(3.237.97.64) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/04 11:21
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:楊昌翰
研究生(外文):Renardi
論文名稱:操作壓力對農用噴嘴之流量及霧粒粒徑實測與飄散距離之模擬分析
論文名稱(外文):Analysis of Working Pressure Effect on the Flow Rate and Droplet Size of Spraying Nozzles and the Simulation of Drift Distances
指導教授:葉仲基葉仲基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Kee Yeh
口試日期:2017-07-10
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:生物產業機電工程學研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:國內噴嘴流量體積中量值農藥飄散
外文關鍵詞:Domestic nozzlesflow ratevolume mean diameterdrift distance
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
  • 點閱點閱:203
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
植物在其生長過程中非常容易受到病蟲害的干擾,使該植物的品質下降甚至死亡,根據世界衛生組織的估計,世界上的農田若沒有使用農藥,農作物的產量將損失40~50%,故為了達到保護植物健康的目標,必須以藥物提供保護,使其可以順利成長並保持良好的品質,才有辦法使世界上的蔬果量足以供應全球日益增加的人口數。
噴嘴的選用及其使用方式為影響防治病蟲害效果及農藥飄散的重要因素。當使用的噴嘴具有過大的流量或是太小的霧滴粒徑(DV50),雖然可以達到很好的防治效果,不過所造成的農藥殘留和農藥飄散會比較嚴重。嚴重的農藥飄散將有可能危害施噴人員的健康,也有可能使該農藥飄散至附近的林田或河流,導致附近林田所種植的植物殘留一些不應該有的農藥成分,或是污染該地區的空氣及河流。而本研究目的是為了了解國內常用噴嘴的重要參數,包含流量、霧滴粒徑(DV50)與飄散距離,更進一步找出應該如何分類這些噴嘴。
本研究針對所選用的噴嘴,在操作壓力為5、10、15和20 kgf/cm2進行流量和霧滴粒徑(DV50)的實際測試。流量的量測主要以讀取量筒上的刻度進行量測,而霧滴粒徑(DV50)是使用粒徑分析儀(the Spraytec Malvern 2000)進行量測。收集霧滴粒徑(DV50)大小及其分佈情形後,使用軟體(DRIFTSIM)進行飄散距離之模擬,藉由此飄散距離提供在不同地區農田間該有緩衝區大小的建議。
實驗結果顯示DV50的值介於53.19到103.47 µm之間。若使用美國農業生物工程學S572.1進行分類,所有噴嘴會落在極細(Extremely Fine)或非常細(Very Fine)的範圍。由於所有噴嘴的DV50相當接近,吾人認為將噴嘴按照此參數且僅分為兩類並不太妥當。分類的方式應該要參考其DV50<100之流量排序進行分類。

關鍵字: 國內噴嘴、流量、體積中量值、農藥飄散
Plant diseases and insect pests often adversely affect the growth of crops. When this occurs, the quality of crops will become worse or the crops will even die before being harvested. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is predicted that if there was no pesticide usage in this world, the amount of crop yields would drop by 40~50%. For this reason, farmers have to use pesticides in order to protect their crops and retain high quality. This method was used to ensure that the amount of crop yields can be sufficient for supplying the world population, which grows every year.
Suitable nozzle use and appropriate operation are the key factors that considerably influence the effectiveness of pest control. If the nozzle produces too high of a flow rate or droplet size that is too small is chosen, although the characteristics enable the nozzle to have the desired pest control effect, these characteristics can also lead to higher amounts of pesticide residue and relatively far spray drift distance. The longer the spray drift distance is the higher the possibility that toxic chemicals will harm the users’ health and pollute the neighboring rivers and air. In addition, if the spray drifts towards other neighboring farmlands, the crops within these farmlands will have higher pesticide residues and contain additional chemical compositions that should not be there. The purpose of this study is to analyze the important parameters of domestic agricultural nozzles in Taiwan, including flow rate, particle diameter (DV50) and drift distance, and finally to identify an appropriate way to classify the nozzles.
The research was conducted using four different working pressures (5, 10, 15, and 20 kgf/cm2) to measure the actual flow rate and particle diameter (DV50) of each nozzle. The data of the flow rate was obtained by reading the lines printed on the side of the graduated cylinder, and the measurement of the particle diameter (DV50) was carried out using the Spraytec Malvern 2000 Particle Analyzer. After collecting the data as well as the distribution of the particle diameter, a simulation using DRIFTSIM software was run to find out the drift distance of different nozzles, and this simulation was carried out according to the actual ambient conditions in different cities in Taiwan so that the size of the buffer zone needed in different areas can be identified.
