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研究生:廖斌吟
研究生(外文):Liao, Pin-Yin
論文名稱:中小學科學教科書中「或」邏輯語義分析與生師對其語義理解的比較
論文名稱(外文):A study of exploring the logical semantic meanings of “or” and students’ and teachers’ semantic comprehension of “or” in secondary and elementary science textbooks
指導教授:楊文金楊文金引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yang, Wen-Gin
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:科學教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:189
中文關鍵詞:閱讀理解邏輯關係連接詞科學語言
外文關鍵詞:reading comprehensionlogical relationlogical connectivesscience language
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邏輯連接詞(logical connectives),例如因此、當、或,在科學文本中無所不在,它們的功能不只是連接了詞語和句子,同時也體現了被連接詞語和句子之間的邏輯關係。「或」是一個基本的邏輯連接詞,其所指涉的邏輯語義卻不是一種而已。本文目的即在探討中小學科學教科書中「或」邏輯語義分析以及生師對「或」的語義理解。本研究首先以從漢語歷時語義文獻研究,得知「或」至少有五種含義:「兼容」、「排斥」、「等同」、「所有」、以及「兼有」。接著以「或」的五種邏輯語義為架構,邀請專家讀者組成審議小組針對中小學科學教科書進行內容分析,以瞭解教科書中各類「或」語義的分佈。
生師對「或」的語義理解則以「還原理解」和「辨識理解」兩方面進行探究。研究對象皆以方便取樣。「還原理解」方面,蒐集22名八年級學生和9名國中數理教師對科學語句中「或」的還原情形。「辨識理解」問卷則包括5題生活「或」和5題科學「或」試題,共調查70名七年級新生、60名七年級舊生、62名八年級學生和20名國高中科學教師對「或」語義的辨識。最後選取8名八年級學生和9名教師訪談釋讀「或」時所使用的線索和策略。
研究發現科學教科書中「或」語句存在5種邏輯語義,以兼容義所佔的比例最多,並且專家讀者判斷「或」的語義方面,有一致共識的語句的比例低於爭議句。在還原科學語句中「或」方面,國中生師的「或」還原率都低於50%,還原的填答種類複雜,跟「或」競爭排名第一的詞語是「和」,甚至學生讀者填「和」的比例高過於「或」。在辨識「或」的邏輯語義方面,國中學生對「或」的語義區辨程度低於科學教師,而七年級新生跟八年級學生對科學「或」語義區辨程度相當;生師對生活「或」語義的區辨程度高於科學「或」,唯有一題生活「或」語義是生師表現一樣,都區分不開的。根據訪談發現,生師釋讀「或」時會依據直覺、文字線索例如標點符號括號、「都有」等、以及先備知識來協助判斷。
最後,根據「或」潛在多元語義引發的複雜語義理解結果,提出教科書編寫者和科學教師唯有意識到描述邏輯語義關係的詞彙選擇和語法之重要性和必要性,運用其他相關語言資源和教學釋讀策略,方能增進學生對事件之間邏輯關係有更清晰的判斷,對科學概念有更全面、完整的理解。
Logical connectives, such as hence, while, and or, are ubiquitous in science writing and they not only link phrases, clauses and sentences but also express their logical relations with one another. “Or” is a fundamental logical connective. In Chinese writing, “or” at least has five different semantic meanings (exclusive-, inclusive-, both-, identical-, and whole- or). Multiple meanings could cause problems in reading comprehension. The purposes of this study were to analyze the logical semantic meanings of “or” in the science textbooks in junior high schools and elementary schools, and to explore students and teachers’ comprehension of the “or” semantically in everyday life and science context.
At first, according to the five different semantic meanings of “or,” some expert readers were invited to form a group focusing on the analysis of the content of the textbooks in junior high and elementary schools to discover the distribution of the various meanings of “or” in the textbooks. For exploring the junior high school students’ and teachers’ understanding of the semantic meanings, the research tried to let the participants return and distinguish their understanding. The students and teachers were asked to receive the Gap-filing questionnaire for returning their understanding, and to finish the Rating Scales questionnaire for distinguishing the understanding, collecting the information of their acceptance and rejection, and comparing the differences between students and teachers. Last, we interviewed all the subjects to recorded their clues and strategies during the process.
There are 5 different semantic meanings of “or” and the inclusive-or is the most in the science textbooks. In addition, the ratio of the sentences that the expert readers agreed the meanings is far below as they disagreed. According to the result of the Gap-filing questionnaire, the rate of the answer “or” of the students and teachers were lower than 50 percent. Generally speaking, “and” is a very important factor to cause the confusion for students and teachers and sometimes students even use “and” more often than “or.” Based on the result of the Rating Scales questionnaire, the junior high school students’ level of distinguishing is significantly lower than science teacher, and there is no significantly difference between 7th and 8th grade. Both students and teachers could distinguish the semantic meanings better on everyday life topics than scientific topics except one everyday-life item in the questionnaire.
Based on the analysis of the interviews, we found the students and teachers were inclined to judge with the help of intuition, clues from the context, punctuation, or their prior knowledge.
Finally, the research suggested that the writers of the science textbooks have to aware the importance and necessities of correct option of the logical semantic connectives so that can help students improve their ability to judge the logical relations clearly between different events and get more complete and precise comprehension.
目 錄 I
表目次 III
圖目次 V

第壹章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與重要性 01
第二節 研究目的與待答問題 03
第三節 名詞釋義 04
第四節 研究範圍與限制 06

第貳章 文獻探討
第一節 科學文本與邏輯連接關係 09
第二節 「或」的歷時語義文獻研究 18

第參章 研究方法
第一節 科學教科書中「或」邏輯語義分析 25
第二節 科學教科書中「或」邏輯語義理解之探討 33

第肆章 研究發現與討論
第一節 科學教科書中「或」邏輯語義分析結果 45
第二節 國中學生與教師對「或」的還原理解 51
第三節 國中學生與教師對「或」的辨識理解 71
第四節 國中學生與教師釋讀「或」的策略 100

第伍章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 153
第二節 討論 155
第三節 建議 157

參考文獻
中文部分 163
英文部分 165


研究附錄
附錄一「或」還原理解問卷 169
附錄二「或」辨識理解問卷之專家效度問卷 171
附錄三 教師「或」辨識理解問卷 179
附錄四「或」典型語義訪談逐字稿 183
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