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研究生:林郁青
研究生(外文):Lin, Yu-Chin
論文名稱:以椰子油混合蜂蠟製成有機凝膠取代餅乾中的氫化油脂對其品質之影響
論文名稱(外文):Qualities of cookie prepared with coconut oil and beeswax organogel as replacement for hydrogenated fat
指導教授:宋文杰宋文杰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sung, Wen-Chieh
口試委員:蕭心怡蔡政融
口試委員(外文):Hsiao, Hsin-ITsai, Cheng-Jung
口試日期:2017-06-09
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:食品科學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:椰子油有機凝膠蜂蠟餅乾反式脂肪酸氫化油脂
外文關鍵詞:coconut oilorganogelbeeswaxcookietrans fatty acidshydrogenated fat
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油脂 (lipid) 在人類飲食中有著舉足輕重的地位,隨著消費者日漸講求食品所帶給人體的健康影響,產品之挑選也不再只是追求感官上的創新,而是更加注重產品的健康益處。本篇研究將以椰子油 (coconut oil) 與蜂蠟 (beeswax) 製成不含反式脂肪酸 (trans fatty acid) 的有機凝膠 (organogel),以取代市售酥油 (commercial shortening) 並探討其應用於餅乾製程中的可行性。本實驗中的有機凝膠分別為於椰子油中添加 7.5%、 10%、 12.5%、 15%、 17.5% 之蜂蠟。蜂蠟濃度的提升,會直接影響有機凝膠的質地,其硬度與內聚力皆會隨之提高,並以蜂蠟添加量為 12.5% 之有機凝膠,所呈現的數值與市售酥油最為相近。此外有機凝膠的熔點亦會隨著蜂蠟濃度的提升而上升,其中市售酥油的熔點為 34.29℃,而椰子油則為 25.58℃,當蜂蠟比例為 7.5% 及 10% 時,有機凝膠之熔點分別提升為 35.32℃ 和 35.85℃,與市售酥油相近。在脂肪酸分析中,可發現有機凝膠確實不含有任何的反式脂肪酸,且蜂蠟可提供豐富的棕櫚酸 (palmitic acid) 及二十四酸 (lignoceric Acid),以增加樣品的堅韌性,而椰子油則可提供多種對人體有益的脂肪酸。而後將有機凝膠應用於餅乾製程中,雖然不會影響麵團質地,但經過烘烤後,以含有 12.5%、 15% 以及 17.5% 蜂蠟的有機凝膠餅乾,其硬度與控制組相近,且此比例下的餅乾,所析出的油脂量最少。在餅乾抗氧化能力部分,隨著蜂蠟濃度的上升,雖然總多酚含量亦會隨之提升,但當濃度超過 15% 時,抗氧化活性與還原力卻會下降。另外餅乾樣品的儲存特性顯示,餅乾中有添加有機凝膠之組別,其於 60℃ 下儲存 20 天後的過氧化值顯著低於控制組,代表產品具有較良好的架售期。最後在官能品評方面,雖然控制組的各項分數皆為最高,但餅乾中添加 12.5% 蜂蠟之有機凝膠,其得分僅略低控制組,並且無明顯椰子味,因此判斷此比例下的產品仍可被消費者所接受。綜合上述之結果,於椰子油中添加 12.5% 的蜂蠟所製成之有機凝膠,其不僅不含有反式脂肪酸,且應用於餅乾製程的可行性高。
Lipid is critical in human’s diet. Nowadays, more and more consumers are aware the importance of healthy eating habit, and they would like to choose the product not only with sensual innovation but with health benefits. The objective of this research is to generate healthier cookie, developing new organogels to substitute for the commercial shortening. The organogels were combined coconut oil with different concentration of beeswax (0%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, and 17.5%). The concentrations of beeswax directly affected their texture properties. Both hardness and cohesiveness increased when organogel had more beeswax. The organogel contained 12.5% beeswax showed similar hardness and cohesiveness like commercial shortening. The coconut oil has much lower melting point (25.58℃) than commercial shortening (34.29℃). When adding 7.5% and 10% beeswax in coconut oil, the melting point became 35.32℃ and 35.85℃ respectively which were similar to commercial shortening. The analysis of fatty acid showed that organogel didn’t contain any trans fatty acid. In addition, beeswax is rich in palmitic acid and lignoceric acid, and this property can provide toughness of the samples. On the other hand, coconut oil has many different kinds of fatty acid, which have good benefits to human health. Although using organogel didn’t affect the texture of the cookie dough, the hardness of cookie was different after baking. The cookie used 12.5% to 17.5% beeswax has similar hardness with using commercial shortening. Moreover, the cookies in these beeswax ratios showed less oil leaking. The antioxidant properties of cookie suggested that total polyphenol content increase when beeswax concentration increase, but as beeswax concentration exceed 15%, the reducing power and antioxidant activity were both decrease. Furthermore, cookies with organogel showed lower peroxide values than commercial shortening in 60℃ after 20 days, which means they had better storage characteristics. The sensory evaluation showed commercial shortening had the highest score in all sections. However, cookie with 12.5% beeswax containing coconut oil organogel were only slightly unflavor, and it didn’t have much coconut flavor. Therefore, it was acceptable for consumers. Based on the above results, the organogel of coconut oil with 12.5% beeswax not only without any trans fatty acid but also can be a feasible shortening substitute on cookie making process.
