中的失衡適應、創新活潑的教學、引導員的作為、放心的環境、互助與支持、反饋等。
  就冒險教育效益機轉而論,質性研究結果比較過去國內外冒險教育效益機轉因素,本研究在冒險教育效益機轉因素方面有新的發現,包含:選擇自主、引導員的作為、互信支持與反饋的共同學習、創新活潑的教學、課程教材的學習等。此外,也發現冒險教育效益機轉歷程,具有促進自我認同發展的類似歷程,冒險體驗歷程中的自我反思與選擇自主,可幫助學生成為自我統合的獨立個體。
The effectiveness of adventure education (AE) is widely recognized. Theories about its mechanism for AE effects abound, but many of them lack sufficient empirical support. AE has been in Taiwan for more than 20 years, but researches on its mechanism for AE effects are few and case studies on its effects on higher education are even fewer. University is a key stage for adolescents to learn to become adults by active learning, independent thinking and problem solving. Researches show that college students’ sense of happiness and academic performance are highly related to their identity formation. But local researchers rarely focus on identity formation. It is often treated as an independent variable and the focus is more on its effects on confidence, sense of happiness or career exploration. Evidence-based research on AE effects on college students’ identity formation is nearly nonexistent. This paper studied the Alpha Leaders Program in Tunghai University, Taiwan. This study used the qualitative research approach to analyze the participants’ accounts and interpretations of the program to see why and how AE is helpful to their identity formation.

This study found that the mechanism for Senior Alpha Leaders AE effects include:
1. Their learning motivation is affected by their pre-class readiness.
2. Facilitators create the safe and open environment which produce the self-reflection and learning effectiveness with essential behaviors e.g. facilitation, positive facilitator-student relationship, model the way, providing challenges, sincerely manners, direct feedback and appropriate self-disclosure.
3. Adaption to dissonance during activity experiences produce self-reflection and learning effectiveness.
4. The experience of mutual learning with trust and support produce self-reflection and learning effectiveness.
5. Learning materials in AE enhance the self-reflection and learning effectiveness.
6. Self-reflection produce the learning transfer which enhance the identity formation.
In terms of identity formation, researcher found that AE can help college students to authenticate, discover and explore their identity. Their learning motivation is affected by their pre-class readiness. And AE, by providing learning materials and experience of mutual learning and self-reflection, is useful for students’ identity formation. Participants gain access through the program to the necessary environment, stimulations and interpersonal interaction to know themselves deeper and better. The paper also identified some factors influencing AE’s impacts to student’s identity formation. Direct factors include activity experience, learning materials, mutual learning, self-reflection, and learning transfer of what is learned at AE. Indirect ones include autonomy of choice, adaption to dissonance, creative teaching, facilitators’ essential behaviors, safe and open environment, mutual trust and support, and feedback.

In terms of mechanism for AE effects, this study found new factors in this study e.g. autonomy of choice; facilitator’s essential behaviors; experience of mutual learning with mutual trust, support and feedback; creative teaching; learning materials. In addition, this study found that the mechanism for AE effects provide a similar and enhancing process to individual identity formation. And AE, by providing self-reflection and autonomy of choice, help students becoming a self-identity individual with wholeness.
目次
謝誌  I
中文摘要  II
英文摘要  IV
目次  VII
表次  IX
圖次  X
第一章 緒論  1
  第一節 研究背景與動機  2
  第二節 研究目的與問題  12
  第三節 研究範圍與限制  13
  第四節 名詞解釋  16
第二章 文獻探討  19
  第一節 冒險教育及效益機轉  20
  第二節 自我認同內涵與相關理論  43
  第三節 東海大學大學生定向輔導方案:Alpha Leaders計劃  60
  第四節 東海大學Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程之設計與實施  76
第三章 研究設計與實施  111
  第一節 研究方法  112
  第二節 研究架構與程序  114
  第三節 研究參與者  122
  第四節 研究工具  124
  第五節 資料的蒐集與描述  128
  第六節 研究信實性  131
  第七節 研究倫理  134
第四章 冒險教育應用於大學生自我認同發展之效益機轉分析結果與討論  137
  第一節 冒險教育之整體效益機轉歷程  138
  第二節 冒險教育課程之自我認同發展效益機轉建構歷程  198
  第三節 冒險教育對大學生自我認同發展之效益機轉影響因素  218
第五章 結論與建議  261
  第一節 結論  262
  第二節 貢獻與建議  271
  第三節 研究者的反思  288
參考文獻  295
  中文部分  295
  英文部分  299
附錄
  附錄一 參與研究同意書  307
  附錄二 文本資料檢核表  308
  附錄三 「I AM」自我對話學習單  309
  附錄四 質性研究編碼及類別一覽表  310
  附錄五 冒險教育效益機轉模式一覽表
  附錄六 「改變ING」學習單



