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研究生:吳依凡
研究生(外文):Wu, Yi-Fan
論文名稱:探討不同注意力焦點對跆拳道品勢前踢動作學習的影響
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the effect of different attentional foci on learning Taekwondo poomsae front-kick action
指導教授:劉有德劉有德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liu, Yeou-Teh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:運動競技學系
學門:民生學門
學類:競技運動學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:51
中文關鍵詞:跆拳道品勢注意力焦點動作評分運動形式
外文關鍵詞:Poomsaeattentional focusmovement scoremovement form
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背景:品勢運動項目不同於技擊類、各項球類的得分方式,在品勢比賽中分數來源是本身的動作,而沒有身體動作以外的結果,比如說跆拳道對打在攻擊後,命中對方護具即可得分、籃球投進籃框、高爾夫球進洞等等,而品勢則規範了動作起點、終點、過程軌跡、空間位置,以動作過程當評分的依據。有些選手在比賽時會特別注意自己的肌肉控制、多數教練在練習或比賽時會提供身體部位的相關訊息來指導動作技能,這種指導方式與外在注意力焦點較有利於動作表現及技能學習的實證研究結果不太相同,故本研究欲探究品勢在何種注意力焦點學習的效果會比較好。目的:比較內在注意力焦點和外在注意力焦點對品勢前踢動作得分的影響。方法:招募20名未曾有學習跆拳道經驗背景的大專生,隨機分為內在注意力焦點組及外在注意力焦點組,學習「前踢」基本動作,練習過程中給予相同的目標、不同的注意力焦點,觀察兩組學習效果的差異。結果:經過七天練習後,在後測結果中看出兩組皆顯著進步,但無論在後測或是遷移測,都是外在注意力焦點組的分數顯著高於內在注意力焦點組。正確性與表現性的標準化分數也是有相同的結果。結論:本研究結果反應出外在注意力焦點的指導語對於身體動作為結果的運動項目是一種更有效的方式,能夠確實提升跆拳道品勢學習前踢動作的運動表現,支持品勢運動項目亦能受益於外在注意力焦點的效果,不論在學術或是實際教學當中,這都是一個新的躍進。
Background: Poomsae is different from fighting and ball games in terms of the fact that its scores result from their own body movement. For example, in Taekwondo one scores after he/she hits the opponent; in basketball one scores after making the shot; in golf one scores when he/she putts the ball into the hole. Poomsae has its own specific rules about the starting and ending points of the movement, the trajectory of movement, and the spatial location. Therefore movement form is the primary evaluation criterion. Athletes sometimes pay special attention to their muscle control. The majority of coaches provide related information of body parts to instruct the skills in training or competition. However, those instructions are in contrast to the contemporary results of attentional focus studies. Therefore, this study intended to explore attentional focus in the learning of poomsae. Purpose: This study intended to compare the effect of internal focus and external focus on poomsae scores. Method: Twenty college students with no experience in either Taekwondo or poomsae learning, randomly assigned to an internal focus group, or an external focus group. The task was learning "Front kick" basic action. The learning effect was compared under the same task goal but different instructions of attentional foci. Results: There were significant improvements in the post-test performance for both groups. The external focus group, however, showed superior performance than the internal focus group for both post-test and transfer test. The normalized accuracy and presentation scores also showed the similar trend. Conclusions: The result of the study provide evidence to support the superior effect of the external attentional focus on learning the motor task that the movement form is of the primary goal such as Taekwondo poomsae action.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
謝 誌 iii
目 次 iv
表 次 vii
圖 次 viii


第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 問題背景 1
第二節 研究目的與假設 3
第三節 名詞操作性定義 3


第貳章 文獻探討 4
第一節 跆拳道品勢 4
第二節 運動技能學習 10
第三節 注意力焦點的影響 15
第四節 文獻總結 24


第參章 研究方法 25
第一節 實驗對象 25
第二節 實驗工作 25
第三節 實驗場地佈置與器材 27
第四節 實驗程序 27
第五節 資料處理 30


第肆章 結果 31
第一節 總分之差異 31
第二節 正確性與表現性分數之差異 32
第三節 正確性與表現性分數之相關 35


第伍章 討論與結論 36
第一節 注意力焦點對前踢動作的影響 36
第二節 身體動作為結果的學習趨勢 37
第三節 品勢的運動表現與運動學習 39


第陸章 結論與建議 41


引用文獻 42
附錄一 公認品勢評分表 49
附錄二 自由品勢評分表 50
附錄三 實驗參與者知情同意書 51
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