中文摘要 I
Abstract II
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
附錄 IX
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧 3
一、油脂 3
1.1 簡介 3
1.2 三酸甘油脂 3
1.2.1 飽和脂肪酸 3
1.2.2 單元不飽和脂肪酸 4
1.2.3 多元不飽和脂肪酸 4
1.3 同質多晶性 4
1.3.1 簡介 4
1.3.2 晶體堆疊排列 5
1.3.3 物理性質影響 5
1.3.3 beta-prime 晶型 6
二、餅乾油脂 6
三、酥油 7
3.1 簡介 7
3.2 歷史發展 7
3.3 油脂氫化 8
3.3.1 簡介 8
3.3.2 反式脂肪酸 8
3.3.3 健康危害 9
3.4 油脂交脂化 10
3.4.1 化學交脂化 10
3.4.2 酵素交脂化 10
四、有機凝膠 11
4.1 簡介 11
4.2 相關研究 11
五、椰子油 12
5.1 簡介 12
5.2 健康效益 12
5.2.1 中鏈三酸甘油脂 12
5.2.2 月桂酸 13
4.3.3 植物固醇 13
六、蜂蠟 13
6.1 簡介 13
6.2 機能性物質 13
参、實驗架構 15
肆、實驗器材與方法 16
一、實驗器材與藥品 16
1.1 材料 16
1.2 試藥 16
1.3 儀器 17
二、實驗方法 18
2.1 有機凝膠製備 18
2.2 有機凝膠質地 18
2.3 有機凝膠熔點 18
2.4 有機凝膠脂肪酸分析 19
2.5 餅乾製作 19
2.6 麵團質地 20
2.7 一般成分 20
2.7.1 水分 20
2.7.2 灰分 20
2.7.3 粗脂肪 20
2.7.4 粗蛋白 20
2.7.5 碳水化合物 21
2.8 餅乾質地 21
2.9 餅乾擴散係數 21
2.10 餅乾色澤分析 21
2.11抗氧化能力測定 22
2.11.1 抗氧化萃取 22
2.11.2 總多酚含量 22
2.11.3 還原力 22
2.11.4 β-胡蘿蔔素脫色率 23
2.12 儲存特性 23
2.11.1 油脂萃取 23
2.11.2 過氧化值 23
2.11.3 感官變化 24
2.13 官能品評 24
2.14 統計分析 24
伍、結果與討論 25
一、有機凝膠質地 25
二、有機凝膠熔點 25
三、有機凝膠脂肪酸分析 26
四、麵團質地 27
五、餅乾一般成分分析 27
六、餅乾硬度 27
七、餅乾外觀與擴散係數 28
八、色澤分析 29
九、抗氧化能力 29
9.1 總多酚含量 18
9.2 還原力 29
9.3 抗氧化活性 30
十、儲存特性 31
10.1 過氧化值 31
10.2 感官變化 31
十一、官能品評 32
十二、相關性係數分析 32
陸、結論 34
柒、參考文獻 35
捌、圖表 45
玖、附錄 64
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