表次
表2-1-1 NOLS戶外冒險教育效益機轉因素表  32
表2-1-2 國內外冒險教育效益機轉模式比較表  34
表2-1-3 體驗教育研究中的混淆變項  36
表2-1-4 國內外冒險教育效益機轉因素比較表  37
表2-2-1 自我認同發展理論一覽表  52
表2-4-1 戶外教育SPEC教學教案  79
表2-4-2 Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育統整課程設計一覽表  80
表2-4-3 Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程半結構式課程表  84
表2-4-4 第一天(5/14)課程記錄表  96
表2-4-5 第二天(5/15)課程記錄表  101
表2-4-6 第三天(5/28)課程記錄表  104
表2-4-7 第四天(5/29)課程記錄表  106
表3-2-1 研究計劃時程表  121
表3-4-1 帶領團體工作紀錄表  127
表3-5-1 歸納分析的資料編碼說明表  130
表4-1-1 冒險教育效益機轉質性研究編碼類別一覽表  141
表4-1-2 東海大學Senior Alpha Leaders大學生簡介  145
表4-2-1 冒險教育效益機轉對自我認同七向度發展之交互關係比對歷程編碼  202
表5-2-1 冒險教育效益機轉因素比較表  276

圖次
圖2-1-1 Walsh與Golins(1976)的Outward Bound Process模式  26
圖2-1-2 McKenzie(2003)調整後高冒險性之冒險教育效益機轉Outward Bound Process 替代模式  27
圖2-1-3 冒險為本之學習歷程模式  28
圖2-1-4 冒險教育效益機轉與自我認同發展歷程示意圖  38
圖2-2-1 自我認同狀態理論  49
圖2-4-1 東海大學Senior Alpha Leaders課程架構  77
圖2-4-2 團隊形成到完成任務示意圖  88
圖2-4-3 團隊績效模式  89
圖2-4-4 盤點觸發物  91
圖2-4-5 改變之輪  92
圖2-4-6 「GROW」模式暨「改變ING」示意圖  93
圖2-4-7 冒險教育Adventure Way及東海大學ALPHA精神  94
圖3-2-1 研究示意圖  115
圖3-2-2 研究架構圖  116
圖3-2-3 研究實施程序  118
圖3-2-4 冒險教育效益機轉與自我認同發展七向度之交互關係  119
圖4-1-1 Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程效益機轉  143
圖4-1-2 Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程效益機轉歷程  144
圖4-1-3 Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程整體效益  175
圖4-2-1 Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程效益機轉(同圖4-1-1)  199
圖4-2-2 冒險教育效益機轉與自我認同發展之歷程編碼交互關係圖  200
圖4-2-3 冒險教育效益機轉對自我認同發展之立體曲面圖  203
圖4-2-4 冒險教育效益機轉對自我認同發展之俯視曲面圖  203
圖4-2-5 冒險教育效益機轉對自我認同發展之立體區域圖  204
圖4-2-6 影響大學生自我認同發展之冒險教育效益機轉模組化建構歷程  205
圖4-2-7 影響大學生自我認同「自我確定」、「價值定向」、「性別分化」等發展之冒險教育效益機轉歷程模組  207
圖4-2-8 影響大學生自我認同「角色試驗」及「主從分際」等發展之冒險教育效益機轉歷程模組  209
圖4-2-9 影響大學生自我認同「時間透視」及「職業意願」等發展之冒險教育效益機轉歷程模組  211
圖4-3-1 影響自我認同發展之效益機轉直接因素與間接因素  219
圖5-1-1 Senior Alpha Leaders冒險教育課程效益機轉歷程(同圖4-1-2)  263
圖5-1-2 影響大學生自我認同發展之冒險教育效益機轉模組化建構歷程(同圖4-2-6)  265
圖5-2-1 冒險教育效益機轉的隱喻  280
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