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研究生:賀天君
研究生(外文):Ho, Tien-Chun
論文名稱:我國貨櫃航商目標市場與競爭定位分析
論文名稱(外文):An Analysis of Target Market and Competitive Position for Container Shipping Lines in Taiwan
指導教授:鍾政棋鍾政棋引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung, Cheng-Chi
口試委員:黃承傳梁金樹戴輝煌周建張鍾政棋
口試委員(外文):Hwang, Cherng-ChwanLiang, Gin-ShuhTai, Hui-HuangChou, Chien-ChangChung, Cheng-Chi
口試日期:2017-04-22
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:航運管理學系
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:託運人貨櫃航商模糊德菲法船舶管理公司修正式決策實驗室分析法
外文關鍵詞:ShippersContainer shipping linesFuzzy Delphi methodShip management companyRevised Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Analysis
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以海島型國家而言,海空運輸為其進出口貿易之命脈。自1960年代發展貨櫃運輸以來,貨櫃航商經營型態均有顯著的革新與發展。但貨櫃航運不同於散裝航運,因貨櫃航商自有船舶比率、人員配置、組織規模與相關營運成本皆高於散裝航運;受全球經濟榮枯影響甚鉅,受2008年美國金融海嘯、2010年歐債危機與2015年中國成長趨緩影響,全球貨櫃運輸經營環境競爭日趨激烈。除早期重視開源之營運策略外,如何節流以提升營運績效與國際競爭力,已成為現今貨櫃航商制定營運策略之重要考量。由於經濟環境、顧客需求與國際運輸規範不斷改變,本文首先基於託運人導向(Shipper’s orientation)原則,探討不同屬性的託運人選擇貨櫃航商所考量的關鍵影響因素,提供貨櫃航商增加貨源之改善方針。再以貨櫃航商導向(Container Shipping Line’s orientation)原則,探求船舶管理公司應具備之關鍵成功因素,使貨櫃航商藉由委外經營方式降低成本、增加營收。

本文首先針對國內貨櫃航商直客與海運承攬運送業進行問卷調查,藉由行銷4C架構,包含顧客需求(Customer needs)、顧客成本(Customer cost)、顧客溝通(Customer communication)與顧客便利(Customer convenience),透過模糊德菲法(FDM)及修正式決策實驗室分析法(RDEMATEL)探求託運人選擇貨櫃航商關鍵影響因素之適切性與因素間之關聯性,並比較不同屬性託運人間之差異。再以國內貨櫃航商進行問卷調查,藉由行銷SAVE架構,包含整合方案(Solution)、接近市場(Access)、專業價值(Value)與海運知識(Education),透過模糊德菲法(FDM)與修正式決策實驗室分析法(RDEMATEL)構建貨櫃航商選擇船舶管理公司關鍵影響因素評估模式與因素間之關聯性分析。

本文研究發現,貨櫃航商平日時段之目標客群為近洋海運承攬運送業;旺季時段之目標市場為遠洋直客,其選擇貨櫃航商之主要影響因素分別為海運專業知識與貨物運輸安全。於貨櫃航商選擇船舶管理公司方面,臺灣貨櫃航商委外項目以船舶租賃與船員仲介業務最多,無論近洋或遠洋,專業管理人員皆為主要影響因素。而第三方獨立船舶管理公司為臺灣貨櫃航商委外船舶業務時之優先考量對象,自有船舶管理則為未來涉足船舶管理業時之優先考量。本文研究結果,期以提供貨櫃航商作為未來研擬目標市場行銷策略與市場定位競爭策略之依據。
Taiwan is in an isolated island-state economy, therefore its dependence on foreign trade is rather high. Since the development of container transportation in the 1960s, Container shipping companies have continued to innovate and develop. However, the global economy have a strong impact on container shipping lines because of owned vessels, stuffing, organizational size and operating costs were higher than bulk shipping. The global container transportation business environment has become highly competitive due to the financial tsunami of 2008, 2010 and China's economic growth has been slowing down in 2015, container shipping lines (CSLs) are facing new opportunities and challenges in today’s global economy. The situation forced the container shipping lines (CSLs) to re-examine their maritime marketing strategies, they should not only persist inincreasing income, but also improving operational performance and international competitiveness, it has become an important consideration for developing operation strategy for container shipping lines. Because of the changes in customers’ needs and demands, this study is based on shipper's orientation to explore the different factors that’s makes a shipper to select which container carriers he will choose and providing some policies to improve income for CSLs. Furthermore, based on Container Shipping Line’s orientation, not only explore the key influential factors of ship management company (SMC), but also enable to reduce cost and increase revenue by outsourcing strategies.

In this study, the questionnaire survey are for direct shippers (DSs) and ocean freight forwarders (OFFs) within Taiwanese CSLs. Based on Marketing 4C Architectures, including customer needs, costs, communication and convenience and using Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) and Revised Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Analysis (RDEMATEL) to define the relevance and associate with key factors, affecting factors, and to compare different factors between the various customers for CSLs. Subsequently, the questionnaire survey for national CSLs. Based on Marketing SAVE Architectures, including solution, access, value and education and using FDM and RDEMATEL to define the assurance and correlation of key influential factors for CSLs selecting SMC.

This study showed that the main target markets are near-sea OFFs and ocean-going DSs in the off-season period and the peak season. The main influencing factors for choosing CSLs are maritime expertise and transport security respectively. In terms of CSLs selecting SMC, ship leasing and crew agent are the largest number of CSLs within Taiwanese, regardless of near-sea or ocean-gong, professional managers are the main influencing factors of SMC. Finally, independent and in-house model is priority consideration when CSLs will want to outsource ship management and involving SMC industry in the future. These results can provide a foundation for container shipping companies to develop target market and competitive position strategies in the future.
謝辭 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目次 IV
圖目次 VI
表目次 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究問題與目的 5
1.3 研究內容與方法 6
1.4 研究架構與步驟 7
第二章 文獻回顧與評析 10
2.1 託運人選擇貨櫃航商影響因素 10
2.2 運送人選擇船舶管理公司影響因素 11
2.3 綜合評析 13
第三章 研究方法與評估架構 15
3.1 模糊理論 15
3.2 模糊德菲法 18
3.3 決策實驗室分析法 21
3.4 修正式決策實驗室分析法 24
3.5 影響因素評估架構 25
第四章 託運人選擇貨櫃航商關鍵因素實證分析與討論 35
4.1 問卷調查與結果 35
4.2 託運人選擇貨櫃航商影響因素整體適切性分析 35
4.3 託運人選擇貨櫃航商影響因素分群適切性分析 37
4.4 託運人選擇貨櫃航商影響因素整體關聯性分析 40
4.5 託運人選擇貨櫃航商影響因素分群關聯性分析 44
4.6 本章小結 51
第五章 貨櫃航商選擇船舶管理公司實證分析與討論 52
5.1 問卷調查與結果 52
5.2 貨櫃航商選擇船舶管理公司關鍵影響因素整體適切性分析 52
5.3 貨櫃航商選擇船舶管理公司關鍵成功因素分群適切性分析 54
5.4 貨櫃航商選擇船舶管理公司關鍵影響因素整體關聯性分析 55
5.5 貨櫃航商選擇船舶管理公司關鍵影響因素分群關聯性分析 57
5.6 貨櫃航商委外項目與營運替選方案分析 60
5.7 本章小結 64
第六章 結論與建議 66
6.1 結論 66
6.2 建議 68
參考文獻 70
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