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研究生:鄭羽辰
研究生(外文):Cheng, Yu-Chen
論文名稱:以中文為母語的兒童頻率副詞詮釋之實證研究
論文名稱(外文):An Empirical Study of Children’s Interpretations of Frequency Adverbs in Mandarin
指導教授:陳純音陳純音引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chun-Yin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:頻率副詞第一語言習得理解中文
外文關鍵詞:frequency adverbsfirst language acquisitioninterpretationsMandarin Chinese
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本研究旨在探討以中文為母語之兒童頻率副詞詮釋的發展。本研究主要包含兩階段理解測驗:第一階段為辨認與排序測驗,可得知兒童對於頻率副詞的理解差異;第二階段為接受度測驗,可觀察兒童對於頻率副詞修飾動詞事件種類的接受程度是否有別,語境效應亦融入此階段測驗中。兩階段測驗皆探討年齡效應。研究對象包含實驗組的八十位兒童,依其就讀年級分為四組:幼兒園大班、小學二年級、四年級、六年級,每組各二十位,以及對照組的成人二十位。
研究結果顯示,頻率副詞之習得隨著年齡增長,理解能力逐漸與成人趨向一致。典型頻率副詞的語意較非典型頻率副詞模糊,因此兒童較難理解典型頻率副詞,六年級兒童亦尚未具備成人母語者理解典型頻率副詞的能力,但四年級兒童已可正確理解非典型頻率副詞。關於頻率副詞用於修飾的動詞事件方面,除了大班兒童外,其他組兒童皆對於頻率副詞修飾有界動詞事件的接受度遠高於頻率副詞修飾無界動詞。而且,四年級、六年級兒童及成人組對於頻率副詞修飾有界動詞事件的次類型有相似的接受度。由於四年級兒童已具備理解非典型頻率副詞意思的能力,亦能依頻率副詞能修飾的事件區分出有界與無界動詞事件,對於有界動詞的各項次分類,亦皆能接受其被頻率副詞修飾,因此,四年級是習得中文頻率副詞的關鍵期。最後,語境效應在本研究呈現負面效果,受試者在提供語境的試題中,對句子的接受度普遍降低。
The present empirical study aims at investigating children’s interpretations of Chinese frequency adverbs. Two phases were designed to elicit the child subjects’ interpretations. In Phase 1, the children’s interpretations of frequency adverbs were obtained from the identification and the ordering tasks. Similarly, in Phase 2, the children’s acceptability of various kinds of event types was investigated by the acceptability task. A comparison between a context-free task and a context-provided task was also explored in this phase. Age differences were examined in the both phases. A total of eighty children studying in an elementary school in New Taipei City were recruited and further divided into four experimental groups according to their grades (i.e., the kindergartners, Grades 2, 4 and 6). Moreover, twenty adults were recruited as the control group.
The results indicated an age-related pattern in the acquisition of Chinese frequency adverbs. It was found that Grade 4 was able to interpret atypical frequency adverbs. However, even Grade 6 had not yet acquired adult-like interpretations of typical frequency adverbs. Therefore, typical frequency adverbs were more challenging for the subjects to interpret than atypical ones because typical frequency adverbs were vaguer in meaning than atypical ones. As for the events modified by frequency adverbs, it was found that telic events were more acceptable than atelic ones. All the groups, except for the kindergartners, accepted frequency adverbs when they were used to modify telic events in a higher degree than those used to modify atelic events. Moreover, the subtypes of telic events displayed a similar degree of acceptability when they were modified by frequency adverbs for the older children (Grades 4 and 6) and the control group but not for the younger children (the kindergartners and Grade 2). Because Grade 4 was able to interpret atypical frequency adverbs, differentiate telic from atelic events and accept frequency adverbs when they were used to modify the subtypes of telic events in a similar degree, it was concluded that Grade 4 was a critical period for the acquisition of Chinese frequency adverbs. Finally, it was found that contextual clues showed a negative effect on the interpretations of frequency adverbs. The subjects generally gave lower acceptability ratings to the context-provided task than the context-fee task.
CHINESE ABSTRACT i
ENGLISH ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
LIST OF FIGURES x

Chapter One Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Theoretical Background 2
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Significance of the Study 7
1.5 Organization of the Thesis 7

Chapter Two Literature Review 9
2.1 Theoretical Studies of Frequency Adverbs 9
2.1.1 Wu and Ding (2005) 10
2.1.2 Zou (2006) 15
2.1.3 Piao (2011) 21
2.1.4 Summary 25
2.2 Empirical Studies of Vague Linguistic Terms 26
2.2.1 Kuczaj (1975) 27
2.2.2 Beyth-Marom (1982) 30
2.2.3 Hoffner, Cantor and Badzinski (1990) 33
2.2.4 Huang and Huang (2011) 37
2.2.5 Summary 40
2.3 Summary of Chapter Two 43

Chapter Three Research Design 45
3.1 Subjects 45
3.2 Methods and Materials 46
3.2.1 Types of Frequency Adverbs 46
3.2.2 Types of Events 47
3.2.3 Four Tasks 52
3.2.3.1 Phase 1 53
3.2.3.1 Phase 2 56
3.3 Procedures 61
3.3.1 Formal Study 61
3.3.2 Data Analysis 62
3.4 Summary of Chapter Three 63

Chapter Four Results and Discussion 64
4.1 Typical and Atypical Frequency Adverbs 64
4.1.1 Overall Findings 65
4.1.2 A Second Look at Typical Frequency Adverbs 66
4.1.3 General Discussion 70
4.2 Telic and Atelic Events 73
4.2.1 Overall Findings 73
4.2.2 General Discussion 78
4.3 Three Subtypes of Telic Events 79
4.3.1 Overall Findings 80
4.3.2 General Discussion 85
4.4 Contextual Clues 86
4.4.1 Overall Findings 87
4.4.2 General Discussion 91
4.5 Age Differences 93
4.6 Summary of Chapter Four 97

Chapter Five Conclusion 98
5.1 Summary of the Major Findings 98
5.2 Limitations of the Present Study and Suggestions for Future Research 100

Bibliography 101
Appendix A: The Test Items Used in Phase 1 106
Appendix B: The Worksheet Used in Phase 1 114
Appendix C: The Test Items Used in the Context-free Task in Phase 2 115
Appendix D: The Test Items Used in the Context-provided Task in Phase 2 118
Appendix E: The Worksheet Used in Phase 2 128
Appendix F: Consent Form 129
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