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研究生:甘庭豪
研究生(外文):Ting-Hao Kan
論文名稱:符合ISO 26262內涵之主動式平衡電池管理系統可靠度分析
論文名稱(外文):Reliability Analysis of Active-Balance Battery Management System for Fulfillment of ISO 26262
指導教授:吳文方
口試日期:2017-07-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:工業工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:ISO 26262電池管理系統主動式平衡電容式平衡法汽車安全完整性等級電子可靠度
外文關鍵詞:ISO 26262Battery Management System (BMS)Active BalanceCapacitor Based Cell Balancing TechniqueAutomotive Safety Integrity Level (ASIL)Microelectronics Reliability
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車輛安全一直是業界重視的議題,而車用電機/電子產品與其相關零組件的安全更是備受重視。為避免車輛因潛在危害引起安全問題,國際標準組織(International Organization for Standardization, ISO)針對車用電機/電子產品發佈ISO 26262標準,歐洲各國將來可能要求輸入他們國家的車用電機/電子產品符合該標準。在ISO 26262的內涵下,本研究以一具主動式平衡(Active Balance)之電動車用電池管理系統(Battery Management System, BMS)為主題,示範一套符合ISO 26262標準的可靠度分析流程;而本研究特別探討並比較開關電容電池平衡 (Switched Capacitor Cell Balancing, SC)架構、雙層開關電容電池平衡 (Double-Tiered Switched Capacitor Cell Balancing, DTSC)架構、單開關電容電池平衡 (Single Switched Capacitor Cell Balancing, SSC)架構三種主動式電池平衡架構,考慮時間相關電介質擊穿(Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown, TDDB)、負偏壓溫度不穩定性(Negative Bias Temperature Instability, NBTI)、電遷移(Electromigration, EM)、熱載子注入(Hot Carrier Injection, HCI)四種電晶體失效模型,並依據其失效機制評估主動式電池平衡架構之可靠度。研究結果發現,使用SSC電池平衡架構管理系統之失效率僅為採用其他兩個架構系統之一半,而影響電晶體失效率最為嚴重之失效機制為TDDB。以ISO 26262所注重的汽車安全完整性等級(Automotive Safety Integrity Level, ASIL)而言,本研究發現所採用三種主動式電池平衡架構之電池管理系統皆符合ASIL B。
Vehicle safety is a critical issue in the automotive industry. The safety of automotive electrical/electronic products and their components are emphasized in particular in recent years. To avoid hazards caused by failures of electrical/electronic systems and/or components installed in vehicles, the International Organization for Standardization published the first edition of ISO 26262 in 2011 and has made a few revisions afterwards. ISO 26262 is a functional safety standard emphasizing “Road Vehicles-Functional Safety.” To demonstrate how ISO 26262 can be fulfilled, a battery management system (BMS) with active cell balancing to be used in an electric vehicle is studied from reliability point of view in this thesis. The active cell balancing unit may apply switched capacitor (SC), double-tiered switched capacitor (DTSC) or single switched capacitor (SSC) to equalize the battery pack. The reliabilities of the above three cell balancing techniques are studied and compared in this thesis. In particular, failure rates of the three cell balancing techniques are evaluated by taking microelectronic failure modes of time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB), negative bias temperature instability (NBTI), electromigration (EM) and hot carrier injection (HCI) into consideration. The result indicates the failure rate by employing SSC cell balancing technique is about half of those by employing other two techniques, and the most severe failure mechanism among all is TDDB. The result also indicates that all three cell balancing techniques employed in the studied BMS fulfill the reliability requirement of ASIL B in ISO 26262.
致謝 I
摘要 II
ABSTRACT III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 論文架構 6
第二章 相關原理介紹 7
2.1 ISO 26262的介紹 7
2.2 車用電池管理系統 16
2.3 電動車電池基本原理 19
2.3.1 二次電池的種類 19
2.3.2 電池充電方法 21
2.4 可靠度評估模型手冊 22
第三章 主動式電池平衡單元可靠度評估 24
3.1 主動式電池平衡單元(Active Cell Balancing Unit)架構 24
3.2 電子元件的可靠度模型 29
3.2.1 失效機制與失效率 29
3.2.2 MOSFET失效機制模型 30
3.3 可靠度評估 34
3.3.1 MOSFET可靠度評估 35
3.3.2 雙向開關(Bi-Directional Switch)可靠度評估 36
3.3.3 主動式電池平衡架構可靠度評估 37
第四章 其他子系統之可靠度分析 39
4.1 電子控制單元(Electrical Control Unit, ECU)可靠度 39
4.2 數據收集系統(Data Acquisition)可靠度 39
4.3 熱管理系統(Thermal Management System)可靠度 40
4.4 電池組(Battery Pack)可靠度 40
第五章 ISO 26262案例分析-以主動式電池管理系統為例 41
5.1 項目定義 41
5.2 危害與風險分析 42
5.3 功能安全概念 43
5.4 產品開發:硬體層級 44
第六章 結論與建議 48
6.1 結論 48
6.2 建議 49
參考文獻 50
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