The results showed that the particle diameters (DV50) of the nozzles were between 53.19 µm and 103.47 µm. When the ASABE S572.1’s method was utilized to classify the nozzles, all of the nozzles belonged to the range of extremely fine or very fine droplets. Since all of the nozzles generate DV50 of similar sizes, classification of domestic agricultural nozzles using this method is entirely improper. As a viable alternative, nozzles can be sorted according to the magnitude of the flow rate that contains DV50 of less than 100 µm.

Keywords: Domestic nozzles, flow rate, volume mean diameter, drift distance
目錄
口試委員會審定書
致謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究動機 1
1.2研究目的 1
第二章 文獻探討 2
2.1噴霧機具基本構造 2
2.2噴嘴形成霧粒之基本原理 3
2.3噴霧形狀之種類 4
2.4 DV10、DV50、DV90與流量之介紹 6
2.5不同粒徑大小在農業上的分類與其特性 8
2.6美國和台灣噴灑農藥之方法比較 11
第三章 實驗設備與研究方法 14
3.1實驗設備 14
3.2研究方法 25
第四章 結果與討論 32
4.1壓力損失之比較 32
4.2六角噴嘴和加工噴嘴之比較 39
4.3小扇、日扇和大扇噴嘴搭配使用不同噴片時之比較 44
4.4噴嘴之間(包含不同噴片)的流量、DV50<100之流量與DV50大小順序之比
較 54
4.5飄散模擬 59
第五章 結論與建議 64
參考文獻 67
附錄 69
大昌華嘉股份有限公司。網址: http://www.dksh.com.tw/htm/1209/zh_Hant-TW/%E7%B2%92%E5%BE%91.htm。上網日期:2017-06-21
台大生機系。馮丁樹教授。網址: http://nova.bime.ntu.edu.tw/~dsfon/。上網日期:2017-06-21
交通部中央氣象局。網址: http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/climate/monthlyData/mD.htm。上網日期: 2017-06-16
行政院農業委員會。2015。農業代噴技術人員訓練教材。農業藥物毒物試驗所技術服務組編印。
虎門科技股份有限公司。網址: http://www.cadmen.com/page/item/Item.aspx?tp=Item&im=13。上網日期:2017-06-15
食品藥物消費者知識服務網。網址: https://consumer.fda.gov.tw/Law/PesticideList.aspx?nodeID=520#。上網日期:2017-06-15
委員會動植物防疫檢疫局農藥資訊服務網。網址: http://pesticide.baphiq.gov.tw/。上網日期:2017-06-12
曹智鈞。2004。GPS 應用於桿式噴藥車變率施噴系統之實測。碩士論文。台北: 台灣大學生物產業機電工程學系。
廖盈達。2001。GPS/GIS 應用於桿式噴藥車變率施噴系統之基礎硏究。碩士論文。台北: 台灣大學生物產業機電工程學系。
農地利用發展現況。網址: http://nigramotion.idv.tw/ftp/clep/92reserch/book1/book1_ch2.pdf。上網日期: 2017-06-15
藥毒所。2005。農產品農藥殘留檢測技術及監測研究。行政院農委會農業藥物毒物試驗所。網址: file:///C:/Users/user/Downloads/JO00001431_2005_1-6%20(1).pdf。上網日期: 2017-06-26
ASABE S572.1 Droplet Size Classification. 網址: http://cdn2.hubspot.net/hub/95784/file-32015844-pdf/docs/asabe_s572.1_droplet_size_classification.pdf。上網日期: 2017-06-08
Characterization of Agricultural Spray Nozzles Using the Malvern Spraytec。網址: http://instrumat.ch/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/MRK1215-01-Charact-of-agricultural-spray-nozzles-using-Spraytec-LRLL.pdf。上網日期: 2017-06-26
Zhu. H, D. L. Reichard, R. D. Fox, H. E. Ozkan, and R. D. Brazee. 1994. Driftsim, A Program to Estimate Drift Distances of Spray Droplets. Journal of Applied Engineering in Agriculture 11(3):365-369.
Robert, B. G., H. Pat, D. A. Shawn, H. Lloyd, and M. David. 2013. Nozzles: Selection and Sizing. Location: Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Spraytec Accurate Particle Sizing of Aerosols and Sprays。網址: http://pdf.medicalexpo.com/pdf/malvern-instruments/spraytec-accurate-particle-sizing-aerosols-sprays/94317-141045-_2.html。上網日期: 2017-05-10
Spraying Systems公司。網址:http://www.spraytwn.com.tw/html/knowoz3.htm。上網日期:2017-06-10
Teejet catalog US。網址: http://www.teejet.com/literature/catalogs-bulletins.shtml。上網日期: 2017-06-07
Understanding and Interpreting Particle Size Distribution Calculations。網址: http://www.horiba.com/scientific/products/particle-characterization/education/general-information/data-interpretation/understanding-particle-size-distribution-calculations/。上網日期: 2017-06-08
Yamaho catalog。網址: http://www.yamaho-k.co.jp/en/04catalogue_download/。上網日期: 2017-06-01
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