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研究生:任友嵐
研究生(外文):Yu-Lan Jen
論文名稱:悲劇女英雄:探討瑪麗娜.卡爾的三部曲中的女性與死亡
論文名稱(外文):Tragic Heroines: the Significance of Tragic Female Figures and Their Deaths in The Mai, Portia Coughlan, and By the Bog of Cats…
指導教授:高維泓高維泓引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei H. Kao
口試日期:2017-07-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:外國語文學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:瑪麗娜.卡爾愛爾蘭戲劇希臘悲劇悲劇女英雄愛爾蘭女性
外文關鍵詞:Marina CarrIrish DramaGreek tragedytragic heroineWomen in Irish Drama
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此篇論文目標為探討卡爾如何將希臘悲劇的元素運用在她的戲劇當中,尤其是她如何描述女性角色。另外一個重點將會在她的女性角色以及她們的死亡是如何顛覆在希臘悲劇中既定的性別角色。文本分析將著重於卡爾的希臘相關作品:《The Mai》、《Portia Coughlan》以及《By the Bog of Cats…》。除了引喻希臘戲劇或改編自希臘悲劇之外,這三部作品的共通點為女性死亡的命運。具體來說,三部戲劇都有一位女性主角,而是透過這些女性在帶動戲劇的敘述。這些角色能拿來與希臘悲劇中的主要女性角色作對應。
雖然愛爾蘭戲劇與希臘悲劇是在極不同的情境下創造出,目標觀眾也極不相同。然而卡爾的角色與希臘悲劇中的主要女性角色(像是美狄亞、安提戈涅等)之間有有可對應之處。雖然希臘悲劇不從將這些主要的女性角色當作主角,這些女性角色的特徵對立於她們在卡爾與希臘戲劇敘述中的功用將會是比較的重點。最後,此篇論文將會探討卡爾的女性角色是否能被認定為相較於希臘戲劇中常見被亞理斯多德所定義的「悲劇英雄」的一種「悲劇女英雄」。
This thesis aims to explore how Carr employs elements of Greek tragedy in her plays, especially in her depictions of female characters. Another focus will be on how her female characters and their subsequent deaths subvert the gender roles expected of women in Greek tragedies. The textual analysis of Carr’s Greek-themed works will be on The Mai, Portia Coughlan, and By the Bog of Cats… Besides having Greek allusions or being loosely based on Greek tragedies, the three plays shared a feature in which the death of women seems destined. Specifically, all three plays feature a female protagonist, and it is these women that dominate the flow of narratives in the plays, which corresponds to some of the major female characters in Greek tragedies.
While Irish drama and Greek tragedy are created under very different circumstances and for very different audiences, there are parallels between Carr’s characters to Greek female figures such as Medea, Antigone, etc. While Greek tragedy might not always feature such prominent female characters as main protagonists, the characterization of women as opposed their significant functions in Carr’s and Greek narrative will be a point of comparison. Lastly, the thesis will interrogate whether Carr’s female characters could be “tragic heroines” in accordance to the “tragic heroes” commonly seen in Greek tragedies and as defined by Aristotle.
口試委員會審定書 i
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要 iii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Unit One: Topic & Methodology 1
Unit Two: Biography of Marina Carr 9
Unit Three: Literature Review 12
Chapter Two: Women in Irish Drama & Greek Tragedy 18
Unit One: Women in Marina Carr’s Trilogy 18
Unit Two: Modern Irish Drama and Greek Tragedy 21
Unit Three: Medea and Antigone 23
Chapter Three: Analysis 27
Unit One: The Mai in The Mai 27
Unit Two: Portia Coughlan in Portia Couglan 33
Unit Three: Hester Swane in By the Bog of Cats… 41
Chapter Four: Conclusion 47
Unit One: Carr’s Female Characters in Comparison to Antigone and Medea 47

Unit Two: Tragic Heroines 50

Works Cited 56
Bradley, Anthony and Maryann Gialanella Valiulis. Gender and Sexuality in Modern Ireland. Amherst: U of Massachusetts P, 1997. Print.
Carr, Marina. “The Mai.” Marina Carr: Plays 1. London: Faber and Faber Ltd.,
1999. 101-186. Print.
---. “Portia Coughlan.” Marina Carr: Plays 1. London: Faber and Faber Ltd.,
1999. 187-256. Print.
---. “By the Bog of Cats...” Marina Carr: Plays 1. London: Faber and Faber Ltd.,
1999. 257-341. Print.
Ferguson, John. A Companion to Greek Tragedy. Austin: Texas UP, 1972. Print.
Foley, Helene P. “Introduction.” Female Acts in Greek Tragedy. New Jersey: Princeton UP, 2009. Print.
Göler, Hans von. Streets Apart from Abbey Street: The Search for an Alternative National Theatre in Ireland since 1980. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2000. Print.
