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研究生(外文):Jian, Shi-Han
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Meat Products by Liquid Chromatography - Tandem Mass Spectrometry
指導教授(外文):Chen, Sung-Fang
外文關鍵詞:Heterocyclic aromatic aminesHPLC-MS/MSQuEChERSSPELLEquantitation
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雜環胺化合物已經被證實可能在人體中會導致癌症發生,國際癌症研究機構(The International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC)將MeIQ、MeIQx及PhIP歸類為2B類致癌物,IQ則歸類為2A類致癌物,2011年國家毒理學計畫(National Toxicology Program)指出MeIQ、MeIQx、IQ及PhIP也皆可被合理預期為誘發人類癌症的物質。在平常家庭烹煮肉類條件下,約150℃下烹煮如牛肉、豬肉及魚類等蛋白質含量豐富的肉類即會產生雜環胺化合物。為達最佳萃取效率,針對肉類樣品中的11種雜環胺化合物進行樣品前處理優化,開發並比較兩種樣品前處理法,第一種為液相萃取(Liquid-Liquid Extraction, LLE)法搭載固相萃取法(Solid-Phase Extraction, SPE)之樣品前處理法,第二種為較新穎的QuEChERS樣品前處理法,經過萃取後搭配高效能液相層析及串聯式質譜儀(HPLC-MS/MS)進行檢測。使用乙腈做為液相萃取溶劑,接著使用Oasis® MCX的管柱進行萃取,QuEChERS法首先使用乙腈做液相微萃取溶劑,C18EC、PSA及MgSO4做為分散式固相萃取吸附劑(dSPE)。11種雜環胺化合物在此兩種方法驗證下得到很好的精密度(RSD < 15.15%)、準確率(79.80-117.64%)、回收率(52.39-116.88%)、偵測極限(0.01-10 ppb)及線性回歸之相關係數(r > 0.993)。此外,QuEChERS樣品前處理法具有較好的線性動態範圍,因此具有更高的靈敏度。此兩種法也成功應用在檢測市面上肉類製成品(肉鬆及肉乾)中的雜環胺化合物。在六種樣品中可定量出三至四種的雜環胺化合物,定量出的濃度範圍為0.06-718.46ppb。
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) comprise of a class of > 25 compounds, which primarily generated unintended hazardous substances by heating or processing of meats from cooking of proteinaceous foods at temperatures above 150℃. In addition, several of them have been found to be carcinogenic in animals, causing tumors in diverse organs across multiple species. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified three HCAs (MeIQ, MeIQx, and PhIP) as being possible human carcinogens (Group 2B) and one HCA (IQ) to be a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A). In this study, two sample preparation strategies, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe extractions (QuEChERS) method, were investigated for the determination of 11 types of HCAs in meat products by LC-MS/MS. HCAs in sample were first extracted with acetonitrile by LLE, and followed by SPE using Oasis® MCX cartridges. In QuEChERS extraction, acetonitrile is used as LLME solvent, and PSA, C18EC and MgSO4 are served as dSPE sorbent. Both methods showed good performances on precision (RSD < 15.15%), accuracy (79.80-117.64%), recovery (52.39-116.88%), limit of quantitation for the spiked meat extract (0.01-10 ppb) and correlation coefficients (>0.993). QuEChERS extraction strategy gives better linear dynamic range and superior sensitivity in comparison with LLE-SPE approach. Eventually, HCAs were successfully quantified in real samples by two proposed approaches on LC-MS/MS system.
謝誌 I
目錄 II
圖目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
Abstract VII
中文摘要 VIII
第一章 序論 1
第一節 雜環胺化合物 1
第二節 樣品前處理 5
一、 液相萃取方法 5
二、 固相萃取方法 6
三、 QuEChERS方法 8
第三節 高效能液相層析分離技術 10
一、 層析管柱靜相之材質 11
二、 偵測器 12
第四節 質譜儀技術 13
一、 電噴灑游離法 14
二、 三段四極桿串聯式質譜儀 15
三、 電子倍增管 17
第五節 多重反應監測之定量分析 18
第二章 實驗材料與方法 20
第一節 實驗試劑 20
第二節 實驗樣品 20
第三節 實驗設備 21
第四節 實驗方法 21
一、 樣品前處理 21
二、 高效能液相層析參數設定 26
三、 質譜儀參數設定 27
四、 校正曲線的繪製 27
五、 方法驗證 28
第三章 結果與討論 29
第一節 高效能液相層析參數設定優化 29
一、 管柱的選擇 29
二、 移動相 30
三、 梯度優化 30
第二節 質譜儀參數設定優化 32
一、 離子源參數 32
二、 離子對的選擇及電壓優化 33
第三節 樣品前處理優化 35
一、 定義空白基質 35
二、 液相萃取之萃取溶劑選擇 36
三、 固相萃取條件優化 38
四、 QuEChERS條件優化 40
第四節 方法驗證 44
一、 檢量線 44
二、 準確度及精密度 47
三、 回收率 50
四、 基質效應 52
第五節 與其它現有測量雜環胺化合物之方法比較 53
第六節 定量市售的肉類成品 54
結論與未來展望 56
第四章 參考文獻 57
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