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研究生:陳昱瑋
研究生(外文):Yu-Wei Chen
論文名稱:基於隨機網格之有意義機密分享影像的視覺密碼技術
論文名稱(外文):Secret image sharing with meaningful shares based on random grids
指導教授:吳憲珠
指導教授(外文):Hsien-Chu Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺中科技大學
系所名稱:資訊工程系碩士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:27
中文關鍵詞:隨機網格影像分享視覺密碼有意義機密分享影像
外文關鍵詞:Random gridsvisual secret sharingvisual cryptographymeaningful share
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視覺密碼學是將秘密資訊加密為多張分享影像,再加密過程中不需要任何複雜的計算,使用者透過人類視覺來進行解密,Naor 和Shamir等人提出了基於門檻值的影像密碼機制,而每張分享影像都可做成透明膠片,秘密影像可透過堆疊k張或k張以上的分享影像來還原秘密資訊,此外,基於隨機網格的影像密碼機制可以避免像素擴張的問題和無需製作密碼表的優點。
本篇方法提出了(k, n)的視覺密碼分享機制並加入了有意義的分享影像,將秘密影像以隨機網格的方式編碼為k張像素,而k到n張的像素則是複製前k張的像素,秘密影像通過隨機網格的方式將對應的像素加密到每張分享影像中的相同位置,透過隨機挑選兩個像素嵌入有意義影像的像素,有效提升了分享影像的管理效率,本篇方法透過調整黑白像素來維持秘密影像還原時的對比度。
Visual secret sharing scheme (VSS) encodes secret information into several share images. Users can decrypt the secret by human vision without any computation. Naor and Shamir proposed the threshold-based secret sharing scheme. Each shadow can be made on transparency. And any k or more noise shadows can reveal the secret by overlapping transparencies where k is the secret revealed threshold. Moreover, the random grid based on visual secret sharing has the advantages of avoiding pixel expansion problem and without codebook design.
The proposed (k, n) threshold VSS scheme provides meaningful shares and makes share management efficiently. The secret image encoded corresponding pixels in each j-th share by random grids for j=1, 2, …, k. The last (k+1) to n shares are copied by (j mod k)-th shares for j= k+1, k+2, …, n. Then, the proposed method randomly select two corresponding pixels to be embedded the corresponding pixels of the cover image in the last k to n shares. The proposed method has little loss of contrast in revealing secret image by adjusting black pixel and white pixels.
Abstract in Chinese i
Abstract in English ii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vi
List of Figures vii
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Background 2
1.3 Thesis organization 4
Chapter 2 Related works 6
2.1 (2, 2) Random grids based VSS 6
2.1.1 Encryption process 6
2.1.2 Restored secret image 7
2.2 (k, n) enhanced threshold visual secret sharing based on random grids 8
2.3 (n, n) XOR-based VC scheme with meaningful shares 9
Chapter 3 Proposed method 13
3.1 The concept of proposed method 13
3.2 The proposed method in Case 1: (n-k>1) 14
3.3 The proposed method in Case 2: (n-k=1) 15
Chapter 4 Experimental results 17
4.1 The experimental results of the proposed method 17
Chapter 5 Conclusions and future works 24
5.1 Conclusions 24
5.2 Future works 25
References 26
[1] R. M. Davis, “The data encryption standard in perspective”, IEEE Communications Magazine, 1978, Vol.16 (6), pp. 5–9
[2] Y. Xiao, S. Guizani, B. Sun, H. H Chen and R. Wang , “NIS05-1: performance analysis of advanced encryption standard”, Global Telecommunications Conference, 2006, pp. 1-5.
[3] W. Diffie, “The first ten years of public-key cryptography”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol.76(5), 1988, pp. 560-577.
[4] M. Noar and A. Shamir, “How to share a secret, Algorithms Unplugged”, 1979, pp. 159-168.
[5] C. H. Lin, Y. S Lee and T. H. Chen, “Friendly progressive random-grid-based visual secret sharing with adaptive contrast”, Journal of visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol:33, 2015, pp. 31-41,
[6] M. Naor and A. Shamir, “Visual cryptography, Advances in Cryptology EUROCRYPT”, Vol:950(94), 1995, 1–12.
[7] O. Karfri, & E. Keren, “Encryption of pictures and shapes by random”, Optics Letters, Vol. 12(6), pp. 377-179.
[8] X. Yan, X. Liu and C. N. Yang, “An enhanced threshold visual secret sharing based on Random grid”, Journal of real-time image processing, Vol. 10, 2015, pp. 1-13.
[9] Z. Zhou, G. R. Arce and G. D. Crescenzo, “Halftone visual cryptography”, IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 15(8), 2006 , pp. 2441-2453
[10] D. Ou, W. Sun and X. Wu, “Non-expansible XOR-based visual cryptography scheme with meaningful shares”, Signal Processing, Vol. 108, 2015, pp. 604-621,
[11] X. Yan, S. Wang and X. Niu and C. N. Yang, “Generalized random grids-based threshold visual cryptography with meaningful shares”, Signal Processing, Vol. 109, 2015, pp. 317-333
[12]Z. Wang, G.R. Arce and G. D. Crescenzo, “Halftone visual cryptography via error diffusion”, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 4(3), 2009, pp. 383-396.
[13] F. Liu and C. Wu, “Embedded extended visual cryptography schemes”, IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol. 6(2), 2011, pp. 307-322.
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