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研究生:葉家豪
研究生(外文):Chia-Hao Yeh
論文名稱:蒸穀稉米與秈米之理化性質與儲存性
論文名稱(外文):Physicochemical properties and storage ability of parboiled japonica and indica rices.
指導教授:葉安義葉安義引用關係
指導教授(外文):An-I Yeh
口試日期:2017-07-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:食品科技研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:蒸穀米體外消化性試驗預估升糖指數
外文關鍵詞:Parboiled riceIn vitro digestibility testEstimated glycemic index (eGI)
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蒸穀米為南亞、西亞以及非洲地區的主要食用米,許多文獻指出蒸穀米具有高完整米率、高營養價值、低病蟲害、較多維生素B1與低GI值等特性。因此期望以臺灣國產稻米製成蒸穀米之技術,改善臺灣稻米生產量過剩的問題,與米飯的升醣指數,降低第二型糖尿病的風險。本實驗探討國產台南11號 (TN11) 稉米以及台中秈10號 (TCS10) 秈米製備蒸穀米之可行性,了解不同米種的蒸穀米之完整米率、米飯質地、微生物菌數、消化性與預估升糖指數等理化性質之差異,以及預煮處理是否有效增加稻米的儲存性。實驗結果顯示,經過預煮處理後,TN11完整米率從69.87%提高到76.13%,TCS10則從56.04%提高至74.44%,有效改善精白過程中碎米的問題。顏色分析的部分,經過預煮處理明顯顏色變深且變黃。熟米飯的質地方面,經過預煮處理的TN11硬度由61.78 N上升至65.07 N,TCS10則從52.87 N上升至55.75 N,並隨著蒸煮時間的增加使蒸穀米米飯質地變更硬且黏著性更低。微生物檢測結果顯示,稻米的總生菌數會因為60℃5個小時的浸泡,將TN11的菌數有效從8.32 × 10^5 CFU/g降低至244 CFU/g。TCS10則從與1.45×10^6 CFU/g降低至18 CFU/g。後續精白處理後菌數也能保持在50 CFU/g以下,仙人掌桿菌數也有類似的結果。脂解酶活性測定發現糠層中脂解酶活性會因高溫的預煮處理,TN11從0.729 U/mL降低至0.206 U/mL,TCS10則從0.568 U/mL降低至0.266 U/mL,有效延緩稻米油質氧化速率。在體外消化試驗也顯示經過預煮處理TN11抗性澱粉含量從5.21%上升至19.18%,TCS10則從5.91%上升至18.87%。eGI值也有顯著性的降低,有效降低米飯的消化性。因此將稻米進行預煮處理可改善稻米的加工成本、微生物、消化性等等性質,可作為臺灣稻米新的加工型態做進一步的推廣。
Parboiled rice has been recognized to have many benefits, including high head rice yield, low insect damage, more vitamin B1 and low GI and etc. Thus, parboiling might be an attractive method to alleviate the excess rice in Taiwan. This study was to explore the feasibility of parboiling using Tainan 11 rice (TN11) and Taichung sen 10 rice (TCS10). Physicochemical properties such as head rice yield, cooked rice texture, microorganism number, digestibility and eGI value and storage ability were measured to examine the suitability of indica rice and japonica rice. Results showed that the head rice yield of parboiled japonica rice increased from 69.87% to 76.13%, and parboiled indica rice increased from 56.04% to 74.44% respectively. Due to the migration of compounds from bran to endosperm and possible maillard reaction, parboiled rice exhibited darker and yellowish color. The hardness of parboiled rice was increased about 5% for both TN11 and TCS10 rice. Increasing steaming time resulted in harder and less sticky texture. Total plate count (TPC) of TN11 were significantly decreased form 8.32 × 10^5 CFU/g to 244 CFU/g and TCS10 decreased from 1.45 × 10^6 to 18 CFU/g by soaking in 60℃water for 5 hours. After polishing, bacteria numbers were less than 50 CFU/g. Bacillus cereus examination has similar results with TPC. Lipase activity of TN11 after parboiling was reduced from 0.729 U / mL to 0.206 U / mL and TCS10 was reduced from 0.568 U / mL to 0.266 U /mL. In vitro digestibility test showed that parboiling resulted in increase in resistant starch content (TN11 was increased from 5.21% to 19.18% and TCS10 was increased from 5.91% to 18.87%). And eGI value was significantly reduced. Therefore, the parboiling could be a potential method to increase the consumption of rice with low in digestibility.
謝誌 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻回顧 2
第一章、稻米簡介 2
1.1 稻米分類 2
1.2 稻米結構與組成 4
1.3 全球與臺灣稻米現況 8
第二章、蒸穀米 11
2.1 蒸穀米定義與起源 11
2.2 蒸穀米產量與現況 11
2.3 蒸穀米製程 12
2.4 蒸穀米現有工廠設備 15
2.5 蒸穀米與食用安全 18
2.6 蒸穀米儲藏性 19
第三章、米飯質地 19
3.1 一般米飯與蒸穀米飯質地差異 20
3.2 影響米飯質地之因子 20
3.3 米飯質地分析方式 21
參、實驗架構 24
肆、材料與方法 25
第一章、實驗材料 25
第二章、實驗方法 25
2.1 蒸穀米浸泡曲線 25
2.2 蒸穀米乾燥曲線 25
2.3 蒸穀米製備方法 26
2.4 完整米率與碎米率計算 27
2.5 蒸穀米組成份分析 27
2.6 直鏈澱粉含量測定 30
2.7 蒸穀米顏色測定 30
2.8 總生菌數測定 31
2.9 仙人掌桿菌菌數測定 31
2.10 脂解酶活性測定 32
2.11米飯質地分析 33
2.12 米飯體外消化性測定 34
2.13 維生素B1含量分析 38
2.14 統計分析 40
伍、結果與討論 41
第一章、實驗結果 41
1.1 蒸穀米浸泡條件 41
1.2 蒸穀米乾燥條件 43
1.3 完整米率與碎米率 45
1.4 組成份分析 47
1.5 直鏈澱粉含量 49
1.6 蒸穀米顏色測定 51
1.7 總生菌數測定 55
1.8 仙人掌桿菌數 57
1.9 脂解酶活性 59
1.10 蒸穀米米飯質地分析 61
1.11 蒸穀米米飯體外消化性 63
1.12 維生素B1含量分析 69
陸、結論 71
柒、參考文獻 72
捌、附錄一 81
玖、附錄二 82
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