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研究生(外文):HUNG, I-CHENG
論文名稱(外文):Habitat suitability empirical model of albacore tuna in the North Pacific Ocean using multi-satellite remote sensing data
指導教授(外文):Ming-An Lee
口試委員(外文):Chiee-Young ChenNan-Jay Su
外文關鍵詞:Albacore (Thunnus alalunga)remote sensinghabitat suitability indexMaximum Entropy model
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近年利用棲地適合度(HSI)經驗模式探討物種的棲地變動,已被廣泛應用於海洋生物棲地環境的評估。長鰭鮪是我國重要的商業性漁業資源之ㄧ,本研究利用1998~2012年台灣延繩釣漁船於北太平洋海域釣獲之漁業數據,結合多衛星遙測和演算之不同水文環境資料,包括海表面水溫(SST)、海表面高度離均差(SSH)、混合層深度(MLD)、海表面葉綠素濃度(SSC)及渦流動能(EKE),建立五種不同之經驗模式,並利用統計數值AIC篩選出最佳的經驗模式,以探討北太平洋長鰭鮪的棲地適合度。結果顯示北太平洋長鰭鮪的主要漁期在11~3月,高釣獲率分布在25~40°N之間,而偏好水域的SST值介於18~22°C、SSHA值介於0.33~0.55m、MLD值介於130~160m、SSC值介於0.09至0.14mg/m3及EKE值介於0.007~0.105 cm/s2。棲地模式選擇方面以MaxEnt為最佳模式,其R2值高達55%,此外從結果可得水溫對於長鰭鮪CPUE變動的影響力最為明顯。研究區域之高HSI隨著主要漁期月別變動有向西推移的趨勢,其中在3月時於20°N以下、150~170°E出現少許的高HSI值,整體的HSI變動與長鰭鮪CPUE分佈一致,亦即此模式有足夠的可信度預測北太平洋長鰭鮪的潛在漁場變動。另外,環境的變動會造成適合棲地的改變,因此本研究結果有助於我國漁業機關與業者對北太平洋長鰭鮪漁況預報之可行性評估的參考。
Empirical habitat suitability index was widely used to detect the habitat variance of marine species in last two decades. Albacore, Thunnus alalunga, is a highly migratory species of important commercial value and widely distribution in three oceans. In this study, the satellite-derived environmental variables, including sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height anomaly (SSHA), mixed layer depth (MLD), sea surface chlorophyll-a (SSC), eddy kinetic energy (EKE), were used to combine with catch data collecting from Taiwanese longline fisheries during 1998~2012 for establishing five kinds of empirical habitat suitability index, and identifying the optimal habitat of albacore in the North Pacific Ocean. Our results revealed that the high CPUE occurred in November to March in time and distributed over 25~40°N in space. The optimal range of hydrological variables in SST, SSHA, MLD, SSC, EKE, respectively, for the habitat of albacore are 19~22.5°C, 0.3~0.55m, 40~150m, 0.08~ 0.14mg/m3, 0.025~0.15 cm/s2. The Maximum Entropy model (MaxEnt) with five environmental variables was found to be the most appropriate model explaining the habitat variance of albacore in the North Pacific Ocean. The geographic information system maps of fishing period of the predicted HSI values were overlapped by the observed CPUE, suggesting that the model can be used as a tool for reliable prediction of potential fishing grounds with the development of management regulations.
壹、前言 1
1.1 長鰭鮪型態特徵與生態習性
1.2 太平洋長鰭鮪漁獲量變動趨勢
1.3 鮪釣漁況與海洋環境關係
1.4 研究動機與目的
2.1 北太平洋海洋環境狀況
2.2 研究流程
2.2 資料來源
2.3 環境參數的SI值推算
2.4 HSI經驗模式 7
2.5 HSI最大熵值法 (Maximum Entropy, MaxEnt)
2.6 長鰭鮪最適合之HSI模式選擇
3.1 北太平洋長鰭鮪漁獲量之時、空間及CPUE分布
3.1.1 年別與月別漁獲量及努力量
3.1.2 CPUE之時空分布
3.2 長鰭鮪漁場海洋環境變動
3.2.1 海水表面溫度(SST)
3.2.2 海水表面高度離均差(SSHA)
3.2.3 混和層深度(MLD)
3.2.4 海水表面葉綠素濃度(SSC)
3.2.5 渦流動能(EKE)
3.3 漁海況變動
3.3.1 長鰭鮪的棲地環境
3.3.2 棲地適合度模式之驗證及選擇
3.3.3 HSI與CPUE之空間套適
4.2 成熟魚與未成熟魚之分布比例
4.3 棲地適合度模式選擇的差異性
4.4 北太平洋長鰭鮪之HSI變動
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