Harrington, John. P. “Introduction.” Ed. John P. Harrington. Modern and Contemporary Irish Drama. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 2009. ix-xx. Print.
Harris, Claudia W. “Rising Out of the Miasmal Mists: Marina Carr’s Ireland.” Ed. Cathy Leeney and Anne McMullan. The Theatre of Marina Carr: Before Rules Was Made. Dublin: Carysfort, 2003. 216-232.. Print.
Hywel, Elin Ap. “Elise and the Great Queen of Ireland: ‘Femininity’ as constructed by Sinn Féin and the Abbey Theatre, 1901-1907.” Ed. Toni O’Brien Johnson and David Cairns. Gender in Irish Writing. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1991. 23-39. Print.
Jordan, Eamonn. “Unmasking the Myths? Marina Carr’s By the Bog of Cats… and On Raftery''s Hill.” Ed. Marianne McDonald and Michael Walton. Amid Our Troubles: Irish Versions of Greek Tragedy. London: Methuen, 2002. 243-262. Print.
Leeney, Cathy, and Anne McMullan, eds. The Theatre of Marina Carr: Before Rules Was Made. Dublin: Carysfort, 2003. Print.
Leeney, Cathy. “Ireland''s ‘Exiled’ Women Playwrights: Teresa Deevy and Marina Carr.” The Cambridge Companion to Twentieth-century Irish Drama. Ed. Shaun Richards. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. 150-63. Print.
Martinovich, M.K. “The Mythical and the Macabre: The Study of Greeks and Ghosts in the shaping of the American premiere of By the Bog of Cats...” Ed. Cathy Leeney and Anne McMullan. The Theatre of Marina Carr: Before Rules Was Made. Dublin: Carysfort, 2003. 114-127. Print.
McGuiness, Frank. “Masks: An Introduction to Portia Coughlan.” Ed. Cathy Leeney and Anne McMullan. The Theatre of Marina Carr: Before Rules Was Made. Dublin: Carysfort, 2003. 78-79. Print.
---. “Writing in Greek: By the Bog of Cats…” Ed. Cathy Leeney and Anne McMullan. The Theatre of Marina Carr: Before Rules Was Made. Dublin: Carysfort, 2003. 87-88. Print.
Murray, Christopher. Twentieth-Century Irish Drama: Mirror Up to Nation. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1997. Print.
O’Giollain, Dairmud. Locating Irish Folklore: Tradition, Modernity, Identity. Ireland: Cork UP, 2000. Print.
O’Toole, Fintan. “Review of Ariel.” The Theatre of Marina Carr: Before Rules Was Made. ed. Leeney, Cathy and McMullen, Anna. Dublin: Carysfort, 2003. Print.
Rapetti, Valentina. “Chasing the Intangible: a Conversation on Theatre, Language, and Artistic Migrations with Playwright Marina Carr.” Studi irlandesi. A Journal of Irish Studies 4.4 (2014): 247-57. Firenze University Press. Web. 24, June 2016. < http://www.fupress.net/index.php/bsfm-sijis/article/view/14678>.
Roche, Anthony. “J.M. Synge’s The Shadow of the Glen, Teresa Deevy’s Katie Roche, and Marina Carr’s The Mai.” The Theatre of Marina Carr: Before Rules Was Made. ed. Leeney, Cathy and McMullen, Anna. Dublin: Carysfort, 2003. 17-42. Print.
Shepherdson, Charles. “Antigone: The Work of Literature and History of Subjectivity.” Bound by the city: Greek Tragedy, sexual difference, and the formation of the polis. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009. 47-80. Print.
Sihra, Melissa, ed. Women in Irish Drama: A Century of Authorship and Representation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Print.
Sophocles. Antigone. Translated by David Franklin and John Harrison. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. Web. 5, June 2017. < http://www.filozofia.uw.edu.pl/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Sophocles-Antigone.pdf>.
Syropoulos, Spyros D. “Introduction: The Position of Women within Athenian Culture and Society.” Gender and the Social Function of Athenian Tragedy. Oxford: The Basingstoke P., 2003. 1-8. Print.
Wallace, Clare. “A Crossroads Between Worlds: Marina Carr and the Use of Tragedy.” Litteraria Pragensia 10.20 (2000): 76-89. Print.
Wallace, Clare. “Tragic Destiny and Abjection in Marina Carr’s ‘The Mai, Portia Coughlan’ and ‘By the Bog of Cats...’” Irish University Review 31.2 (2001): 431–449. Print.
Walton, J. Michael. The Greek Sense of Theatre: Tragedy and Comedy. New York: Routledge, 2015. Print.
Wohl, Victoria. “Sexual Difference and the Aporia of Justice in Sophocles’Antigone.” Ed. Denise Eileen McCoskey and Emily Zakin. Bound by the city: Greek Tragedy, sexual difference, and the formation of the polis. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009. 119-148. Print.
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