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研究生:王怡茹
研究生(外文):Yi-Ju Wang
論文名稱:以功能性磁振造影探討景觀設計的腦區與心流體驗之關係
論文名稱(外文):The Correlation between Brain Activation and Flow Experience by Landscape Design.
指導教授:張俊彥
口試日期:2017-05-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:園藝暨景觀學系
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:121
中文關鍵詞:景觀設計心流體驗功能性磁振造影創造力腦區心流體驗腦區
外文關鍵詞:Landscape designFlow experienceFunctional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)Creativity brainFlow brain.
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創造力是一種以新穎且實用的方式來解決問題。在眾多創造中,景觀設計也為一運用創造力的過程,經由發想設計到最終對環境改善呈現,在這樣的設計中經歷創作的發想、精煉到實體表現,最後以在設計過程中的腦區,來解釋心流體驗對設計者的影響。而在心流體驗(Flow Experience)人們非常了解自己的行為,而不是意識本身,最終產生一個最優經驗。
本研究以功能性磁振造影測量腦區以及心流體驗量表(Engeser, 2008)測量心流的流暢度與沈浸度。不同於以往設計腦區功能性區位的討論方式,本研究加上神經網路的方式進行討論。主要分為五組腦區來討論景觀設計:空間辨識、語意傳遞、視覺辨識路徑、注意力神經網路以及核心腦區。
空間辨識包含兩側海馬旁腦迴,主要與空間記憶有關。語意傳遞則是以左下額葉腦迴的布洛卡區(Broca’s area)以及左顳葉顳上迴的韋尼克區(Wernicke’s area),兩個腦區中語意辨識及語意理解所延伸的訊息傳遞作為解釋。視覺辨識路徑則是走腹側視覺辨識路徑,功能為辨識與鑑定物體細節,以左枕葉上溝、左顳葉上溝與右中顳腦迴為結果腦區。注意力神經網路以腹側注意力網路,功能包含注意力轉換以及問題定位後在搜尋及發現新想法,以左內額側腦迴、左下額葉腦迴以及左顳葉顳上迴。核心腦區為右豆狀核,包含殼核以及蒼白球,與GABA神經激素、調節動作與各式的學習有關。在設計腦區與心流體驗的關係,發現核心腦區右豆狀核的活化強度與心流體驗流暢度呈現正相關。
本研究以神經網路的方式來討論景觀設計的腦區結果,並以腦區結果推論設計所帶來的愉悅感與右豆狀核相關。
Creativity is the ability to produce work that is both novel and appropriate (Sternberg, 1999). Flow is defined as the experience of merging action and awareness. A person in flow does not operate with a dualistic perspective: one is very aware of one’s actions, but not of the awareness itself (Csikszentmihalyi, 2014). This paper focused on two parts of flow, mainly fluency of performance and absorption by activity.
Landscape design is one of process bound with creativity. The process includes targeting the problem, preparation, incubation, illumination and verification. What happens in the brain when people perform (landscape) design? Does the creative process make people feel happy?
Our research focused on brain activation in landscape design and the mechanisms in which they work. We also tried to explain brain activation with neural network systems by categorizing the brain into five active groups: spatial and memory (bilateral parahippocampal gyrus), conveyance of semantic information (left inferior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus), visual neural network (ventral visual network), attention neural network (ventral attention network) and basal nucleus (right lentiform nucleus). We found a correlation between active brain groups and fluency of performance in the right lentiform nucleus.
The research attempts to show a new way of explaining the neural correlations with landscape design. Furthermore, the result can also inference flow in landscape design related to the right lentiform nucleus which the main function is movement regulation and various types of learning related to neurotransmitters (e.g. GABA).
誌謝 I
摘要 III
Abstract IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究緣起及背景說明 1
第二節 研究問題與目的 3
一、 研究問題 3
二、 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
第一節 景觀設計與創造力 4
一、 創造力理論 4
二、 創造力過程與設計表現 6
三、 創造力與腦區 6
四、 小結 11
第二節 心流體驗 12
一、 心流體驗理論 12
二、 心流體驗的特徵 13
三、 心流體驗過程 14
四、 心流與創造力 15
五、 小結 17
第三節 心流體驗的生理測量 18
一、 心跳變化率 18
二、 瞳孔大小與心流 19
三、 心流體驗與腦 19
第三章 研究方法與程序 21
第一節 研究方法 22
一、 研究架構與研究假設 22
二、 實驗概念與變項操作化定義 23
第二節 研究流程與分析方法 28
一、 正式實驗流程 28
二、 fMRI實驗設計 31
三、 研究工具與研究地點 35
第三節 研究受測者選擇標準和危害及利益說明 38
一、 受測者選擇 38
二、 可能產生之危害及利益說明 39
第四節 資料之蒐集處理評估及統計分析方法 40
一、 前製作業分析 42
二、 腦區模組設定(Localizing Brain Activity) 46
三、 腦區定位與成像 47
四、 研究假設驗證方法 47
第四章 資料分析結果與討論 51
第一節 樣本特性分析 51
第二節 實驗結果 51
一、 合理性測驗(Sanity check) 51
二、 景觀設計之腦區 54
三、 景觀設計腦區與心流體驗 71
第五章 結論與建議 75
第一節 結論 75
第二節 後續研究建議 79
參考文獻 81
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